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Presented to the 
LIBRARY of the 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 

by 

Professor E. Wallace 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

University of Toronto 



http://www.archive.org/details/bishopburnetshi04burn 



?.' -i^??? 



BISHOP BURNET'S 
HISTORY 



OF 



HIS OWN TIME, 



FROM THB 



RESTORATION OF KING CHARLES II. 



CONCLUSION fl^P^fflETRSx Qf3^1.^CE J^^S^UTmCUT, 
IN CHE/REIGn"!' QuieK. AJii'^ ^"^ 

X—' 'r' 7s 

\ To which is pjefijed; / ,^-« 

A SUMMARY RECAPITULATION OF AB^AtllS^lfc/lHWQf AND STATE. FROM 
KING TAMES I. TO THE R]^TO^iATIoy*I^5riJp VE A R i6dO. 

Togralief jMinl V A 

THE AUTHOR'S LIf£,S^Y*^E EDITOR: 

AND SOMF 

EXPLANATORY NOTES. 



THE WHOLE REVISED AND CORRECTED BY HIM. 



IN FOUR VOLUMES. 
VOL. IV. 



LONDON: 

VUIMED loK J. NliNN, (iRLAl QULEN STREKT; H PKILi,iLi,i\ HOLBOKN, 
AND M- PRIESTLKV, HIGH STKLLi, BLOnMSBURV. 



V 



1K18. 







Printed by J. F. DOVE, St. Joliu's S(juait. 



CONTENTS 



FOURTH VOLUME. 



Page 
1703. 
pRti'AHATiONS for tlie campaign 1 

Honne taken • • • ■ S; 

Earthquakes in Italy • • • ib. 

The battle of Eckeren ■ • • ib. 

Huy, Limburgh, and Guelder, with 

all the Coudras, taken • • 3 

The success of the French on the 

Danube • • • •■ • ib. 

Little done in Italy • • -4 

A war begun in Hungary • • ib. 

Disorders in tlie Emperor's court • 5 
Augsburgh and Landaw taken by the 

French • • • • • ib. 
A treaty with the King of Portugal 6 
The great wind in November • 8 
The new King of Spain came to Eng- 
land 9 

He landed at Lisbon • • • ib. 
The Duke of Savoy came into the al- 
liance • • • • • 10 
The secret reasons of his former de- 
parture from it • . ib. 
The French discover his intentions, 
and make all hi* troops with them 
prisoners of war • . • 11 
Count Stahremberg joined him • 1 2 
The insurrection in the Ceveanes • ib. 
The affairs of Poland . • -13 
Affairs at sea • • • •14 
A fleet sent into the Mediterranean • 15 
Another to the West Indies • . ib. 
They returned without success • 16 
Our fleets were ill victualled • • ib. 
The affairs of Scotland - • -17 
Presbytery was confirmed • • ib. 
Debates couceniing the succession to 

the crown • • • -18 

Practices from France • • '19 

A discovery made of these • • ib. 

Reflections on the conduct of affairs 

there 21 

The affairs of Ireland • • • ib. 

An act passed there against popery 22 
Jealousies of the ministry • • 2-t 

A bill against occasional conformity 25 
Passed by the Commons • • ib. 

But rejected by the Lords • • 26 



Page 

The clergy out of humour • • 26 

The Commons vote all the necessary 

supplies • • • • '27 

Inquiries into the conduct of the fleet ib. 
The Earl of Orford's accounts justified ib, 
A bill for examining the public ac- 
counts lost between the two houses 28 

1704. 
A dispute concerning injustice in the 

elections of members of parliament 29 
The Lordsjudge that the right of elect- 
ing was triable at law • • '31 
The Queen gave the tenths and first- 
fruits for the benefit of the poor clergy 32 
An act passed about it • • ••34 
A plot discovered • • • • 35 
Disputes between the two houses in 

addresses to the Queen • • 38 

The Lords ordered a secretexamiuation 
of all who were suspected to be in 

this plot 40 

The Lords' opinion upon the whole 

matter • • • • '43 

An address justifying the pi'oceeding 

of the Lords • • • • ib. 

An act for recruits • • -44 

An address concerning the justices of 

peace • • • • '45 

The ill temper of manj-, especially of 

the clergy • • • • ib. 

The Duke of Marlborough went to 

Holland in winter • • -46 

The Earl of Nottingham quitted his 

place • • • • -47 

The Earl of Jersey and Sir Edward 

Seymour turned out • • • ib. 

The Duke of Maa-lborough conducted 

his design with great secrecy • 48 

He marched to the Danube • • 49 

The battle of Schellenberg • • ib. 

The battle of Hocksted • • -51 

The Duke of Marlborough advanced 

to Triers • • • • -54 

Affairs at sea • • • '55 

Gibraltar was taken • • -57 

The affairs of Portugal • • • ib- 

A fifjlit at sea • • • • 58 



CONTRNTS. 



Page 
The siege of CibvaUar • • -60 

Affairs in Italy • ■ 61 

And in the Ccvcnncs • • • ib. 

Affairs of Hungary • • -62 

rho affairs of Poland • • -63 

The Pope, wholly in the French in- 
terest • • • • • 64 
The affairs of Scotland - • -65 
Debates about the succession • • 67 
The settling it put off for that session ib. 
A money bill with a tack to it • ib. 
The ministers there advise the Queen 

to pass it • . • .69 

It was passed - • - - ib. 

Censures passed upon it • -70 

A session of parliament in England • 71 

1705. 
The occasional bill is again brougiit 
in, and endeavoured to be tacked 
to a money bill • • • ib. 

The lack was rejected • ■ -73 

Debates concerning Scotland • • ib. 

Complaints of the Admiralty • • 75 

The bill against occasional conformity 

debated and rejected by the Lords 76 
Bishop Watson's practices • • 77 

Some promotions in the church • 78 
Designs witli relation to the Elec- 

toress of Hanover • • • ib. 

The House of Commons committed 
to prisoftsome of the men of Ayles- 
bury . . . • -79 
The end of the parliament • • 82 
Bills that were not passed • • 83 
Proceedings in the convocation • 85 
The siege of Gibraltar raised • • ib. 
The Duke of Marlborough marched 

to Triers • • • -86 

Expecting the Prince of Baden • 87 
Who failed him • • . ib. 

The Duke of Marlborough broke 

through the French lines • • 88 

The Dutch would not venture a battle ib. 
The Emperor's death and character 89 
Affairs in Germany . • -90 

And in Italy • • . .91 

Affairs in Spain . . • . ili. 

A fleet and army sent to Spain • 92 

They landed near Barcelona . • 93 

The King pressed the siege • • 9t 

Fort Montjuy attacked • • 95 

And taken • • • • -96 

Barcelona capitulated • • • ib. 

King Cijarlcs's letters • • • ib. 

Affairs at sea • • • •97 

The siege of Badajos raised • • ib- 



Page 

The councils of Portugal • . 97 
Affairs in Hungary • • .98 

And in Poland • . • . ib. 

A parliament chosen in England • 99 

Cowpcrmade lord keeper • • 100 

An act for a treaty of union passed • 101 
The state of Ireland . • .102 

A parliament in England • • ib. 

A speaker chosen • • • ib. 

Debates about the next successor • 104 

A bill for a regency • . . 106 

Great opposition made to it • • 108 
A secret management in the House 

of Commons .... 109 

The act of the regency passed • 110 
The dangers of the church inquired 

into • • . . • ib. 
A vote and address to the Queen 

about that • • . -Ill 

1706. 

Complaints of the allies rejected . 112 

The acts against the Scots repealed • 113 
The public credit very high • .114 

A bill to regulate proceedings at law 115 

Complaints of the progress of popery 1 16 

A design for a publiciibrary • • 117 

Proceedings in convocation • • 118 

Preparations for the campaign • 120 

A revolt in Valencia • • • ib. 

The siege of Barcelona • • • 121 

Alcantara taken • . • • ib. 

The Germans are defeated in Italy 122 
The treaty for the union of the two 

kingdoms • • • • 123 

The siege of Barcelona raised • 125 

An eclipse of the sun • • • ib. 

The Earl of Gallway advanced • ib. 
King Philip came to Madrid, and 

soon left it • • • • ib. 
The Earl of Gallway came to it, but 

King Charles delayed too long to 

come thither .... 126 

The battle of Ramillies . • • 128 

A great victory gained • • • ib. 

Flanders and Brabant reduced • 129 

Ostend and 3Ienin taken • • ib. 
Tlic Duke of Vendonic commanded 

in Flanders .... ISO 

Dendernionde and Acth taken • ib. 

Designs for a descent in France • 131 

The siege of Turin • • • 132 

Prince Eugene marches to raise it • ib. 
The French army routed, and the 

siege raised . . . • 134 
The King of Sweden marched into 

Saxony . . . . • 135 



CONTENTS. 



A treaty of union concladtd 
nie articles of the union 
Debated long in the parliament 
Scotland 



Page 

136 

ib 

of 
138 



1707. 
At last agreed to 
The equivalent disposed of • 
Reflections on the union 
The supplies were granted • 
Proceedings in convocation • 
Affairs in Italy • 
And in Poland • 
The character of the King of Sweden 
Propositions for a peace 
The battle of Almanza 
The design upon Toulon 
It failed in the execution 
The siege of Lerida • 
Relief sent to Spain • 
The conquest of Naples 
Affairs on the Rhine • 
The King of Prussia judged Prince 

of Neufchatel 
The King of Sweden gets the prO' 

testant churches in Silesia to be 

restored to them 
A sedition in Hamburgh 
The campaign in Flanders • 
Affairs at sea 
Proceedings with relation to Scotland 
A new party at court • 
Promotions in the church 
Complaints of the Admiralty 
Examined by the House of Lords 
And laid before the Queen in an ad 

dress . . • • 

Inquiry into the affairs of Spain 



142 
145 
147 
149 
150 
152 
153 
155 
ib. 
156 
167 
159 
160 
161 
162 
163 

164 



165 
167 

ib. 
168 

ib. 
169 
170 
172 
173 

175 
176 



1708. 

Discoveries of acorrcspondence with 
France ..... 178 

An examination into that corre- 
spondence • • • -181 

Proceedings with relation to Scotland 182 

A descent designed upon Scotland 184 

A fleet sailed from Dunkirk 

Reports spread by the French 

The parliament stands firmly by the 
Queen ..... 

The French fleet got again into 
Dunkirk .... 

The designs of the campaign are 
concerted .... 

The princes of France sent to the 
army in Flanders 

The Duke of Orleans sent to Spain 



185 
186 



187 



ib. 



188 



189 
ib 



Pag. 
Tortosa besieged, and taken • • 189 

Supplies sent from Italy to Spain • 190 
GheiitandBrugestakenby theFrench ib. 
The battle of Oudenarde • • 191 

Lisle besieged • • • • ib. 

The French drew lines all along the 

Scheld 192 

A new supply to Ostend ■ • 193 

A defeat given the French when they 

were three to one • • • ib. 

The convoys from Ostend came safe 

to the camp .... 194 
Leffingen taken by the French • ib. 

Misunderstanding between the Dukes 

of Burgundy and Vendome • 195 

Affairs on the Upper Rhine • • ib. 

The Elector of Bavaria sent to attack 

Brussels • • • • • ib. 

The Duke of Marlborough passed the 

Scheld and the lines • • • 196 

The Elector of Bavaria drew off from 

Brussels • • • • • ib. 
The citadel of lisle capitulated • 197 
Reflections that passed on it • • ib. 

Ghent and Bruges are retaken • ib. 
A very hard winter • • • 198 

Sardinia and Minorca reduced • 199 
The Pope threatens the Emperor with 

censures and a war • • • ib 

The Duke of Savoy took Exilles and 

Fenestrella • • • . ib. 

The Pope is obliged to submit to the 

Emperor . • • -200 

And acknowledges King Charles • 201 
Affairs in Hungary • • • ib. 

And in Poland • • • • ib. 

Affairs at sea • • • • ib. 

Prince Georse's death and character 202 
A new ministry .... 203 
A new parliament opened • • ib. 

1709. 
Debates concerning the elections of 

the peers of Scotland • • 204 

A Scotch peer created a peer of Great 

Britain was to have no vote there 205 
Other exceptions were determined • 206 
A faction among the Scots • • ib. 

An act concerning trials of treasons 

in Scotland "i • • -207 

The heads of the act • • • 208 

The forms of proceeding in Scotland ib. 
Of the forfeitures in cases of treason 210 
Amendments to the act • • • 211 

It passed in both houses • • 212 

An act of grace • • • - ib. 

An enlaroemcnt of the Bank • • ib. 



CONTENTS. 



Great riclies in Portugal 

\n act for a general naturalization 

of all protcstants 
An address to the Queen when a 

treaty of peace should be opened 
The convocation was put off by a 

prorogation .... 
A faction among the clergy of Ireland 
An ill temper among our clergy still 

kept up .... 

Negotiations for peace 
The preliminaries agreed on • 
The King of France refuses to ratify 

them ..... 
The war went on • . . 

In Portugal .... 
In Spain ..... 
In Dauphiny .... 
In Germany .... 
And in Planders 
Toumay is besieged and taken 
The battle of Blarignies • 
Mons besieged and taken . 
Affairs in Italy .... 
Affairs in Spain 
The King of Sweden's defeat 
The King flies into Turkey • 
His character .... 
Affairs in Denmark 
Our fleet well conducted 
A session of parliament 
Sacheverers sermon . 
Many books wrote against the 
Queen's title .... 

1710. 
Dr. Hoadly's writings in defence 
thereof ..... 
Sacheverel was impeached by the 

House of Commons . . . 230 

And tried in Westminster Hall • 231 
A great disorder at that time . 233 

Continuation of the trial • . ib. 

Sir John Holt's death and character 234 
Parker made lord chief justice • ib. 
Debates in the House of Lords after 

the trial . . • . ib. 

He is censured very gently • • 236 

Addresses against the parliament « 237 
The Queen's speech . . • ib. 

Duke of Shrewsbury made lord 

chamberlain .... 238 
The Queen was spoke to with great 

freedom . . . . ib. 

Doway besieged and taken . • 240 
The history continued to the peace ib. 
Negotiations for a peace • • ib. 



213 



ib. 

214 
ib. 

215 
ib. 
217 

218 
220 

ib. 

ib. 
221 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 
222 
223 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 
224 

ib. 
226 
227 

ib. 

ib. 

228 



229 



Conferences at Gertruydenburgh . 243 
All came to no conclusion . • 244 
A change of the ministry in England 214 
Sacheverel's progress to Wales • 245 
The elections of parliament men . 246 
A sinking of credit ■ . . 247 

Affairs in Spain . . . . ib. 

The battle of Almanara . • 248 

King Charles at Madrid . • ib. 

The battle of Villa Viciosa • . 249 

The disgrace of the Duke of Medina 

Cell ib. 

Bethune, Aire, and St. Venant are 

taken 250 

Affairs in the north • . • ib. 

The new parliament opened . • ib. 

1711. 
The conduct in Spain censured by the 

Lords 251 

Reflections made on it • • 254 

A strange way of proceeding • 255 

Some abuses censured in the House 

of Commons ' • . • . 256 

Supplies given for the war . . ib. 

The Duke of Marlborough still com- 
manded our armies . • • 257 
Complaints upon the favour shewed 

the Palatines .... 258 
A bill to repeal the general naturaliz- 
ation act, is rejected by the Lords 259 
A bill qualifying members to be 

chosen, passed • • • ib. 

An act for importing French wine • 260 
An attempt on Harley by Guiscard ib. 
A design against Kuig William's 

grants miscarries • . • 261 

Inquiries into the accounts . • 262 

Tlie Dauphin's death, and the Em- 
peror's ..... 263 
War breaking out between the Turk 

and the Czar • • • . ib. 

The convocation met . • . 264 

Exceptions to the license sent t-hem ib. 
A new license .... 265 
A representation drawn for the Queen ib. 
Whiston revives Arianism • . 266 

The different opinions of the judges 
concerning the power of the con- 
vocation .... 267 
Winston's doctrines condemned . 263 
An act for the South Sea trade • 269 
Reflections on the old ministry fully 

cleared • • . . . ib. 

Affairs in Spain .... 270 
The election of Kuig Charles to be 
emperor . . . • ib. 



CONTENTS. 



Page 
The Duke of Marlborough passed 

the French lines • • • 272 

He besieged Bouchaiu • • ib. 

And took it • • • -273 

An expedition by sea to Canada • ib. 
It miscarried .... 274 
Affairs in Turkey • • • ib. 

And in Pomerania • • -275 

Harley made an Earl, and lord trea- 
surer • • • . • ib. 
Negotiations for a peace with France 276 
Preliminaries offered by France • ib. 
Count Gallas sent away with dis- 
grace ..... 277 
Earl of Strafford sent ambassador to 

Holland . • • ■ ib. 

Many libels against the allies • ib. 
Earl Rivers sent to Hanover, but 

succeeded not • • • 278 

The states are forced to open a treaty ib. 
Endeavours used by the court be- 
fore they opened the parliament • 279 
The Queen's speech to the two houses ib. 
Reflections on it • • • 280 

The Earl of Nottingham moved, 
that no peace could be safe unless 
Spain and the West Indies were 
taken from the house of Bourbon ib. 
Agreed to by the Lords • -281 

The Queen's answer • • • ib. 

A bill against occasional conformity ib. 
Passed without opposition • • 282 

Duke Hamilton's patent examined 283 
Judged against him • • • 281 

The Lords' address that our allies 
might be carried along with us in 
the treaty • • . • ib. 

Discoveries of bribery pretended • 285 
The Duke of Marlborough aimed at i b. 
He is turned out of all his employ- 
ments . . . . > 286 
Twelve new peers made • • ib. 

1712. 

The Queen's message to the Lords 
to adjourn, disputed, but obeyed 287 

Prince Eugene came to England • ib. 

His character • • • • ib. 

A message to both houses • • 288 

A bill giving precedence to the 
house of Hanover • • . ib. 

Debates concerning the Scotch peers 289 

Walpole's case and censure • • ib. 

The censure put on the Duke of 
Marlborough . ■ • -290 

M^ay libels against him • • 291 



Page 
His innocence appeared evidently • 291 
The Scotch lords put in good hopes 292 
A toleration to the English liturgy in 

Scotland • • • . ib. 

Designs to provoke the presbyterians 

there 293 

Patronages restored • • • ib. 

The barrier treaty • • • 294 

It was complained of • • • 295 

And condemned by the House of Com- 
mons ..... 296 
The states justify themselves • • 297 
The self-denjnng bill lost . • ib. 
The treaty at Utrecht opened • 298 
The French proposals • . • ib. 
The death of the two Dauphms • 299 
The character of the Dauphin • 300 
An indignation, when the French pro- 
posals came over, appeared in both 
houses • • • • • ib. 
The demands of the allies • • 301 
Preparations for the campaign • ib. 
The Pretender's sister died • • ib. 
Proceedings in convocation • • 302 
Censure on Whiston's book, not con- 
firmed by the Queen • • ib. 
An inclination in some of the clergy 

towards popery • • • S03 

Dodu ell's Kolions . - • ib. 

The bishops designed to condemn the 

re-baptizing dissenters • • 305 

But the clergy did not agree to it • ib. 
Great supplies given • • • ib. 

The Duke of Ormond ordered not to 

act offensively .... 306 
A separate peace disowned by the 

Lord Treasurer • • . 307 

The Queen, by the Bishop of Bristol, 
said she was free from all her trea- 
ties with the states • • • ib 
The Queen laid before the parliament 

the plan of the peace • • 308 

Addresses of both houses upon it • ib. 
The end of the session of parliament 309 
The Duke of Ormond proclaims a ces- 
sation of arms, and left Prince Eu- 
gene's army .... 310 
Quesnoy taken • • • . ib. 

Landrecy besieged • • .311 

A great loss at Denain brought a re- 
verse on the campaign • . ib. 
Distractions at the Hague • • 312 
The renunciation of the successions in 

Spain and France • • . ib. 
Duke of Hamilton and Lord Mohun 
both killed in a combat • • 313 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

The Duke of Shrewsbury sent to 
France, and Duke de Auniont 
caiuc to England • • . 314 

The affairs in the north • ib. 

The Emperor prepares for the war 
with Frauce • • • • ib. 

A new barrier treaty with the states 315 

Tlie death of the Earl of Godolphin. 
His character • • • • ib. 

The Duke of Marlborough went to 
live beyond sea • • - ib. 

Wc possess Dunkirk in u very pre- 
carious manner • • • 316 

The barrier treaty signed • • 317 

1713. 

Seven prorogations ol' parliament ■ ib. 

Affairs of Sweden • - • 318 

The King of Prussia's death . ib. 

The King of Sweden's misfortunes - ib. 

The treaties signed, and the session 
of parliament opened • • 319 

The substance of the tiealies of 
peace and commerce • - 320 

Aid given by the Commons • • 323 

The Scots oppose their being charged 
with the duty on malt ■ » ib. 

And moved to have the union dis- 
solved ..... 324 

A bill for ri'udcring (he treaty of 
commerce \\ith France effectual ib. 

A speech I prepared when the ap- 
probation of the peace should be 
moved in the House of Lords • 326 

Pernicies, Suramus Conatus • • 328 

A demand of money for the civil 
list debts • • • -331 

Reasons against it • ■ • ib. 

But it was granted • - • ib 

All address of both houses to get the 
Pretender removed from Lorraine 332 

The death of some bishops • • 333 

The Queen's speech at the end of 
the session • • • • ib. 



CONCLUSION. 

Page 
Mv zeal for the church of England 336 
Tlie doctrine • . . • ib. 
The worship .... 337 
And discipline • • ■ ib. 
My zeal against separation • • 338 
And tenderness to scrupulous con- 
sciences • . . . . 339 
My zeal against persecution • . 340 
My thoughts concerning the clergy • 341 
An inward vocation • . . ib. 
The function of the clergy • ■ 342 
My advices to the bishops • • 345 
An expedient couceniing ordina- 
tions ..... 347 
The duties of a bishop • • • 348 
Their abstraction from courts and in- 
trigues • ■ . ■ ib 
Concerning patrons • • • 349 
Non-residence and pluralities • • 351 
Concerning the body of the people • ib. 
Of the gentry .... 353 
The danger of losing public liberty • ib. 
Errors in education . • 356 
And iu marriages . . • 357 
Of trade and industry . • . 3.58 
Of the stage - • . • ib. 
Of educating the other sex • • 359 
Of the nobility • • . ib. 
Of their education - . ib. 
Of their chaplains - - • 361 
Concerning the two houses of parlia- 
ment SG'i 

Of elections • ■ • • ib. 

Of the parties of whig and tory • 363 

The correction of our laws • • 365 

Provision foi (he j)oai- • • ■ ib. 

Of shorter sessions of parliament • 366 
All address to our princes • • 36? 

An exhortation to all to become tiuly 
religious ..... 373 



THE 

HISTORY, 

The Duke of Marlborough had a great domestic affliction 1703, 
at this time : he lost his only son, a graceful person, and a -p^:^ 
very promising youth : he died at Cambridge of the small- tions wr the 
pox. This, as may be imagined, went very deep in his *^*™p^'S"- 
father's heart, and stopped his passing the seas some days 
longer than he had intended. Upon his arrival on the other 
side, the Dutch brought their armies into the field : the first 
thing they undertook was the siege of Bonne. In the mean 
while, all men's eyes were turned towards Bavaria: the 
court of Vienna had given it out, all the former winter, that 
they would bring such a force upon that Elector, as would 
quickly put an end to that war, and seize his whole coun- 
try. But the slowness of that court appeared on this, as 
it had done on many other occasions ; for though they 
brought two armies into the field, yet they were not able to 
deal vnth the Elector's forces. Villars, who lay with his 
army at Strasburgh, had orders to Jireak through and join 
the Elector ; so he was to force his way to him at all ad- 
ventures. He passed the Rhine, and set do^Mi before Fort 
Kiel, which lay over against Strasburgh, and took it in a 
few days. Prince Lewis was in no condition to raise the 
siege ; for the best part of his army was called away to the 
war in Bavaria : he therefore posted himself advanta- 
geously at Stollhofien ; yet he could not have maintained it, 
if the states had not sent him a good body of foot, which 
came seasonably, a few days before Marshal Villars at- 
tacked him with an army that was more than double 
his number ; but his men, chiefly the Dutch battalions, re- 
ceived them with so much courage, that the French were 
forced to quit the attack, after they had lost about four 
thousand men in it. Yet, upon repeated orders from 
France, Marshal Villars resolved to ventiu-e the loss of his 
whole army rather than abandon the Elector ; who, though 

\ OL. IV. B 



2 HISTORY OF THE R-EIGN 

170:3. he had taken Newburgb, and had .surprised Ratisbon, and 
'"^'^ had several advantages in little engagements with the im- 
perialists, yet was like to be overpowered by a superior 
force, if he was not relieved in time. The Black Forest 
was thought impracticable in that season, which was a 
very wet one : this was too mucli trusted to, so that the 
passes were ill looked after ; and therefore Villars over- 
came all difficulties and joined the Elector : but his troops 
were so harassed with the march, that he was obliged to 
put them, for some time, into quarters of refreshment. 

Bonne The Dukc of Marlborough carried on the siege of Bonne 

ta Ml. ^^.^j^ such vigour, that they capitulated within ten days 
after the trenches were opened : the French reckoned upon 
a longer resistance, and hoped to have diverted this by an 
attempt upon Liege. The states had a small army about 
Maestricht, which the French intended to fall upon, being 
much superior to it : but they found the Dutch in so good 
order, and so well posted, that they retired within their 
lines as soon as they saw the Duke of Marlborough, after 
the siege of Bonne, was marching towards them. The win- 
ter had produced very little action in Italy : the country 
was under another very heavy plague, by a continued suc- 
cession of threatening, and of some very devouring earth- 

Ea. ti.quakts quakcs : Rome itself had a share in the common calamity ; 

^ '"'■^' • but it proved to them more dreadful than it was mis- 
chievous. Prince Eugene found that his letters, and the 
most pressing representations he could send to the court 
of Vienna, had no effect : so at last he obtained leave to go 
thither. 

Ti.ckiiUe rpjjg motions of the Dutch army made it believed, 
there was a design on Antwerp. Cohorn was making ad- 
vances in the Dutch Flanders, and Opdam commanded a 
small army on the other side of the Scheld, while the 
Duke of Marlborough lay, with the main army, near the 
lines in Brabant. Bouflers was detached from Villeroy's 
army, with a body, double in number to Opdam's, to fall on 
him : he marched so quick, that the Dutch, being surprised 
at Eckeren, were put in great disorder, and Opdam, ap- 
prehending all was lost, fled with a body of his men to 
Breda : but the Dutch rallied, and maintained their ground 
with such firmiics.s, that Ihc French retired little to their 
honour ; since though they \\ ere much supQjrior in number. 



OF QUEEN ANNE, 3 

yet they let the Dutch recover out of their first confusion, i^*^"'- 
and keep their ground, although forsaken by their general, "^^^ 
who justified himself in the best manner he could, and cast 
the blame on others. 

Bouflers' conduct was so much censured, that it was 
thought this finished his disgiace ; for he was no more put 
at the head of the French armies : nor was the Duke of 
Marlborough without some share of censure on this occa- 
sion ; since it was pretended, that he ought to have sent a 
force to support Opdam, or have made an attempt on Vil- 
leroy's army, when it was weakened by the detachment sent 
%vith Bouflers. 

The French lines were judged to be so strong, that the Wny, Lim- 
forcing them seemed impracticable, so the Duke of Marl- oLdii' ' 
borough turned towards Huy, which was soon taken ; and ^^'*'' •" ''le 
after that to Limburgh, which he took with no loss, but taken. ' 
that of so much time as was necessary to bring up a train 
of artillery: and as soon as that was done, the ganison 
were made prisoners of war, for they were in no condition 
to maintain a siege. Guelder was also blocked up, so that 
before the end of the campaign it was brought to capitulate. 
Thus the Lower Rhine was secured, and all that country, 
called the Coudras, was entirely reduced : this was all that 
our troops, in conjunction with the Dutch, could do in 
Flanders : we had the superior army, but what by reason 
of the cautious maxims of the states, what by reason of 
the factions among them, (which were rising very high be- 
tween those who had ])een of the late King's part)', and 
were now for having a captain-general, and those of the 
Lovestein party, who were for governing all by a depu- 
tation from the stales) no great design could be undertaken 
by an army so much distracted. 

In the Upper Rhine matters went much worse : Villars The su.-coss 
lay for some time on the Danube, whilathe Elector of Ba- fJ,',',!J, „„ 
varia marched into Tyrol, and possessed himself of In- the Danube. 
spruck: the Emperor's force was so broken into many 
small armies, in different places, that he had not one good 
army any where : he had none at all in Tyrol : and all that 
the Prince of Baden could do, was to watch Villars's mo- 
tions : but he did not venture on attacking him, daring this 
separation. Many blamed his conduct : some called his 
courage, and others his fidelity in question; while many 



4 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1703. excused him, since his army was both weak ami ill fur- 
nislied in all respects. The Duke of Vendome had orders 
to march from the Milanese to Tyrol, there to join the 
Elector of Bavaria : upon which junction, the ruin of the 
house of Austria would have probably followed : but the 
boors in Tyrol rose, and attacked the Elector with so much 
resolution, that he was forced to retire out of the country, 
with considerable loss, and was driven out before the Duke 
of Vendome could join him, so that he came too late : he 
seemed to have a design on Trent, but the boors were now 
so animated with their successes, and were so conducted 
and supported by officers and troops sent them by the Em- 
peror, that Vendome was forced to return back without 
being able to effect any thing. 
Little done Nothuig passcd this summer in Italy : the imperialists 
were too weak, and too ill supplied from Germany, to 
be able to act offensively : and the miscarriage of the 
design upon Tyrol lost the French so much time, that they 
undertook nothing, unless it were the siege of Ostiglia, 
in which they failed. Bersello, after a long blockade, was 
forced to capitulate, and by that means, the French pos- 
sessed themselves of the Duke of Modena's country : the 
Duke of Burgundy came to Alsace, and sat do\\Ti before 
Brisack, of which he was soon master, by the cowardice or 
tieachery of those who commanded, for which they were 
condemned by a council of war. 
^an in Hun- ^^^^ Empcror's misfortuucs grew upon him : Cardinal 
j.a;7. Calonitz and Esterhasi had the government of Himgary 

trusted chiefly to them : the former was so cruel, and the 
other so ravenous, that the Hungarians took advantage 
from this distraction in the Emperor's affairs, to run toge- 
ther in great bodies, and in many places, setting Prince 
Ragotski at their head. They demanded that their griev- 
ances should be redressed, and that their privileges should 
be restored : they were much animated in this by the prac- 
tices of the French, and the Elector of Bavaria's agents : 
some small assistance was sent them by the way of Poland : 
they were encouraged to enter upon no treaty, but to unite 
and fortify themselves ; assurances being given them that 
no peace should be concluded, unless they were fully re- 
stored to all their antient liberties. 
The court of Vienna was much alarmed at this, fearing 



OF QUEEN ANNE. O 

it might be secretly set on by the Turks : though that court i^^^s. 
gave all possible assurances, that they would maintain the pj^^^jg^^ j^ 
peace of Carlowitz most religiously, and that they would tiie Empe- 
in no sort encourage or assist the malecontents. A revo- '"fs court. 
lution happening in that empire, in whi«h a new sultan was 
set up, raised new apprehensions of a breach on that side : 
but the Sultan renewed the assurances of maintaining the 
peace so solemnly, that all those fears were soon dissi- 
pated. There was a great faction in the Emperor's court, 
and among his ministers ; and it did not appear that he had 
stiength or genius enough to govern them. Count Mans- 
field was much suspected of being in the interests of France : 
the Prince of Baden and Prince Eugene both agreed in 
charging his conduct, though they differed almost in every 
thing else : yet he was so possessed of the Emperor's fa- 
vour and confidence, that it was not easy to get him set 
aside : in conclusion, he was advanced to a high post in 
the Emperor's household, and Prince Eugene was made 
president of the council of war. 

But what efi'ect soever this might have in succeeding An-sijuiRi. 
campaigns, it was then too late in the year lo find remedies ^"kenb"'','hp 
for the present disorders ; and all affairs on the south of the French. 
Danube were falling into gieat confusion. Things went a 
little better on the north side of that river : the Upper Pa- 
latinate was entirely conquered ; but, near the end of the 
year, Augsburgh was forced to submit to the Elector of Ba- 
varia, and Landaw was besieged by the French : Tallard, 
who commanded the siege, took it in fewer weeks than it 
had cost the Germans months to take it in the former year : 
nor was this all, an army of the confederates was brought 
together to raise the siege : the young Prince of Hesse com- 
manded, but the Prince of Nassau Welburg, as a man of 
more experience in war, was chiefly depended on, though 
his conduct shewed how little he deserved it. The Empe- 
ror's birth-day was a day of diversion, and the German ge- 
nerals, then at Spire, allowed themselves all the idle liber- 
ties used in courts on such days, without the ordinary pre- 
caution of having scouts or parties abroad, in the same care- 
less state, as if no enemy had been near them. Tallard, 
having intelligence of this, left a party of his army to make 
a shew, and maintain the works before Landaw, and 
marched with his best troops against the Germans : he sur- 



6 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1703. prised and routed them ; upon which Landaw capitulated r 
with this the warlike operations of this carapai^ ended, 
very gloriously and with great advantage to the French. 

A treau But two great negotiations, then broueht to a conclusion, 

•with the -LI 

King: ot very much changed the face of affairs : all the confederates 
Portugal, pressed the King of Portugal to come into the alliance, as 
his own interest led him to it ; since it was visible, that as 
soon as Spain was once miited to the crown of Fiance, he 
could not hope to continue long in Portugal. The Almi- 
rante of Castille was believed to be in the interests of the 
house of Austria; therefore, to send him out of the way, he 
was appointed to go ambassador to France : he seemed to 
undertake it, and made the necessary preparations : he saw 
this emljassy was intended for an exile, and that it put him 
in the power of his enemies : so, after he had raised what 
was necessary to defray his expense, he secretly changed 
his course, and escaped with the wealth he had in his 
hands to Lisbon, where he entered into secret negotiations 
witli the King of Portugal and the Emperor : he gave great 
a.ssurances of the good dispositions in which both the peo- 
ple and grandees of Spain were, who were growTi sick of 
their new masters. The risk he himself ran, seemed a very 
fall credential : he assured them, the new King was de- 
spised, and that the French about him were universally 
hated : the Spaniards could not bear the being made a pro- 
vince, either to France or to the Emperor, 

He therefore proposed, that the Emperor and the King 
of the Romans should renounce all their pretensions, and 
transfer them to the Archduke, and declare him King of 
Spain ; and that he should be immediately sent thither; for 
he assured them, the Spaniards would not revolt from a 
king that was in possession, till Ihey saw another king 
who claimed his right : and in that case, they would think 
they had a right to adhere to the king they liked best. The 
King of Portugal likewise demanded an enlargement of his 
frontiersy and some new accessions to his crown, which 
were reasonable, but could not be stipulated but by a King 
of Spain. 

In the treaty that the Emperor had made with the late 
King, and with the states, one article was, that they should 
be at liberty to possess themselves of the dominions which 
the crown of Spain had in the West Indies, and he vested 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 

in them the right that their amis should give them in these ^^'^^• 
acquisitions ; upon which the King had designed to send a 
great fleet, with a land army, into the Bay of Mexico, to 
seize some important places there, with a design of re- 
storing them to the crown of Spain, upon advantageous ar- 
ticles for a free trade, as soon as the Spaniards should re- 
ceive a king of the house of Austria. This design was 
now laid aside, and the reason that the ministers gave for 
it, was, that the Almirante had assured them, that if we 
possessed ourselves of any of their places in the West 
Indies, the whole nation would by that means become en- 
tirely French ; they would never believe our promises of 
restoring them ; and seeing they had no naval power of 
their own to recover them, they would go into the French 
interest very cordially, as the only way left to recover these 
places. 

Ah entire credit was given to the Almirante ; so the 
Queen and the states agreed to send over a great fleet, 
with a land army of twelve thousand men, together with a 
great supply of money and arms to Portugal; that King 
undertaking to have an army of twenty-eight thousand men 
ready to join ours. In this treaty an incident happened 
that had almost spoiled the whole : the King of Portugal 
insisted on demanding the flag, and the other respects to be 
paid by our admiral, when he was in his ports : the Earl of 
Nottingham insisted, it was a dishonour to England to 
strike, even in another king's ports : this was not demand- 
ed of the fleet that was sent to bring over Queen Catharine; 
so, though Methuen our ambassador had agreed to this ^- 
ticle, he pressed the Queen not to ratify it. 

Methuen, in his own justification, said, he consented to 
the article, because he saw it was insisted on so much, that 
no treaty could be concluded unless that point were yield- 
ed : the low state of their afiairs, in the year 1662, when 
the protection of England was all they had in view for 
their preservation, made such a difterence between that 
and the present time, that the one was not to be set up for 
a precedent to govern the other : besides, even then the 
matter was much contested in their councils, though the 
extremities to which they were reduced made them yield 
it. The Lord Godolphin looked on this as too inconsi- 
derable to be insisted on ; the whole afiairs of Europe 



8 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

i''03. seemed to turn upon this treaty, and so important a matter 
ought not to be retarded a day for such punctilios as a sa- 
lute or striking the flag: and it seemed reasonable, that 
every sovereign prince should claim this acknowledgment, 
unless where it was otherwise stipulated by express trea- 
ties. The laying so much weight on such matters very 
much heightened jealousies ; and it was said, that the Earl 
of Nottingham and the tories seemed to lay hold on every 
thing that could obstruct the progress of the war ; while the 
round proceeding of the Lord Godolphin reconciled many 
to him. The Queen confirmed the treaty, upon which the 
court of Vienna was desired to do their part. But that 
court proceeded with its ordinary slowness : the mildest 
censure passed on these delays was, that they proceeded 
from an unreasonable alFectation of magnificence in the ce- 
remonial, which could not be performed soon nor easily in 
a poor but a haughty court : it was done at last, but so late 
in the year, that the new-declared King of Spain could not 
reach Holland before the end of October. A squadron of 
our fleet was lying there to bring him over ; such as was 
wont to convoy the late King when he crossed the seas. 
But the ministers of the King of Spain thought it was not 
strong enough; they pretended they had advertisements 
that the French had a stronger squadron in Dunkirk, which 
might be sent out to intercept him ; so an additional strength 
was sent: this lost some time and a fair wind. 
The !!:reat jj had like to have been more fatal ; for about the end of 

wind in No- -.-, . i i ■ • j i. i 

vember, JNovember, the weather grew very boisterous, and broke 
out, on the 27th of November, in the most violent storm, 
both by sea and land, that had been known in the memory 
of man: the city of London was so shaken with it, that 
people were generally afraid of being buried in the ruins 
of their houses : some houses fell and crushed their mas- 
ters to death : great hurt was done in the southern parts of 
England; little happening in the north, where the storm 
was not so violent. There was a great fall of trees, chiefly 
oi' elms, that were blown down by the wind. Wc had at 
that time the best part of our navd force upon the sea : 
which tilled all people with great apprehensions of an irre- 
parable loss ; and, indeed, if the storm had not been at its 
height at full flood, and in a spring tide, the loss might have 
proved fatal to the nation. It was so considerable, tliat 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 9 

fourteen or fifteen men of war were cast away, in whicli i70:5. 
fifteen hundred seamen perished ; few merchantmen were ""^^^ 
lost : such as were driven to sea were safe : some few only 
were overset. Thus the most threatening danger to which 
the nation could be exposed went off with little damage ; 
we all saw our hazard, since the loss of oiu* fleet must have 
been the loss of the nation. If this great hiuricane had 
come at low water, or in a quarter tide, our ships must 
have been driven out upon the banks of simd that lie before 
the coast, and have stuck and perished there as some of 
the men of war did ; but the sea being so full of water, all 
but some heavy ships got over these safe. Our squadron, 
which \\as then in the jNIaese, suffered but little, and the 
3hips were soon refitted and ready to sail. 

About the end of December, the King of Spain landed '^'.'e "ew 
at Portsmouth; the Duke of Somerset was sent by the Spain came 
Queen to receive him, and to bring him to an interview, ♦" En-ian<i, 
which was to be at W indsor : Prince George went and met 
him on the way, and he was treated with great magnifi- 
cence : the court was very splendid, and much thronged : 
the Queen's behaviour towards him was very noble and 
obliging. The young King charmed all that were there ; he 
had a gravity beyond his age, tempered with much mo- 
desty : his behaviour was in all points so exact, that tliere 
was not a circumstance in his whole deportment that was 
liable to censure : he paid an extraordinary respect to the 
Queen, and yet maintained a due greatness in it. He had 
an art of seeming well pleased with every thing, without 
so much as smiling once all the while he was at court, 
which was only three days: he spoke but little, and all he 
said was judicious and obliging. All possible haste was 
made in fitting out the fleet ; so tliat he set sail in the be- 
ginning of January, and for five days he had a fair wind 
with good weather ; but then the wind changed, and he was 
driven back to Portsmouth : he lay there above three weeks, 
and then he had a very prosperous navigation. The forces 
that were ordered to ^o over to his assistance, were by this 
time got ready to attend on him ; so he sailed with a great 
fleet, both of men of war and transport ships. He arrived He Umhd 
happily at Lisbon, where he was received with all the out- '^^ '* *"'■ 
ward expressions of joy and welcome, and at an expense, 
in a vain magnificence, which that court could not well 

VOL. IV. 



10 



1703. 



ha^cc. 



HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

bear : but a national vanity prevailed to carry this too far, 
by which other things, that were more necessary, were ne- 
glected : that court was then very melancholy ; for the 
young Infanta, whom the King of Spain was to have mar- 
ried, as had been agreed, died a few days before his arrival. 
While this negotiation with Portugal was canied on, the 
Duke of Savoy began to see his own danger, if the two 
crowns should come to be united ; and he saw, that if the 
King of France drove the imperialists out of Italy, and be- 
came master of the Milanese, he must lie exposed and at 
mercy. He had married his two daughters to the Duke of 
Burgundy, and to King Philip of Spain ; but as lie wrote 
to the Emperor, he w as now to take care of himself and his 
The Dolce of gQu : his alliance with France was only for one year, which 
into (he ai- h© had renewed from year to year: so he oiVered, at the 
end of the year, to enter into the great alliance ; and he de- 
manded, for his share, the Novarize and the Montferrat. 
His leaving the allies, as he had done in the former war, 
shewed that he maintained the character of his family, of 
changing sides, as often as he could expect better terms 
by a new turn : yet his interest lay so visibly now on the 
side of the alliance, that it was very reasonable to believe 
he was resolved to adhere firmly to it. So when the de- 
mands he made were laid before the court of Vienna, and 
from thence transmitted to England and Holland, all the 
assistance that he proposed was promised him. The court 
of Vienna had no money to spare, but England and the 
states were to pay him 20,000/. a month, of which England 
M as to pay him two-thirds, and the states the rest. 

Since 1 am to relate the rest of this transaction, I must 
look back, and give some account of his departing from 
the alliance in the former war, which I had from Monsieur 
Herval, who was then the King's envoy in Switzerland, a 
French refugee, but originally of a German family of Augs- 
bourg, settled but lately in France. In January, 1696, 
when the plot for assassinating the King and invading the 
nation was thought so surely laid that it could not mis- 
carry, the King of France sent Mr. Chanley very secretly 
to the Duke of Savoy, with a full credence to the proposi- 
tions he was to make, demanding a positive answer within 
six hours. With that the Duke of Orle;uis wrote >cry 
warni>y to him : he said, he had employed all his interest 



Tlie HtorPt 
reasons of 
Jiis lV)riiier 
riepRi'luie 
(roiii it. 



OP QUEEN ANNE. 11 

"^ilh the King his brother to get these offers made to him, i^os. 
which he coDJured him to accept of, otherwise he must ^^^^^ 
look for utter ruin, without remedy or recovery. Chanley 
told him, that at that present time he w as to reckon that 
King James was repossessed of the throne of England, and 
that the Prince of Orange was either dead or in his hands : 
so he atfered to restore Cazal and Pigneroll, and all that 
was afterwards agreed to by the treaty, if he would depart 
from the alliance. The Duke of Savoy being thus alarmed 
with a revolution in England, and being so straitened in 
time, thought the extreme necessity, to which he would be 
reduced, in case that was true, must justify his submitting, 
when otherwise his ruin was miavoidable. The worst part 
of this was, that he got leave to pretend to continue in the 
alliance, till he had drawn all the supplies he was to expect 
for that year from England and the states, and then the 
whole matter w as owned, as has been related in the trans- 
actions of that year. I leave this upon the credit of him 
from whom I had it, who assured me he was well informed 
concerning it. 

The Duke of Savoy having now secretly agreed to enter ^''6 French 
into the alliance, did not declare it, but continued still de- intentions,'* 
ny^ng it to the French, that so when the Duke of Vendome ''!»' '"»'''' '''^ 

111- 1- I i/'i • 1 ^^'^ Irodns 

sent back his troops to hmi, at the end ot the campaign, he „iih tbem 

might more safely ovni it. The French had reason to sus- J^^^"'"^"^" "' 

pect a secret negotiation, but could not penetrate into it : 

so they took an efl'ectual, thovigh a very fraudulent method 

to discover it ; which was told me soon after by the Earl of 

Pembroke. Tliey got the Elector of Bavaria to write to 

him, with all seeming sincerity, and with great secrecy ; for 

he sent it to him, by a subject of his own, so well disguised 

and directed, that the Duke of Savoy was imposed on by 

this management. In this letter the Elector complained 

bitterly of the insolence and pertidiousness of the French, 

into whose hands he had put himself: he said, he saw his 

error now, when it was too late to see how he could correct 

it ; yet, if the Duke of Savoy, who was almost in as bad a 

state as himself, would join with him, so that they might 

act by concert, they might yet not only recover themselves, 

but procure a happy peace for all the rest of Europe. The 

Duke of Savoy, mistrusting nothing, wTote him a frank 

answer, in which he o>\'ncd his own designs, and en- 



war. 



1^2 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

i'03. coiiragcd the Elector to go on, aiid offered all offices of 
""^^^ Irieudship on his behalf with the rest of the allies. The 
French, who knew by what ways the Savoyard was to re- 
turn, seized him, without so much as acquainting the 
Elector with the discovery that they had made : they saw 
now into this secret : so when the time came in which the 
Duke of Vendome ought to have sent back his troops to him, 
they were prisoners made of war, contrary to all treaties ; 
and Adth this the war began in those parts. It was much 
apprehended that, considering the weak and naked state 
in which the Duke of Savoy then was, the French woidd 
Count Sta- have quickly mastered him; but Count Staremberg ven- 
llinedhim ^^^^^ ^n a march, which military men said was the best 
laid, and the best executed, of any in the whole war: he 
marched from the Modonese, in the worst season of the 
year, through ways that, by reason of the rains that had 
fallen, seemed impracticable, having in many places the 
French both before and behind him : he broke through all, 
and in conclusion joined the Duke of Savoy with a good 
body of horse. By this he was rendered safe in Piedmont : 
it is true the French made themselves quickly masters of 
all Savoy, except Montmelian ; where some small actions 
happened, much to the Duke's advantage. The Smtzers 
interposed to obtain a neutrality for Savoy, though without 
effect. 
The insnr- The rising in the Cevennes had not been yet subdued, 
thfcev'e"- tl^ough Marshal Montravel was sent with an army to re- 
nes. duce or destroy them : he committed great barbarities, not 

only on those he found in arms, but on whole villages, be- 
cause they, as he was informed, favoured them : they came 
often down out of their hills in parties, ravaging the coun- 
try, and they engaged the King's troops with much resolu- 
tion, and sometimes with great advantage: they seemed 
resolved to accept of nothing less than the restoring their 
edicts to them ; for a connivance at Iheir on\ti way of wor- 
ship was offered them : they had many among them who 
seemed qualified, in a very singular manner, to be the 
teachers of the rest : they had a great measure of zeal, 
without any learning; they scarce had any education at 
all. I spoke with the person who, by the Queen's order, 
sent one among them to know the state of their aliairs: I 
read some of the letters wiiich he brought from them, full 



or QUEEN AN'NE. 13 

of a sublime zeal and piety, expressing a courage and con- i703. 
fidence that could not be daunted : one instance of this ^■^''^ 
was, that they all agreed, that if any of them was so 
wounded, in an engagement with the enemy, that he could 
not be brought off, he should be shot dead, rather than be 
left alive to fall into the enemy's hands : it was not possible 
tlien to form a judgment of tliat insurrection, the reports 
^bout it were so various and uncertain, it being as much 
magnified by some as it was imdervalued by otliers : the 
whole number that they could reckon on was four thousand 
men, but they had not arms and clothes for half that num- 
ber ; so they used these by turns, while the rest were left 
at home to follow their labour : they put the counti y all 
about them in a great fright, and to a vast expense ; Mhile 
no intelligence could be had of their designs; and they 
broke out in so many different places, that all who lay 
within their reach were in a perpetual agitation. It was a 
lamentable thing that thoy lay so far witiiin the country, 
that it was not possible to send supplies to them, unless 
the Duke of Savoy should be in a condition to break into 
Dauphiny ; and tlierefore advices were sent tliem, to ac- 
cept of such terms as could be had, and to reserve them- 
selves for better times. 

In Poland the scene was more embroiled than ever : rii.' aftairs 
ihere was some appearance of peace this summer, but it °' i^"'*""^' 
went off in whiter : the old fierce Cardinal drew a diet to 
Warsaw : there it was declared, that their King had broken 
all their laws : upon that they, by a formal sentence, de- 
posed him, and declared the throne vacant. This as as 
done in concert with the King of Sweden, who lay with his 
army at some distance from them, in the neighbourhood of 
Dantzic, ^^hich alarmed the citizens very much. It was 
believed, that they designed to choose Sobieski, the eldest 
son of the late King, who then lived at Breslau in Silesia, 
and being in the Emperor's dominions, he thought himself 
safer than he proved to be : the King of Poland retired into 
Saxony in some haste, which made many conclude, that he 
resolved to abandon Poland ; but he laid another design, 
which was executed to his mind, though, in the sequel, it 
proved not much to his advantage : Sobieski and his bro- 
tlier were in a correspondence with the party in Poland 
tliat opposed the King ; upon which they ought to have 



^^i^.-w' 



14 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. looked to their own securily with more precaution : they, 
it seems, apprehended nothing: where they then were, and 
so diverted themselves at huntinfj, and otherwise in their 
usual manner ; upon this some sent by the King of Poland 
took them both prisoners, and brouglit them to Dresden, 
where they were safely kept ; and all the remonstrances 
that the Emperor could make, upon such an act of hos- 
tility, had no effect. This, for a while, broke their mea- 
sures at Warsaw : many forsook them, while the King of 
Sweden seemed implacable in his opposition to Augustus ; 
whose chief confidence was in the Czar. It was suspected 
that the French had a management in this matter, since it 
was certain that, by the war in Poland, a gieat part of that 
force was diverted, which might otherAvise have been en- 
gaged in the common cause of the great alliance. All the 
advices that we had from thence agreed in this, that tlie 
King of Sweden himself was in no understanding with the 
French ; but it was \isible, that what he did contributed not 
a little to serve their ends. This was the state of affairs at 
land. 

Aftaiis t»t I turn next to another element, and to give an account 
of the operations at sea, where things were ill designed^ 
and worse executed : the making Prince George our lord 
high admiral proved, in many instances, very unhappy to 
the nation : men of bad designs imposed on him ; he un- 
derstood those matters very little ; and they sheltered them- 
selves under his name, to which a great submission was 
paid : but the complaints rose the higher for that. Our 
main fleet was ready to go out in May, but the Dutch fleet 
was not yet come over ; so Rook was sent out to alarm 
the coast of France : he lingered long in port, pretending 
ill health ; upon that Churchill was sent to command the 
fleet ; but Rook's health returned happily for him, or he 
thought fit to lay aside that pretence, and went to sea, 
where he continued a month; but in such a station, as if 
his design had been to keep far from meeting the French 
fleet, which sailed out at that time ; and to do the enemy 
no harm, not so much as to disturb their quiet, by commg 
near their coast : at last he returned, without having at- 
tempted any thing. 

It was after this resolved to send a strong fleet into the 
Mediterranean : it was near the end of June before they 



aea. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 15 

were ready to sail, and they had orders to come out of the i^f>3. 
streights, by the end of September : every thing was so ill ^^^*^ 
laid in this expedition, as if it had been intended, that nothing i„to*^the*" 
should be done by it, besides the convoying our merchant Mediterra- 
ships ; which did not require the fourth part of such a force. °*^"' 
Shovel was sent to command : when he saw his instruc- 
tions, he represented to the ministry, that nothing could be 
expected from this voyage : he was ordered to go, and be 
obeyed his orders : he got to Leghorn by the beginning of 
September. His arrival seemed to be of great consequence, 
and the allies began to take courage from it ; but they were 
soon disappointed of their hopes, when they understood, 
that by his orders he could only stay a few days there : nor 
was it easy to imagine, what the design of so great an ex- 
pedition could be, or why so much money was thrown away 
on such a project, which made us despised by our enemies, 
while it provoked our friends ; who might justly think, they 
could not depend upon such an ally, who managed so great 
a force with so poor a conduct, as neither to hurt their ene- 
mies, nor protect their friends by it. 

A squadron was sent to the West Indies, conunanded by A.iotiier to 
Graydon; a man brutal in his way, and not well affected to I'l'iji^g*^*"* 
the present state of affairs : the design was, to gather all the 
forces that we had scattered up and down the plantations, 
and with that strength to go and take Placentia, and so to 
drive the French out of the New foundland trade : but the 
secret of this was so ill kept, that it was commonly talked 
of before he sailed : the French had timely notice of it, and 
sent a greater force, to defend the place, than he could bring 
together to attack it. His orders w^ere pressing, in particu- 
lar, that he should not go out of his way, to pursue any of 
the enemy's ships, whom he might see : these he observed 
so punctually, that when he saw a squadron of four French 
men of war sailing towards Brest, that were visibly^ foul, 
and in no condition to make any resistance, he sent indeed 
one of his ships to view them, who engaged them, but Gitiy- 
don gave the signal to call him off; upon which they got 
safe into Brest. This was afterwards known to be Du 
Casse's squadron, who was bringing treasure home from 
Carthag^na, and other ports of the West Indies, reported to 
be four millions of pieces of eight : but though here was a 
good prey lost, yet so careful was the Prince's council to 



16 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1703. excuse every thing done by such a man, that they ordered 
'^ an advertisement to be put in the gazette, to justify Gray- 
don ; in which it was said, that pursuant to his orders, he 
Tiiey re- ]|^(j j^y^ en2:a2ed that fleet. The orders were indeed strangelv 

turned with- , " i • i i i ., 1,1 1 

out success, given, yet our admirals had never thought themselves so 
bound down to them, but that, upon great occasions, they 
might make stretches ; especially where the advantage was 
visible, as it was in this case : lor since they were out of 
the way of new orders, and new occasions might happen, 
wliich could not be known, when their orders were given, 
the ualuic of the service seemed to give them a greater li- 
berty, than was lit to bo allowed in the land service. When 
he came to the plantations, he acted in so savage a manner, 
as if he had been sent rather to terrify, than to protect them : 
when he had drawn the forces together, that were in the 
jjlantations, he went to attack Placentia; but he found it to 
be so well defended, that he did not think tit so much as to 
make any attempt upon it : so this expedition ended very 
ingloriously, and many complaints of Graydon's conduct 
were sent after him. 

Oiii Opois There was also a great complaint through the whole fleet 
jj ^ of their victualling : e lost many of our seamen, who, as 
was said, were poisoned by ill food : and though great com- 
plaints were made of the victuallers, before the fleet went 
out, yet there was not such care taken to look into it, as a 
matter of that consequence deserved. The merchants did 
also complain, that they were ill served with convoys, and 
so little care had been taken of the Newcastle fleet, that the 
price of coals rose very high : it was also said, that there 
w as not a due care had of our seamen, that were taken by 
the privateers; many of them died by reason of their ill 
usage, w hile others, to deliver themselves from that, went 
into the French service. Thus all our marine affairs were 
much out of order, and these disorders were charged on 
tho.se who had the conduct of them: every thing was un- 
prosperous, and that will always be laid heavily on those, 
who arc in the management of affairs : it is certain, that in 
the beginning of this reign, all those who hated the late 
King and his goverimient, or had been dismissed the service 
by him, w ere sought out, and invited into employments : so 
it was not to be expected, that they could bo faithful or cor- 
dial in Iho war against France. 



werr 
lictualU'd 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 17 

The affairs of Scotland come next to be related : a new i^o^. 
parliament was called, and many were chosen to serve in rpj^^ ^J^^ 
it, who were believed to be in secret engagements with the of Scotland, 
court at St. Germains : the lords who had hitherto kept out 
of parliament, and were known to be Jacobites, came and 
qualified themselves, by taking the oaths, to vote in parlia- 
ment : it was set up for a maxim, by the new ministiy, that 
all the Jacobites were to be invited home ; so a proclama- 
tion was issued out, of a very great extent, indemnifying all 
persons, for all treasons committed before April last ; vnXh- 
out any limitation of time for their coming home, to accept 
of this grace, and without demanding any security of them 
for the future. The Duke of Queensberry was sent down 
the Queen's commissioner to the parliament : this inflamed 
all those who had formerly opposed him : they resolved to 
oppose him still in every thing, and the greater part of the 
Jacobites joined with them, but some of them were bought 
off, as was said, by him : he, seeing so strong an opposition 
formed against him, studied to engage the presbyterian 
party to stick to him; and even the party that united 
against him, were so apprehensive of the strength of that 
interest, that they likewise studied to court them, and were 
very careful not to give them any umbrage. By this, all 
the hopes of the episcopal party were lost ; and every thing 
relating to the church did not only continue in the same 
state in which it was during the former reign, but the pres- T'csbvicrj 
byterians got a new law in their favour, which gave them finned. 
as firm a settlement, and as full a security, as law could 
give ; for an act passed, not only confirming the claim of 
rights, upon which the crown had been offered to the late 
King, one of its articles being against prelacy, and for a 
parity in the church, but it was declared high treason to en- 
deavour any alteration of it. It had been often proposed 
to the late King, to pass this into an act, but he would never 
consent to it : he said, he had taken the crown on the terms 
in that claim, and that therefore he would never make a 
breach on any part of it ; but he would not bind his suc- 
cessors, by making it a perpetual law. Thus a ministry, 
that carried all matters relating to the church to so great a 
height, yet, with other views, gave a fatal stroke to the epis- 
copal interest in Scotland, to which the late King would 
never give way. The great debates in this session were 

VOL. IV. D 




HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
concerning the succession of the cioami, in case the Queen 
should die without issue. They resolved to give the pre- 
ference to that debate, before they would consider the sup- 
plies : it was soon resolved, that the successor to the crowu 
after the Queen, should not be the same person that was 
King or Queen of England, unless the just rights of the na- 
tion should be declared in parliament, and fully settled in 
an iudependance upon English interests and councils. After 
this, they went to name particulars, which by some were 
carried so far, that those expedients were indeed the setting 
up a commonwealth, with the empty name of a king : for 
it was proposed, that the whole administration should be 
committed to a council, named by parliament, and that the 
legislature sjiould be entirely in the parliament, by which no 
shadow of power was left with the crown, and it was merely 
a nominal thino : but the further entering upon expedients 
was laid aside for that time, only one act passed, that went 
a gjeat way towards them : it was declared, that no suc- 
ceeding king should have the power to engage the nation 
in a war, without consent of parliament. Another act of a 
strange nature passed, allowing the importation of French 
goods, which, as was pretended, were to be imported in the 
ships of a neutral state. The truth was, the revenue was 
so exhausted, that they had not enough to support the go- 
vernment without such help : those who desired to drink 
good wine, and all who were concerned in trade, ran into 
it; so it was carried, though with great opposition : the Ja- 
cobites also went into it, since it opened a free conespond- 
ence with France : it was certainly against the public inte- 
rest of the government, in opposition to which private in- 
terest will often prevail. The court of St. Germains, per- 
ceiving such a disjointing in Scotland, and so great an op- 
position made in parliament, was from thence encouraged 
to set all their emissaries in that kingdom at work, to engage 
both the chief of the nobility, and the several tribes in the 
highlands, to be ready to appear for them. One Frazier 
had gone tlirough the highlands the former year, and from 
tlience he went to France, where he pretended he had au- 
thority from the highlandcrs, to undertake to bring together 
a body of twelve thousand men, if they might be assisted 
by some force, together with officers, arms, ammunition, 
and money from France. After he had delivered this mes- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 19 

sage to the Queen at St. Germains, she recommended him i''0"- 
to the French ministers : so he had some audiences of them. ^"'^•'^ 
He proposed that five thousand men should be sent from Practices 
Dunkirk, to land near Dundee, with anns for twenty thou- p°™ge^ 
sand men ; and that five hundred should be sent from Brest 
to seize on Fort William, which commanded the great pass 
in the highlands. The French hearkened to all this, but 
would not venture much upon slight grounds, so they sent 
him back with some others, in whom they confided more, 
to see how much they might depend on, and what the 
strength of the highlanders was : they were also ordered, to 
try whether any of the great nobility of that kingdom would 
engage in the design. 

When these came over, Fr^zier got himself secretly in- A discovery 
troduced to the Duke of Queensberry, to whom he disco- "hese." 
vered all that had been already transacted : and he under- 
took to discover the whole correspondence between St. 
Germains and the Jacobites. He also named many of the 
lords who opposed him most in parliament, and said, 
they were already deeply engaged. The Duke of Queens- 
berry hearkened very willingly to all this, and he gave him 
a pass to go through the highlands again, where he found 
some were still very forward, but others were more re- 
served. At his return, he resolved to go back to France, 
and promised to make a more entire discoveiy. He put 
one letter in the Duke of QueensbeiTy's hands, from the 
Queen at St. Germains, directed on the back (but by ano- 
ther hand) to the Marquis of Athol : the letter was writ in 
such general terms, that it might have been directed to any 
of the great nobility : and probably he who was trusted 
with it, had power given him to direct it to any, to whom 
he found it would be most acceptable : for there was no- 
thing in the letter that was particular to any one person or 
family ; it only mentioned the promises and assurances 
sent to her by that lord. This Frazier had been accused 
of a rape, committed on a sister of the Lord Athol, for 
which he was convicted and outlawed : so it might be sup- 
posed, that he, to be revenged of the Lord Athol, who had 
prosecuted him for that crime, might put his name on the 
back of that letter. It is certain, that the others who Avere 
more trusted, and were sent over with him, avoided his 
company, so that he was not made acquainted with that 



20 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1703. proceeding. Frazier came up to London in winter, and 
^^''^ had some meetings with the practising Jacobites about the 
town, to whom he discovered his negotiation. He con- 
tinued still to persuade the Duke of Qiieensberry of his 
fidelity to him : his name was not told the Queen, for when 
tlie Duke of Qucensberry wrote to her an account of the 
discovery, he added, that unless she commanded it, he had 
promised not to name the person, for he was to go back to 
St. Germains to complete the discovery. The Queen did 
not ask his name ; but had more regard to what he said, 
because in the main it agreed with the intelligence that her 
ministers had from their spies at Paris. The Duke of 
QueensbeiTy procured a pass for him to go to Holland, but 
by another name : for he opened no part of this matter to 
the Earl of Nottingham, who gave the pass. The Jacobites 
in London suspected Frazier's correspondence with the 
Duke of Queensberry, and gave advertisement to the Lord 
Athol, and by this means the whole matter broke out, as 
shall be told afterwards. What influence soever this, or 
any other practice, might have in Scotland, it is certain the 
opposition in parliament grew still greater ; and since the 
Duke of Queensberry would not sufi'er them to proceed in 
those strange limitations upon the crown, that had been 
proposed, though the Queen ordered him to pass the other 
bills, they w ould give no supply ; so that the pay of the 
army, with the charge of the government, was to run upon 
credit, and by this means matters'there were like to come 
to extremities. A national humour of rendering themselves 
a free and independent kingdom did so inflame them, that 
as they had a majority of seventy in parliament, they 
seemed capable of the most extravagant things that could 
be suggested to them. The greatest part of the ministry 
forsook the Duke of Queensberry in parliament ; both the 
Earl of Seafield, lord chancellor, the Marquis of Athol, 
the lord privy seal, and Lord Tarbct, the secretary of state, 
with all that depended on them, broke oft' from him : yet, 
upon the conclusion of the session, Athol was made a 
duke, and Tarbet was made Earl of Cromarty, ^^ hich look- 
ed like rewarding them for their opposition. Soon after 
that, the Queen resolved to revive the order of the thistle, 
that had been raised by her father, but was let fall by the 
late King : it was to be carried hi a green ribbon, as the 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 21 

GtOTge is in a blue, and the glory was in the fonn of a St. i^os. 

Andrew's cross, with a thistle in the middle. Argyle, Athol, ^^'^^ 

Annandale, Orkney, and Seafield, were the first that had it, 

the number being limited to twelve. And to such a height 

did the disorders in that kingdom rise, that great skill and 

much secret practice seemed necessary to set matters right 

there. The aversion and jealousy towards those who had Reflections 

•^ •' on iiie con- 

been most active in the last reign, and the favour shewed dnst of af- 

to those who were in King James's interests, had an ap- '^""^ ^^"^' 
pearance of bringing matters out of an excess, to a temper: 
and it was much magnified by those who intended to flatter 
the Queen, on design to ruin her : though the same mea- 
sures were taken in England, yet there was less danger in 
following them here than there. Errors might be sooner 
observed, and easier corrected, where persons are in view, 
and are watched in all their motions ; but this might prove 
fatal at a greater distance, where it was more easy to deny 
or palliate thiugs with great assurance. The Duke of 
QueensbeiTy's engrossing all thiugs to himself, increased 
the disgust at the credit he was in. He had begun a prac- 
tice of drawing out the sessions of parliament to an imu- 
sual length ; by which his appointments exhausted so much 
of the revenue, that the rest of the ministers were not paid, 
and that will always create discontent. He trusted entirely 
to a few persons, and his conduct was liable to just ex- 
ceptions. Some of those who had the greatest credit with 
him, were believed to be engaged in a foreign interest, and 
his passing, or rather promoting the act, that opened a cor- 
respondence with France, was considered as a design to 
settle a commerce there : and upon that, his fidelity or his 
capacity were much questioned. 

There were still high discontents in Ireland, occasioned The affairs 
by the behaviour of the trustees there. The Duke of Or- ° '^^ ^ 
mond was the better received, when he went to that govern- 
ment, because he came after the Earl of Rochester ; till it 
appeared, that he was in all things governed by him ; and 
that he pursued the measures which he had begun to take, of 
raising new divisions in that kingdom : for, before that time, 
the only division in Ireland was, that of English and Irish, 
protestanfs and papists : but of late an animosity came to 
be raised there, like that we labour under in England, 
between whig and tory. The wiser sort of the English 



22 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1703. resolved to oppose this all they could, and to proceed with 
^"■^^^ temper and moderation. The parliament there was opened 
with speeches and addresses, that carried the compliments 
to the Duke of Ormond so far, as if no other person besides 
himself could have given them that settlement, which they 
expected from his government. The tiustees had raised a 
scandal upon that nation, as if they designed to set up an 
independancG upon England ; so they began the sessions 
with a vote, disclaiming that as false and injurious. They 
expressed, on all occasions, their hatred of the trustees and 
of their proceedings, yet they would not presume to meddle 
with any thing they had done, pursuant to the act that had 
passed in England, which vested the trust in them. They 
offered the necessary supplies, but took exceptions to the 
accounts that were laid before them, and observed some 
errors in them. This begat an uneasiness in the Duke of 
Ormond ; for though he w^as generous, and abovB all sordid 
practices, yej:, being a man of pleasure, he was much in 
the power of those who acted under him, and whose in- 
tegrity was not so clear. One great design of the wiser 
among them was, to break the power of popery, and the 
interest that the heads of the Irish families had among them. 
An art pass- rpjj euactcd the succession of the cro^v^l, to follow the 

ed tliere •' ' 

against po- pattern set them by England in every particular. They 
P®*^^" also passed an act concerning papists, somewhat like that 

which had passed in England three years before ; but with 
some more eflfectual clauses, for the want of which we have 
not yet had any fruit from our act. The main dift'erenee 
was that which made it look less invidious, and yet was 
more effectual, for breaking the dependance on the heads of 
families ; for it was provided, that all estates should be 
equally divided among the children of papists, notwith- 
standing any settlements to the contrary, unless the per- 
sons, on whom they were settled, qualified themselves by 
taking the oaths, and coming to the communion of the 
church. This seemed to carry no hardship to the family in 
general, and yet gave hopes of weakening that interest so 
considerably, that the bill was oftered to the Duke of Or- 
mond, pressing him, mth more than usual vehemence, to 
intcrcftde so effectually, that it might be returned back un- 
der the great seal of England. They understood that the 
papists of Ireland had raised a considerable sum, to be 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 
sent over to England, to support their practices, in order to 
the stopping this bill. It came over, warmly recommended 
by the Duke of Ormond ; but it was as warmly opposed by 
those who had a mind to have a share in the presents, that 
were ready to be made. The pretence for opposing it was,^ 
that while the Queen was so deeply engaged with the Em- 
peror, and was interceding for favour to the protestants in 
his dominions ; it seemed not seasonable, and was scarce 
decent, to pass so severe a law against those of his reli- 
gion. Tliough this had the less strength, since it was very 
evident that all the Irish papists were in the French inte- 
rest, so there was no reason to apprehend that the Emperor 
could be much concerned for them. Ihe parliament of 
England was sitting when this bill came over, and men's 
eyes were much set on the issue of it. So that the ministers 
judged it was not safe to deny it ; but a clause was added, 
which they hoped would hinder its being accepted in Ire- 
land. That matter was carried on so secretly, that it was 
known to none but those who were at the council, till the 
news of it came from Ireland, upon its being sent thither. 
The clause was to this purport, that none in Ireland should 
be capable of any employment, or of being in the magistra- 
cy in any city, who did not qualify themselves by recei\ang 
the sacrament, according to the test act passed in England ; 
which before this time had n^ver been ollered to the Irish na- 
tion. It was hoped, by those who got this clause to be added 
to the bill, that those in Ireland who promoted it most, would 
now be the less fond of it, when it had such a weight hung 
to it : the greatest part of Ulster was possessed by the 
Scotch, who adhered stiffly to their first education in Scot- 
land : and they were so united in that way, that it was be- 
lieved they could not find such a number of men, who 
would qualify themselves, as was necessary by this clause, 
to maintain the order and justice of the coimtry. Yet upon 
this occasion the Irish parliament proceeded with great 
caution and wisdom : they reckoned that this act, so far as 
it related to papists, would have a certain and great effect 
for their common security: and that when it was once 
passed, it would never be repealed : whereasMf great in- 
conveniences did arise upon this new clause, it would be 
an easier thing to obtain a repeal of it in a subsequent par- 
liament, either of England or Ireland. So the act was 



23 



1703. 



24 



1703. 



Jealousies 
of the iiii- 
nislrj'. 



HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
passed, and those who thought they had managed the ma:t- 
ter with a master-piece of cunning, were out\\dtted by an 
Irish parliament. However, this artifice, and some other 
things in the Duke of Ormond's conduct, put them into 
such an ill humour, that the supply bill was clogged and 
lessened by many clauses added to it. The session ended 
in so much heat, that it was thought that parliament would 
meet no more, if the Duke of Ormond was continued in the 
goveiTunent. 

Thus the parts of the government that were thought the 
most easily managed, Scotland and Ireland, had of late 
been put into so much disorder, that it might prove no easy 
work to set them again in order: the government was 
every where going, as it were, out of joint : its nerves and 
strength seemed to be much slackened: the trusting and 
employing, not only violent tories, but even known Ja- 
cobites, as it brought a weakness on the management, so it 
raised a jealousy that could not be easily cured. Stories 
were confidently vented, and by some easily believed, that 
the Queen was convinced of the wrong done her pretended 
brother, and that she was willing to put affairs in the hands 
of persons who favoured his succession : it was also ob- 
served, that our court kept too cold civilities with the house 
of Hanover, and did nothing that was tender or cordial 
looking that way : nor were any employed, who had ex- 
pressed a particular zeal for their interests. These things 
gave great jealousy : all that was said in excuse for trust- 
ing such persons was, that it was fit once to try if good 
usage could soften them, and bring them entirely into the 
Queen's interests : and assurances were given, that if, upon 
a trial, the effect hoped for did not follow, they should be 
again dismissed. 

This was the state of our affairs when a new session of 
parliament was opened in November: the Queen in her 
speech expressed a great zeal for carrying on the war, and 
with relation to the affairs of Europe : she recommended 
union and good agieement to all her people : she said, she 
wanted words to express how earnestly she desired this. 
This was understood, as an intimation of her desire, that 
there should be no further proceedings in the bill against 
occasional conformity: addresses full of respect were made 
to the Queen, in return to her speech 5 and the Lords, in 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 25 

theirs, promised to avoid every thing that should occasion *703. 
disunion or contention : but nothing could lay the heat of a ^''^■'^ 
party, which was wrought on by some, who had designs 
that were to be denied or disguised, till a proper time for 
o\vmng them should appear. A motion was made in the 
House of Commons, for bringing in the bill against oc- 
casional conformity : great opposition was made to it ; the A biu 
court was against it, but it was carried by a great majority, 'f^nai"*^* 
that such a bill should be brought in. So a new draught wnfonnity 
was formed : in it the preamble that was in the former bill 
was left out. The number besides the family, that made a 
conventicle, was enlarged from five to twelve : and the fine 
set on those, who went to conventicles, after they had 
received the sacrament, besides the loss of their employ- 
ment, was brought down to 50/. : these were artifices, by 
which it was hoped, upon such softenings, once to carry 
the bill on any terms : and when that point was gain- 
ed, it would be easy afterwards to carry other bills of 
greater severity. There was now such a division upon 
this matter, that it was fairly debated in the House of Com- 
mons : whereas before, it went there with such a torrent, 
that no opposition to it could be hearkened to. Those who 
opposed the bill went chiefiy upon this ground, that this 
bill put tlie dissenters in a worse condition than they were 
before : so it was a breach made upon the toleration, which 
ought not to be done, since they had not deserved it by any 
ill behaviour of theirs, by which it could be pretended that 
they had forfeited any of the benefits designed by that act: 
things of tliis kind could have no effect, but to embroil us 
with new distractions, and to disgust persons well aftected 
to the Queen and her government : it was necessary to 
continue the happy quiet that we were now in, especially 
in tliis time of war, in which even tlic severest of perse- 
cutors made tlieir stops, for fear of irritating ill humours 
too much. The old topics of hypocrisy, and of tlie danger 
the church was in, were brought up again on behalf of the 
bill, and the bill passed in the House of Commons by Passed bj^ 
a great majority : and so it was sent up to the Lords, ^'^y^*"^" 
where it occasioned one debate oi many hours, whether 
tlie bill should be entertained and read a second time, or be 
tlirown out : the Prince appeared no more for it, nor did he 
come to the House upon this occasion : some who had voted 

VOL. IV. E 




HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

for it in the former session kept out of the House, and 

others owned they saw farther into the design of the bill. 

Bill reject- and SO voted against it. Upon a division it was carried, by 

LoiL. "^ ^ majority of twelve, not to give it a second reading, but to 

reject it. 

The bishops were almost equally divided : there were 
two more against it, than for it: among these, I had the 
largest share of censure on me, because 1 spoke much 
against the bill : I knew how the act of test was carried, as 
has been already shewn in its proper place : I related that 
in the House, and the many practices of the papists, of 
setting us of the church against the dissenters, and the dis- 
senters against us by turns, as it might serve their ends : I 
ventured to say, that a man might lawfully communicate 
with a church, that he thought had a worship and a doctrine 
uncorrupted, and yet communicate more frequently with a 
church, that he thought more perfect : I myself had com- 
municated with the churches of Geneva and Holland, and 
yet at the same time communicated with the church of 
England : so, though the dissenters were in a mistake, as to 
their opinion, which was the more perfect church, yet, al- 
lowing them a toleration in that error, this practice might 
be justified. I was desired to print what I said upon that 
occasion, which drew many virulent pamphlets upon me, 
but I answered none of them : I saw the Jacobites designed 
to raise such a flame among us, as might make it scarce 
possible to carry on the war ; those who went not so deep, 
yet designed to make a breach on the toleration by gaining 
this point: and I was resolved never to be silent, when 
that should be brought into debate : for I have long looked 
on liberty of conscience as one of the rights of human na- 
ture, antecedent to society, which no man could give up, 
because it was not in his own power : and our Saviour's 
rule, of doing as we would be done by, seemed to be a very 
express decision to all men, who would lay the matter 
home to their own conscience, and judge as they would 
willingly be judged by others. 
The clergy Thc clcrgy ovcr England, who were generally inflamed 
mour. '" ^vit^ this matter, could hardly forgive thc Queen and the 
Prince, the coldness that they expressed on this occasion : 
thc Lord Godolphin did so positively declare that he 
thought thc bill unseasonable, and tliat lie had done all he 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 27 

€Ould to hinder its being brought in, that though he voted to i703. 
give the bill a second reading, that did not reconcile the party '^'^^^ 
to him: they set up the Earl of Rochester as the only man 
to be depended on, who deserved to be the chief minister. 

The House of Commons gave all tlie supplies that were The Com- 
necessary for carrying on the war : some tried to tack the ^° ",* J^^^ 
bill against occasional conformity to the bill of supply, cessarjsui)- 
but they had not strength to carry it. The Commons i''""^- 
shewed a very unusual neglect of all that related to the 
fleet, which was wont to be one of their chief cares : it was 
surmised, that they saw, that if they opened that door, dis- 
coveries would be made of errors that could neither be jus- 
tified nor palliated, and that these must come home chiefly 
to their greatest favourites ; so they avoided all examina- 
tions, that would probably draw some censure on them. 

The Lords were not so tender : they found great fault inquiries 
with the counsels, chiefly \vith the sending Shovel to the II|I°t'of i,""" 
Mediterranean, and Graydon to the West Indies : and laid neet. 
all the discoveries that were made to them, with their own 
observations on them, before the Queen, in addresses that 
were very plain, though full of all due respect. They went 
on likewise in their examinations of the outcry made of 
the waste of the public treasure in the last reign : they ex- 
amined the Earl of Orford's accounts, which amounted to 
17,000,000/., and upon which some observations had been 
made by the commissioners for examining the public ac- 
counts ; they found them all to be false in fact, or ill- 
grounded, and of no importance. 

The only particular that seemed to give a just colour to The Eari of 
exception, was very strictly examined: he had victualled ^,',[)^[f *„*'" 
the fleet while they lay all winter at Cadiz : the purser's re- tified. 
ceipts for the quantity that was laid into every ship, were 
produced, but they had no receipts of the Spaniards, from 
whom they had bought the provisions ; but they had enter- 
ed the prices of them in their own books, and these were 
given in upon oath. This matter had been much canvass- 
ed in the late King's time, and it stood thus : Russel, now 
Earl of Orford, when he had been ordered to lie at Cadiz, 
wrote to the board of victualling, to send one over to pro- 
vide the fleet ; they answered, that their credit was then so 
low, that they could not undertake it: so he was desired to 
do it upon his own credit. It appeared, that no fleet nor 



20 HISTORY OF THE REION 

1703. single ship had ever l>een victualled so cheap, as the fleet 
^^""^ was then by him : it was not the custom in Spain to give 
receipts ; but if any fraud had been intended, it would have 
been easy to have got the Spaniards, after they had their 
money, to have signed any receipts that could have been 
offered them for swelling up the accounts ; for the prac- 
tices of swelling accounts, in their dealings with their o>vn 
court, were well known there. Upon these reasons, the 
Lords of the Treasury had passed his accounts, and were 
of opinion that he had done a great service to the govern- 
ment, in that whole transaction. The House of Lords did 
now confirm this, and ordered an account of that whole 
matter to be printed. 

The Commons made no progress in any discoveries of ill 
practices in the Earl of Ranelagh's office, but concluded 
that matter with an address to the Queen, that she would 
order a prosecution. This was an artifice to make the na- 
tion still think, that great discoveries of corruption might 
be made, if carefully looked after. It was expected, after 
such an outcry as they had made, and after the expense the 
nation was put to, for this commission, and the extraordi- 
nary powers that were lodged with the commissioners, that 
at least some important discoveries should have been made 
by them. 
A bill for The Commons sent up a bill to the Lords, for continuing 
(he m'l'bHc thc commissiou anotlier year : it was observed that an al~ 
accmmts tcration was made of the persons; some, who expected 
tb« iwiT^" better places, got their names to be left out. The Lords 
houses. excepted to one Bierly, who was named to be one of the 
commissioners, because he had been made a colonel, and 
had not yet cleared the accounts of his own regiment : so 
they struck out his name, and named another ; and they 
added two more, who were not members of the House of 
Commons. The reason of this was, because the members 
of that House would not appear before them, to explain 
some particulars; they only sent their clerk to inform 
them, and when the Lords sent a message to the House of 
Commons, to desire them to order their members to attend 
on tlicir committe*?, all the return they had was, that they 
would send an answer by messengers of their own; but this 
was illusory, for they sent no such message. So the Lords 
Ihought it necessary, in order to their being better informed. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 29 

to put some in commission for the future, who shoukl be i703. 
bound to attend upon them, as oft as they should be called ^"^-'^ 
for. The Commons rejected these amendments, and pre- 
tended that this was of the nature of a money bill, and 
that therefore the Lords could make no alterations in 
it. The message that the Commons sent the Lords upon 
this head, came so near the end of the session, that the 
Lords could not return an answer to it, with the reasons 
for which they insisted on their amendments ; so that bill 
fell. 

The charge of this commission amounted to 8000/. a 
year: the commissioners made such noise, and brought 
many persons before them to be examined, and gave great 
disturbance to all the public ofl&ccs, what by their attend- 
ance on them, what by copying out all their books for their 
perusal ; and yet, in a course of many years, they had not 
made any one discovery : so a full stop was put to this way 
of proceeding. 

An incident happened during this session, which may 1704. 
have great consequences, though in itself it might seem in- ^onccrdng 
considerable. There have been great complaints long injustice in 
made, and these have increased much within these few ^'f^i^embeTT 
years, of great partiality and injustice in the elections of ofpariia- 
parliamcnt men, both by sherilVs in counties, and by the "*'^^" 
returning officers in boroughs. In Aylesbury, the return 
was made by four constables, and it was believed, that they 
made a bargain with some of the candidates, and tlien ma- 
naged the matter, so as to be sure that the majority should 
be for the person to whom they had engaged themselves ; 
they canvassed about the town to knovy how the voters 
were set, and they resolved to find some pretence lor dis- 
abling those who were engaged to vote for other persons 
than their friends, that they might be sure to have the ma- 
jority in their own hands ; and when this matter came to be 
examined by the House of Commons, they gave Uie elec- 
tion always for him who was reckoned of the party of the 
majority, in a manner so barefaced, that they were scarce 
out of countenance when they were charged for injustices 
in judging elections. It was not easy to find a remedy to 
such a crying abuse, of which all sides in their turns, as 
they happened to be depressed, had made great complaints ; 
but when they came to be the majority, seemed to have 



30 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1704. lorgot all that they had I'ormerly cried out on. Some lew 
excused this on the topic of retaliation; they said they 
dealt with others as they had dealt with them or their 
friends. At last an action was brought against the con- 
stables of Aylesbury, at the suit of one who had been 
always admitted to vote in former elections, but was denied 
it in the last election. This was tried at the assizes, and it 
was found there by the jury, that the constables had denied 
him a right, of which he was undoubtedly in possession ; so 
they were to be cast in damages : but it was moved in the 
Queen's Bench to quash all the proceedings in that matter, 
since no action did lie, or had ever been brought upon that 
account. Powel, Gould, and Powis were of opinion, that 
no hurt was done the man : that the judging of elections 
belonged to the House of Commons : that as this action 
was tlie first of its kind, so, if it was allowed, it would bring 
on an infinity of suits, and put all the officers concerned 
in that matter upon great difficulties. Lord Chief Justice 
Holt, though alone, yet differed from the rest; he thought 
this was a matter of the greatest importance, both to the 
whole nation in general, and to every man in his own par- 
ticular ; he made a great dift'erence between an election of 
a member, and a right to vote in such an election ; the 
House of Commons were the only judges of the former, 
whether it was rightly managed or not, without bribery, 
fraud, or violence ; but the right of voting in an election 
was an original right, founded either on a freehold of 40*. a 
year in the county, or on burgageland, or upon a prescrip- 
tion, or by charter in a borough : these were all legal titles, 
and as such were triable in a court of law. Acts of parlia- 
ment were made concerning them, and by reason of these, 
every thing relating to those acts, was triable in a court of 
law : he spoke long and learnedly, and with some vehe- 
mence upon the subject ; but he was one against three, so 
the order of the court went in favour of the constables : 
the matter was upon that brought before tlie House of 
Lords, by a w rit of error ; the case was very fully argued 
at the bar, and the judges were ordered to deliver their opi- 
nions upon it, which they did very copiously. 

Chief Justice Trevor insisted much on the authority that 
the House of Commons had, to judge of all those elec- 
tions ; from that he inferred, thuttliey only could judge who 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 31 

were the electors : petitions were often grounded on this, 1^04, 
that in the poll some were admitted to a vote, who had no 
right to it, and that others were denied it who had a right ; 
so that in some cases they were the proper judges of this 
right ; and if they had it in some cases, they must have it 
in all : from this he inferred, that every thing relating to 
this matter was triable by them, and by them only ; if two 
independent jurisdictions might have the same case brought 
before them, they might give contrary judgments in it ; and 
this must breed great distraction in the execution of those 
judgments. 

To all this it was answered, that a single man, who was 
wronged in this matter, had no other remedy but by bring- 
ing it into a court of law; for the House of Commons 
could not examine the right of every voter ; if the man, 
for whom he would have voted, was returned, he could not 
be heard to complain to the House of Commons, though in 
his own particular he was denied a vote, since he could not 
make any exceptions to the return ; so he must bear his 
wrong, without a remedy, if he could not bring it into a 
court of law. A right of voting in an election was the 
greatest of all the rights of an Englishman, since by that 
he was represented in parliament; the House of Commons 
could give no relief to a man wronged in this, nor any da- 
mages ; they could only set aside one, and admit of another 
return; but this was no redress to him that suffered the 
wrong : it made him to be the less considered in his Ijo- 
rough, and that might be a real damage to him in his trade : 
since this was a right inherent in a man, it seemed reason- 
able that it should be brought, where all other rights were 
tried, into a court of law ; the abuse was new, and was 
daily growing, and it was already swelled to a great 
height; when new disorders happen, new actions must 
lie, otherwise there is a failure in justice, which all laws 
abhor ; practices of this sort were enormous and crying ; 
and if the judgment in the Queen's Bench was affirmed, it 
would very much increase these disorders by this indem- 
nity, that seemed to be sriven to the officers who took the 
poll. 

After a long debate, it was carried by a great majority riie Lords 
to set aside the order in the Queen's Bench, and to give i^g'^^1„\','t^o, 
judgment according to the verdict given at the assizes, electing was 



1701. 

triable at 
law. 



3^ HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

This gave great otFencc to the House of Commons, who 
passed very high votes upon it against the man of Ayles- 
bury, as guilty of a breach of their privileges, ajid against 
all others who should for the future bring any such suits 
into courts of law ; and likewise against all counsel, attor- 
neys, and others, who should assist in any such suits ; and 
they affirmed, that the whole matter relating to elections be- 
longed only to them : yet they did not think fit to send for 
the man who had sued, or rather in whose name the suit 
was carried on : so they let the matter as to him fall, under 
a shew of moderation and pity, and let it rest upon those 
general votes. The Lords on their part ordered the whole 
state of the case to be drawn up and printed, which was 
done with much learning and judgment ; they also asserted 
the right that all the people of England had to seek for 
justice in courts of law upon all such occasions ; and that 
the House of Commons, by their votes, struck at the liber- 
ties of the people, at the law of England, and at the judi- 
cature of the House of Lords ; and they ordered the lord 
keeper to send a copy of the case, and of their votes, to all 
the sheriffs of England, to be communicated to all the bo- 
roughs in their counties. The House of Commons was 
much provoked with this, but they could not hinder it ; the 
thing was popular, and the Lords got great credit by the 
judgment they gave, which let the people of England sec 
how they might be redressed for the future, if tliey should 
meet with the injustice, partiality, and other ill practices, 
that had appeared of late in elections, even beyond the ex- 
amples of former times. This may prove a restraint on the 
officers, now that they see they are liable to be sued, and 
that a vote of the House of Commons cannot cover them. 

During the session, and on her own birth-day, which 
was the 6th of Feljruary, the Queen sent a message to the 
House of Commons, signifying her purpose to apply that 
branch of the revenue that was raised out of the first fruits 
poor iiirgy. and tenths, paid by the clergy, to the increase of all the 
small benefices in the nation : this branch was an imposi- 
tion, begun by the popes in the time of the holy wars, and 
it was raised as a fund to support those expeditions ; but 
when taxes arc once raised by such an arbitrary power 
as the popes then assumed, and alter tiierc has been a sub- 
mission, anil tho payments have been .settled into a rustoui 



'j'lie Queen 
gave ihe 
tttitJis aiirl 
<ir»l-tiuits 
for tlic Ix- 
Jiofit of llie 



^^,-w 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 33 

they are always continued, even after the pretence, upon i704. 
which they were at first raised, subsists no more : so this 
became a standing branch of the papal revenue, till Henry 
the Eighth seemed resolved to take it away. It was first 
abolished for a year, probably to draw in the clergy to con- 
sent the more willingly to a change that delivered them 
from such heavy impositions ; but, in the succeeding ses- 
sion of parliament, this revenue was again settled as part 
of the income of the crown for ever. It is true, it was the 
more easily borne, because the rates w ere still at the old 
value, which, in some places, was not the tenth, and in most 
not above the fifth part of the true value : and the clergy 
had been often threatened with a new valuation, in which 
the rates should be rigorously set to their full extent. 

The tenths amounted to about 11,000/. a- year, and the 
first-fruits, which were more casual, rose, one year with 
another, to 5000/. so the whole amounted to between 
16,000/. and 17,000/. a-year : this was not brought into the 
Treasury as the other branches of the revenue ; bat the 
bishops, who had been the Pope's collectors, were now the 
King's, so persons in favour obtained assignations on them 
for life or for a term of years : this had never been applied 
to any good use, but was still obtained by favourites for 
themselves and their friends : and, in King Charles the Se- 
cond's time, it went chiefly among his women and his na- 
tural children. It seemed strange, that while the clergy 
had much credit at court, they had never represented this 
as sacrilege, unless it was applied to some religious pur- 
pose, and that during Archbishop Laud's favour with King 
Charles the First, or at the restoration of King Charles the 
Second, no endeavours had been used to appropriate this 
to better uses. Sacrilege was charged on other things on 
very slight grounds ; but this, which was more visible, was 
always forgot. 

When 1 wrote the History of the Reformation, I consi- 
dered this matter so particularly, that I saw here was a 
proper fund for providing better subsistence to the poor 
clergy ; we having among us some hundreds of cures, that 
have not of certain provision 20/, a-year, and some thou- 
sands that have not 50/. Where the encouragement is so 
small, what can it be expected clergymen should be ? It 
is a crying scandal, that, at the restoration of King Charles 

VOL. IV. P 



V-vW 



34 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1704. the Second, the bishops and other dignitaries, who raised 
much above a million in fines, yet did so little this way. I 
had possessed the late Queen with this, so that she was 
fully resolved, if ever she had lived to see peace and set- 
tlement, to have cleared this branch of the revenue of all 
the assignations that were upon it, and to have applied it 
to the augmentation of small benefices. This is plainly 
insinuated in the essay that I wrote on her memory some 
time after her death. I laid the matter before the late 
King, when there was a prospect of peace, as a proper ex- 
pression both of his thankfulness to Almighty God, and of 
his care of the church ; I hoped that this might have gain- 
ed the hearts of the clergy : it might at least have put a 
stop to a groundless clamour raised against him, that he 
was an enemy to the clergy, which began then to have a 
very ill effect on all his afi'airs. He entertained this so 
well, that he ordered me to speak to his ministers about it ; 
they all approved it, the Lord Somers and the Lord Halli- 
fax did it in a most particular manner : but the Earl of 
Sunderland obtained an assignation upon two dioceses for 
2000^ a-year for two lives ; so nothing was to be hoped 
for after that. I laid this matter very fully before the pre- 
sent Queen, in the King's time, and had spoke often of it 
to the Lord Godolphin. 

This time was perhaps chosen to pacify the angry clergy, 
who were dissatisfied with the court, and began now to talk 
of the danger the church was in, as much as they had done 
during the former reign : this extraordinary mark of the 
Queen's piety and zeal for the church, produced many ad- 
dresses full of compliments ; but it has not yet had any 
great effect in softening the tempers of peevish men. When 
the Queen's message was brought to the House of Com- 
mons, some of the whigs, particularly Sir John Holland 
and Sir Joseph Jekyll, moved that the clergy might be en- 
tirely freed from that tax, since they bore as heavy a share 
of other taxes ; and that another fund might be raised of 
the same value, out of which small benefices might be aug- 
mented ; but this was violently opposed by Musgrave, and 
other tories, who said, the clergy ought to be kept still in a 
dependance on the crown. 

Aq act pass- Upou the Quccu's message, a bill was brought in, en- 
abling her to alienate this branch of the revenue, and to 



cd about it. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 35 

create a corporation by charter, to apply it to the use for i''"*- 
which she now gave it : they added to this a repeal of the ^^"■''^ 
statute of Mortmain, so far as that it might be free to all 
men, either by deed or by their last wills, to give what they 
thought fit towards the augmenting of benefices. It was 
suggested, how truly I cannot tell, that this addition was 
made in hope that it would be rejected by the Lords, and 
that the scandal of losing the bill might lie on them. It 
occasioned a great debate in the House of Lords : it was 
said, that this law was made and kept up even during the 
times of popery, and it seemed not reasonable to open a 
door to practices upon dying men. It was answered, that 
we had not the arts of ati'rightening men by the terrors of 
purgatory, or by fables of apparitions : where these were 
practised, it was very reasonable to restrain priests from 
those artifices by which they had so enriched their church, 
that without some such effectual checks they would have 
swallowed up the whole wealth of the world, as they had 
indeed in England, during popery, made themselves mas- 
ters of a full third part of the nation. The bishops were so 
zealous and unanimous for the bill, that it was carried and 
passed into a law. The Queen was pleased to let it be 
known, that the first motion of this matter came from me : 
such a project would have been much magnified at another 
time ; and those who had promoted it would have been 
looked on as' the truest friends of the church: but this did 
not seem to make any great impression at that time ; only 
it produced a set of addresses, from all the clergy of Eng- 
land, full of thanks and just acknowledgments. 

I come now, in the last place, to give the relation of the a plot di»- 
discoveries made of a plot which took up much of the Lords' *="^*"^* 
time, and gave occasion to many sharp reflections, that 
passed between the two houses in their addresses to the 
Queen. About the same time that the story of Frazier's 
pass and negotiations began to break out. Sir John Mac- 
clean, a papist, and the head of that tribe or clan in the 
highlands and western isles of Scotland, came over from 
France in a little boat, and landed secretly at Folkstone in 
Kent : he brought his lady with him, though she had been 
delivered of a child but eleven days before. He was taken 
and sent up to London; and it seemed, by all circum- 
stances, that he came over upon some important design : 



V^/^ 



36 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

if04. he pretended at first, that he came only to go through Eng- 
land and Scotland, and to take the benefit of the Queen's 
general pardon there : but when he was told that the par- 
don in Scotland was not a good wanant to come into Eng- 
land, and that it was high treason to come from France 
without a pass, he was not willing to expose himself to the 
severity of the law : so he was prevailed on to give an ac- 
count of all that he knew concerniMg the negotiations be- 
tween France and Scotland. Some others were, at the 
same time, taken up upon his information, and some upon 
suspicion ; among these there was one Keith, whose uncle 
was one of those who a\ as most trusted by the court of St. 
Germain s, and whom they had sent over with Frazier, to 
bring them an account of the temper the Scotch were in, 
upon which they might depend. Keith had been long at 
that court ; he had free access both to the Queen and 
Prince, and hoped they would have made him under-secre- 
tary for Scotland. For some time he denied that he knew 
any thing, but afterwards he confessed he was made ac- 
quainted with Frazier's transactions, and he undertook to 
deal with his uncle to come and discover all he knew; and 
pretended there was no other design among them, but to 
iay matters so, that the Prince of Wales should reign after 
the Queen. Ferguson offered himself to make great dis- 
coveries : he said, Frazier was employed by the Duke of 
Queensberry, to decoy some into a plot, which he had 
framed, and intended to discover as soon as he had drawn 
many into the guilt: he affirmed that there was no plot 
among the Jacobites, who were glad to see one of the race 
of the Stuarts on the throne ; and they designed, when the 
state of the war might dispose the Queen to a treaty with 
France, to get such terms given her as King Stephen emd 
King Henry the Sixth had, to reign during her life. When 
I heard this, I could not but remember what the Duke of 
Athol had said to myself, soon after the Queen's coming to 
the crown : I said, 1 hoped none in Scotland thought of the 
Prince of Wales : he answered, he knew none that thought 
of him as long as the Queen lived : I replied, that if any 
thought of him after that, 1 was sure the Queen would live 
no longer than till they thought tlieir designs for him were 
well laid : but he seemed to have no apprehensions of that. 
1 presently told the Queen this, without naming the person. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 37 

and she answered me very quick, there was no manner of i704. 
doubt of that : but though I could not but reflect often on '''^''^ 
that discourse, yet since it was said to me in confidence, I 
never spoke of it to any person, during all the inquiry, that 
was now on foot ; but I think it too material not to set it 
down here. Ferguson was a man of a particular charac- 
ter. Upon the Revolution he had a very good place given 
him, but his spirit was so turned to plotting, that within a 
few months after he turned about, and he has been ever 
since the boldest and most active man of the Jacobite party. 
He pretended he was now for high church, but many be- 
lieved him a papist. There was matter of treason sworn 
both against him and Keith, but there was only one witness 
to it. 

At the same time Lindsey was taken up ; he had been 
under-secretary, first to the Earl of Melfort, and then to the 
Earl of Midletoun : he had carried over from France the 
letters and orders that gave rise to the Earl of Dundee's 
breaking out, the year after the Revolution ; and he had been 
much trusted at St. Germains : he had a small estate in 
Scotland, and he pretended that he took the benefit of the 
Queen's pardon, and had gone to Scotland to save that ; 
and, being secured by this pardon, he thought he might 
come from Scotland to England, but he could pretend no 
colour for his coming to England ; so it was not doubted, 
but that he came hither to manage their correspondence and 
intrigues. He pretended he knew of no designs against the 
Queen and her government; and that the court of St. Ger- 
mains, and the Earl of Midletoun, in particular, had no 
design against the Queen ; but when he was shewed Fra- 
zier's commission to be a colonel, signed by the pretended 
King, and ccruntersigned Midletoun, he seemed amazed at 
it ; he did not pretend it was a forgery, but he said that 
things of that kind were never communicated to him. 

At the same time that these were taken up, others were 
taken on the coast of Sussex ; one of these, Boucher, was 
a chief officer in the Duke of Berwick's family, who was 
then going to Spain ; but it was suspected that this was a 
blind to cover his going to Scotland. The House of Lords 
apprehended, that this man was sent on great designs, and 
suspecting a remissness in the ministry, in looking after 
and examining those who came from France, they made 



Queen. 



38 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

15^04. an address to the Queen, that Boucher might be well looked 
^^''^ to : they did also order Sir John Macclean to be brought 
before them; but the Queen sent them a message, that 
Macclean's business was then in a method of examination, 
and that she did not think fit to alter that for some time : 
but as for Boucher, and those who were taken with him, 
the Earl of Nottingham told the House that they were 
brought up, and that they might do with them as they 
pleased : upon that the House sent back Macclean, and 
ordered the usher of the black rod to take the other prison- 
ers into his custody, and they named a committee of seven 
lords to examine them. At this time, the Queen came to 
the parliament, and acquainted both houses, that she had 
unquestionable proofs of a correspondence between France 
and Scotland, with which she would acquaint them, when 
the examinations were taken. 
Dispates The Commons were in an ill humour against the Lords, 

between tbe and SO they Were glad to find occasions to vent it. They 
ill addresses thouglit the Lords ought uot to have entered upon this ex- 
^ihe amination ; they complained of it as of a new and unheard-of 
thing, in an address to the Queen ; they said it was an inva- 
sion of her prerogative, which they desired her to exert. This 
was a proceeding without a precedent ; the parliamentary 
method was, when one House was offended with any thing 
done in the other, conferences were demanded, in which 
matters were freely debated ; to begin an appeal to the throne 
w as new, and might be managed by an ill-designing prince, 
so as to end in the subversion of the whole constitution ; 
and it was an amazing thing, to see a House of Commons 
affirm, in so public a manner, and so positively, that the 
Lords taking criminals into their own custody, in order to 
an examination, was without warrant or precedent ; when 
there were so many instances, fresh in every man's memo- 
ry, especially since the time of the popish plot, of prece- 
dents in both houses, that went much further ; of w hich a 
full search has been made, and a long list of them was read 
in the House of Lords. That did not a little confound 
those among them, who w ere believed to be in a secret cor- 
respondence with the House of Commons : they were forced 
to confess, that they saw the Lords had clear precedents to 
justify them in what they had done, of which tliey were in 
great doubt before. 



^^/-*^ 



OF QtEEN ANNfi. 39 

''The Lords upon this made a very long address to the ^^^04. 
Queen, in which they complained of the ill usage they had 
met with trom the House of Commons ; they used none of 
those hard words, that were in the address, made against 
them by the House of Commons, yet they justified every 
step they had taken, as founded on the law and practice of 
parliament, and no way contrary to the duty and respect 
they owed the Queen. The behaviour of the House of Com- 
mons was such, on this occasion, as if they had no mind that 
plots should be narrowly looked into ; no house of parliament, 
and indeed no court of judicature, did examine any persop, 
without taking him inio their own custody during such ex- 
amination ; and if a person's being in custody must restrain 
a house of parliament from examining him, here was a 
maxim laid down, by which bad ministers might cover 
themselves from any inquiry into their ill practices, only 
by taking the persons, who could make discoveries, into 
custody : the Lords also set forth the ill consequences that 
might follow, upon one house of parliament carrying their 
complaints of another to the throne, without taking first the 
proper method of conferences. This address was drawn 
with the utmost force, as well as beauty and decency of 
style ; and was reckoned one of the best pieces of its kind 
that were in all the records of parliament. The Queen, in 
her answer, expressed a great concern to see such a dis- 
pute between the two houses. 

Boucher, when he was examined, would confess nothing ; 
he said, he was weary of living so long out of his country, 
and that having made some attempt to obtain a pass, when 
that was denied him, he chose, rather than to live always 
abroad, to come and cast himself upon the Queen's mercy : it 
did not seem reasonable to believe this ; so the Lords made an 
address to the Queen, that he might have no hopes of par- 
don, till he was more sincere in his discoveries ; and they 
prayed that he might be prosecuted on the statute : he con- 
fessed his crime, and was condemned, but continued still 
denying that he knew any thing : few could believe this ; 
yet there being no special matter laid against him, his case 
was to be pitied : he proved, that he had saved the lives of 
many prisoners, during the war of Ireland, and that during 
the war in Flanders, he had been very careful of all Eng- 
lish prisoners : when all this was laid before the Lords, they 



40 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1704. ^id jjot think fit to carry the matter farther ; so he was re-- 
prieved, and that matter slept. 

About the end of January, the Queen sent the examina- 
tions of the prisoners to the two houses : the House of Com- 
mons heard them read, but passed no judgment upon them,, 
nor did they offer any advice to the Queen, upon this occa- 
sion ; they only sent them back to the Queen, with thanks 
for communicating them, and for her wisdom and care of 
the nation : it was thought strange, to see a business of this 
nature treated so slightly, by a body that had looked in 
former times more carefully to things of this kind ; espe- 
cially since it had appeared, in many instances, how dex- 
terous the French were in raising distractions in their ene- 
mies' countiy : it was evident, that a negotiation w as begun^r 
and had been now carried on for some time, for an army 
that was to be sent from France to Scotland : upon this,, 
which was the main of the discovery, it was very amazing 
to see, that the Commons neither offered the Queen any ad- 
vice, nor gave her a vote of credit, for any extraordinary 
expense, in which the progress of that matter might engage 
her ; a credit so given might have had a great eflfect, towards 
defeating the design, when it appeared how well the Queen 
was furnished to resist it : this coldness, in the House of 
Commons, gave great and just ground of suspicion, that 
those, who had the chief credit there, did not act heartily, 
in order to the defeating all such plots, but were willing to 
let them go on, without check or opposition. 
The Lords The Lords resolved to examine the whole matter nar- 
ordered a jowly *. the Earl of Nottingham laid before them, an ab- 

seoret exa- /» n i • j. ^i -i i i i 

miuation of stract of all the exammations the council had taken ; but 
all who were gQu^g took great exceptions to it, as drawn on design to 

suspected to . ° . • i i i i ,-,.■,. 

be iu this make it appear more inconsiderable than they believed it 
P^°'* to be : the substance of the whole was, that there went many 

messages between the courts of St. Germains and Ver- 
sailles, ^vith relation to the affairs of Scotland ; the court of 
Versailles was willing io send an army to Scotland, but 
they desired to be well assured of the assistance they might 
expect there ; in order to which, some were sent over, ac- 
cording to what Frazierhad told the Duke of Queensberry : 
some of the papers were >vrit in gibberish ; so the Lords 
moved that a reward should be offered, to any who should 
decipher tliese. When the Lords asked the Earl of Not- 



OF QUEEN ANNE 

tiugham, if every thing was laid before them, he answered, 
that there was only one particular kept from them ; because 
they were in hopes of a discovery, that was like to be of 
more consequence than all the rest : so after the delay of a 
few days, to see the issue of it, which was Keith's endea- 
vouring to persuade his uncle (who knev/ every step that 
had been made, in the whole progress of this affair) to come 
in and discover it, when they were told there was no more 
of that, the Lords ordered the committee, which had exa- 
mined Boucher, to examine into all these discoveries. 
Upon this, the Commons, who expressed a great uneasiness 
at every step the Lords made in the matter, went with a 
new address to the Queen, insisting on their former com- 
plaints against the proceedings of the Lords, as a wrest- 
ling the matter out of the Queen's hands, and the taking it 
wholly into their own ; and they prayed the Queen to re- 
sume her prerogative, thus violated by the Lords, whose 
proceedings they affirmed to be without a precedent. 

The seven lords went on with their examinations, and 
after some days they made a report to the House : Mac- 
clean's confession was the main thing : it was full and par- 
ticular ; he named the persons that sat in the council at St. 
Germains : he said, the command was offered to the Duke 
of Berwick, which he declined to accept, till trial was made 
whether Duke Hamilton would accept of it, who he thought 
was the proper person : he told likewise, what directions 
had been sent to hinder the settling the succession in Scot- 
land ; none of which particulars were in the paper that the 
Earl of Nottingham had brought to the House of his con- 
fession. It was farther observed, that all the rest, whose 
examinations amounted to little, were obliged to write their 
o\^Ti confessions, or at least to sign them : but Macclean 
had not done this ; for after he had delivered his confession 
by word of mouth to the Earl of Nottingham, that lord wrote 
it all from his report, and read it to him the next day ; upon 
which he acknowledged, it contained a full account of all 
lie had said. Macclean 's discovery to the lords v/as a 
clear series of all the counsels and messages, and it gave a 
full view of the debates and opinions in the council at St. 
Germains, all which was oiT\itted in that which was taken 
by the Earl of Nottingham, and his paper concerning it was 
both short and dark ; there was an appearance of truth in 

VOL. IV. G 




42 HISTORY OF THE REMN 

^^ all that Macclean told, and a regular progress was set 
forth in it. 

Upon these observations, those lords, who were not sa- 
tisfied with the Earl of Nottingham's paper, intended to 
have passed a censure upon it, as imperfect : it was said, 
in the debate that followed upon this motion, either Mac- 
clean was asked, who was to command the army to be sent 
into Scotland, or he was not ; if he was asked the question, 
and had answered it, then the Earl of Nottingham had not 
served the Queen or used the parliament well, since he had 
not put it in the paper ; if it was not asked, here was great 
remissness in a minister, when it was confessed, that the 
sending over an army \>4as in consultation, not to ask who 
was to command that army. Upon this occasion, Ihe Earl 
of Torrington made some reflections, that had too deep a 
venom in them : he said, the Earl of Nottingham did prove, 
that he had often read over the paper, in which he had set 
down Macclean's confession, in his hearing ; and had asked 
■him, if all he had confessed to him was not fully set down 
in that paper; to which he always answered, that every 
thing he had said was contained in it. Upon this, that Earl 
observed, that Macclean, having perhaps told his whole 
story to the Earl of Nottingham, and finding afterwards, 
that he had writ such a defective account of it, he had rea- 
son to conclude, (for he believed, had he been in his condi- 
tion, he should have concluded so himself,) that the Earl of 
Nottingham had no mind, that he should mention any thing, 
but what he had wTit down, and that he desired that the rest 
might be suppressed: he could not judge of others but by 
himself; if his life had been in danger, and if he were inter- 
rogated by a minister of state, who could do him either 
much good or much hurt, and if he had made a full discovery 
to him, but had observed that this minister, in taking his 
confession in writing, had omitted many things, he should 
have understood that, as an intimation that he was to speak 
of these things no more ; and so he believed he should have 
said it was all, though at the same time he knew it was not 
all, that he had said. It was hereupon moved, that Mac- 
clean might be sent for and interrogated, but the party was 
not strong enough to carry any thing of that kind ; and by 
a previous vote it was carried, to put no question concern- 
ing the Earl of Nottingham's paper. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 43 

The Lords were highly oftended with Ferguson's paper, ^'^^'^• 
and passed a severe vote against those lords who had re- ^^^^^ 
ceived such a scandalous paper from him, and had not 
ordered him to be prosecuted upon it, which they directed 
the Attorney-General to do. It was apparent, there was a 
train of dangerous negotiations, that passed betAveen Scot- 
land and St. Germains, though they could not penetrate 
into the bottom and depth of it : and the design of Keith's 
bringing in his uncle, was managed so remissly, that it was 
generally concluded that it was not in earnest desired it 
should succeed. During these debates, one very extra- 
ordinary thing happened : — the Earl of Nottingham did, 
upon three or four occasions, affirm, that something had 
been ordered in the cabinet council, which the Dukes of 
Somerset and Devonshire, who were likewise of that coun- 
cil, did not agree with him in. 

After all these examinations and debates, the Lords con- The Lords' 
eluded the whole matter, with voting that there had been upon ihe 
dangerous plots between some in Scotland and the court of "^^^"'^ ™*^- 
France and St. Germains ; and that the encouragement of 
this plotting came, from the not settling the succession 
to the crown of Scotland in the house of Hanover : these 
votes they laid before the Queen; and promised, that when 
this was done, they would endeavour to promote the union 
of the two kingdoms, upon just and reasonable terms. 

This being ended, they made a long and vigorous ad- ^" address 
dress, in answer to that which the Commons had made t||e,'nre^d. 
against them: they observed, how uneasy the Commons i"?^f the 
had been at the whole progress of their inquiry into this 
matter, and had taken methods to obstruct it all they 
could ; which did not shew that zeal for the Queen's safety, 
and the preservation of the nation, to which all men pre- 
tended : they annexed to their address a list of many prece- 
dents, to shew what good warrants they had for every step 
they had made : they took not the examination to them- 
selves, so as to exclude others who had the same right, and 
might have done it as well as they, if they had pleased : 
their proceedings had been regular and parliamentary, as 
well as full of zeal and duty to the Queen : they made 
severe observations on some of the proceedings in the 
House of Commons, particularly on their not ordering 
writs to be issued out for some boroughs, to proceed 



4i HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

i'«4. to new elections, when they, upon pretence ol" corruption, 
^"'^^^ had voted an election void ; wliich had been practised 
oi' late, when it was visible that the election would not fall 
on tlie person they favoured. They charged this as a 
denial of justice, and of the right that such boroughs had 
to be represented in Parliament, and as an arbitrary and il- 
legal way of proceeding : this address was penned with 
great care and much force. These addresses were dra\^m 
by the Lord Somers, and were read over, and considered 
and corrected very critically, by a few lords, among whom 
I had the honour to be called for one. This, with the 
other papers that were published by the Lords, made a 
great impression on the body of the nation: for the dif- 
ference that was betw een these, and those published by the 
House of Commons, was indeed so visible, that it did not 
admit of any comparison, and w as confessed even by those 
who were the most partial to them. 

An act for An act passed in this session, which may be of great ad- 
vantage to the nation, if well executed ; otherwise, since it 
is only enacted for one jear, it mil not be of much use : it 
empowers the justices of peace, or any three of them, to 
take up such idle persons, as have no callings nor means of 
subsistence, and to deliver them to the officers of the army, 
upon paying them the levy money, that is allowed for 
making recruits : the methods of raising these hitherto, by 
drinking and other bad practices, as they were justly 
odious, so they were now so well known, that they were no 
more of any efl'ect : so that the army could not be recruit- 
ed, but by the help of this act. And if this is well ma- 
naged, it will prove of great advantage to the nation ; since 
by this means they will be delivered from many vicious 
and idle persons, who are become a burthen to their coun- 
try : and indeed there was of late years so great an increase 
of the poor, that their maintenance was become in most 
places a very heavy load, and amounted to the full half of 
the public taxes. The party in both houses, that had been 
all along cold and backward in the war, opposed this act 
with unusual vehemence ; they pretended zeal for the pub- 
lic liberty, and the freedom of the person, to which, by 
the constitution, they said every Englishman had a right ; 
which they thought could not be given away, but by a legal 
judgment, and for some crime. They tliought this put 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 45 

a power in the hands of justices of peace, which might be ^^^04. 
stietched and abused, to serve bad ends : thus men, that 
seemed engaged to an interest that was destructive to all li- 
berty, could yet make use of that specious pretence to 
serve their purpose. The act passed, and has been conti- 
nued from year to year, with a very good effect: only 
a visible remissness appears in some justices, who are se- 
cretly influenced by men of ill designs. 

The chief objection made to it in the House of Lords An address 
was, that the justices of peace had been put in and put out, ^"""/"e^ 
in so strange a manner, ever since Wright had the great of peace. 
seal, that they did not deserve so great a power should 
l)e conmiitted to them : many gentlemen, of good estates, 
and antient families, had been of late put out of the com- 
mission, for no other visible reason, but because they had 
gone in heartily to the Revolution, and had continued zea- 
lous for the late King. This seemed done on design to 
mark them, and to lessen the interest they had in the elec- 
tions of members of parliament : and at the same time, 
men of no worth nor estate, and known to be ill-affected to 
the Queen's title, and to the protestant succession, were 
put in, to the great encouragement of ill designing men : 
all was managed by secret accusations, and characters that 
were very partially given. AYright was a zealot to the 
party, and was become very exceptionable in all respects : 
money, as was said, did every thing with him ; only in his 
court, I never heard him charged for any thing but great 
slowness, by which tlie Chancery w as become one of the 
heaviest grievances of the nation. An address was made 
to the Queen complaining of the commissions of the peace, 
in which the Lords delivered their opinion, that such as 
would not serve, or act under the late King, were not fit to 
serve her Majesty. 

With this the session of parliament was brought to a The ill tem- 
quiet conclusion, after much heat and a great deal of con- e^e^ciaii^of 
tention between the two houses : the Queen, as she thank- the ckrgv. 
ed them for the supplies, so she again recommended union 
and moderation to them. These words, which had hitherto 
carried so good a sound that all sides pretended to them, 
were now become so odious to violent men, that even in 
sermons, chiefly at Oxford, they were arraigned as import- 
ing somewhat that was unkind to the church, and that fa- 



46 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

170*. voured the dissenters : the House of Commons had, dur- 
ing this session, lost much of their reputation, not only 
with fair and impartial judges, but even with those who 
were most inclined to favour them. It is true, the body of 
the freeholders began to be uneasy under the taxes, and to 
cry out for a peace : and most of the capital gentry of 
England, who had the most to lose, seemed to be ill-turned, 
and not to apprehend the dangers we were in, if we should 
fall under the power of France, and into the hands of the 
pretended Prince of Wales ; or else they were so fatally 
blinded, as not to see that these must be the consequences 
of those measures in which they were engaged. 

The universities, Oxford especially, have been very un- 
happily successful in corrupting the principles of those 
who were sent to be bred among them : so that few of them 
escaped the taint of it, and the generality of the clergy 
were not only ill-principled, but ill-tempered ; they ex- 
claimed against all moderation as endangering the church, 
though it is visible that the church is in no sort of danger, 
from either the numbers or the interest that the dissenters 
have among us, w hich by reason of the toleration is now so 
quieted, that nothing can keep up any heat in those mat- 
ters, but the folly and bad humour that the clergy are 
possessed with, and which they infuse into all those with 
^vhom they have credit : l)ut at the same time, though the 
great and visible danger that hangs over us is from popery, 
w hich a miscarriage in the present war must let in upon us, 
with an inundation not to be either resisted or recovered, 
they seem to be blind on that side, and to apprehend and fear 
nothing from that quarter. 

The convocation did little this winter; they continued 
tlieir former ill practices, but little opposition was made to 
them, as very little regard w as had to them : they drew up 
a representation of some abuses in the ecclesiastical dis- 
cipline, and in the consistorial courts; but took care to 
mention none of those greater ones, of which many among 
themselves were eminently guilty ; such as pluralities, non- 
residence, the neglect of their cures, and the irregularities 
in the lives Oi' the clergy, which were too visible. 
Tilt Duke of Soon after the session was ended, the Duke of Marlbo- 
Totlh"yent ^Q^^S^ wcut ovcr to Holland. He had gone over for some 
toHoii..nd weeks, at the desire of the states, in January, and then 

iiiAviuter. ^ ^ v -> 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 47 

there was a scheme fohned for the operations of the next ^~^ 
campaign. It was resolved that, instead of a fruitless one ^^'^'^ 
in the Netherlands, they would have a small army there, to 
lie only on the defensive, which was to be commanded by 
M. Auverquerque ; but that, since the Rhine was open, by 
the taking of Bonne, all up to the Mozelle, their main 
army, that was to be commanded by the Duke of Marlbo- 
rough, should act there : more was not understood to be 
designed, except by those who were taken into the confi- 
dence. Upon this, all the preparations for the campaign 
were ordered to be carried up to the Rhine ; and so every 
thing was in readiness, when he returned back to them in 
April : the true secret was in few hands, and the French 
had no hint of it, and seemed to have no apprehensions 
about it. 

The Earl of Nottingham was animated by the party, to T?*^ ?"' ** 

'? 1 T^ 1 n ri Nottingham 

press the Queen to dismiss the Dukes of Somerset and quitted his 
Devonshire from the cabinet council, at least that they P^*^^* 
might be called thither no more : he moved it often, but 
finding no inclination in the Queen to comply %\ith his mo- 
tion, he carried the signet to her, and told her, he could not 
serve any longer in councils to which these lords were ad- 
mitted : but the Queen desired him to consider better of it. 
He returned next day, fixed in his first resolution, to which 
he^adhered the more steadily, because the Queen had sent The Earl of 
to the Earl of Jersey for the lord chamberlain's stafi", and and sir^Erf- 
to Sir Edward Seymour for the comptroller's. Tlie Earl «ard Sej- 
of Jersey was a weak man, but crafty and well practised ^^^^ 
in the arts of a court : his lady was a papist, and it was 
believed, that while he was ambassador in France, he was 
secretly reconciled to the court of St. Germains : for after 
that, he seemed hi their interests. It was one of the re- 
proaches of the last reign, that he had so much credit with 
the late King ; who was so sensible of it, that if he had 
lived a little while longer he would have dismissed him : he 
was considered as the person that was now in the closest 
correspondence with tlie comt of France ; and though he 
was in himself a very inconsiderable man, yet he was ap- 
plied to by all those who wished well to the court of St. 
Germains. The Earl of Kent had the stafi": he was the 
first Earl of England, and had a great estate. Mansell, 
the heir of a great family in AVales, was made comptioUer ; 



48 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1704. and after a month's delay, Harley, the speaker, was made 
^""'^ secretary of state. 
The Duke But now I tum to give an account of the affairs abroad : 
rough coll- ^^^ Emperor Avas reduced to the last extremities; the 
dacted his Elcctor of Bavaria was master of the Danube all down to 
aeM^ae-^' Passau, and the malecontents in Hungary were making a 
crecy. formidable progress. The Emperor was not in a condition 
to maintain a defensive war long, on both hands ; so that 
when these should come to act by concert, no opposition 
could be made to them. Thus his affairs had a very black 
appearance, and utter iiiin was to l)e apprehended ; Vienna 
would be probably besieged on both sides ; and it was not 
in a condition to make a long defence : so the house of 
Austria seemed lost. Prince Eugene proposed that the 
Emperor should implore the Queen's protection ; this was 
agreed to, and Count Wratislaw managed the matter at 
our court, with great application and secrecy ; the Duke of 
Marlborough saw the necessity of undertaking it, and re- 
solved to try, if it was possible, to put it in execution. 
When he went into Holland in the winter, he proposed it 
to the Pensioner, and other persons of the greatest confi- 
dence ; they approved of it, but it was not advisable to 
propose it to the states ; at that time, many of them would 
not have thought their country safe, if their army should be 
sent so far from them : nothing could be long a secret that 
was proposed to such an assembly, and the main hope of 
succeeding in this design, lay in the secrecy with which it 
was conducted. Under the blind of the project for carry- 
ing the war to the Mozelle, every thing was prepared, that 
was necessary for executing the tiue design. When the 
Duke went over the second time, that which was proposed 
in public, related only to the motions towards the Mozelle ; 
so he drew his army together in May : he marched towards 
the Mozelle, but he went farther ; and after he had gained 
the advance of some days of (he French troops, he wrote 
to the stales from Ladeuburg, to let (hem know, that he had 
the Queen's order to march to the relief of the empire, with 
-which he hoped they Avould agree, and allow of his carry- 
ing their troops to share in tlie honour of that expedition : 
he had their answer as quick as the courier could carry it, 
by which they approved of the design, and of his currying 
their troops witli him. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 49 

So he marched with all possible expedition from the i704. 
Hhine to the Danube, which was a great surprise to the Hemarcbed 
court of France, as well as to the Elector of Bavaria. The t° the Dar 
King of France sent orders to Marshal Tallard to march 
in a:ll haste with the best troops they had to support the 
Elector, who apprehended that the Duke of .Marlborough 
would endeavour to pass the Danube at Donawert, and so 
break into Bavaria : to prevent that, he posted about sixteen 
thousand of his best troops at Schellenberg, near Donawert, 
which was looked on as a very strong and tenable post. The 
Duke of Marlborough joined the Prince of Baden, with the 
imperial army, in the beginning of July ; and, after a long 
inarch, continued from three in the morning, they came up ihe battu* 
to the Bavarian troops towards the evening : they were so °^^cheiieu. 
well posted, that our men were repulsed in the three first 
attacks with gTeat loss : at last the enemy were beat from 
their posts, which was followed with a total rout, and we 
became masters of their camp, their artillery, and their bag- 
gage. Their general, Arco, with many others, swam over 
the Danube: others got into Donawert, which they aban- 
doned next morning, with that precipitation, that they were 
not able to execute the Elector's cruel orders, which were 
to set fire to the town if they should be forced to abandon 
it : great quantities of straw were laid in many places, as 
a preparation for that, in case of a misfortiuic 

Tlie best half of the Bavarian forces were now entirely 
routed ; about five thousand of them were killed : we lost 
as many, for the action was very hot, and our men were 
much exposed ; yet they went still on, and continued the 
attack with such resolution, that it let the generals see how 
much they might depend on the courage of their soldiers. 
Now we were masters of Donawert, and thereby of a pas- 
gage over the Danube, which laid all Bavaria open to our 
army : upon that, the Elector, with Marshal ^[arsin, drew 
the rest of his army under the cannon of Augsburgh, where 
he lay so well posted, that it was not possible to attack 
him, nor to force him out of it : the Duke of Marlborough 
followed him, and got between him and his countiy, so 
that it was wholly in his power. When he iiad him at this 
disadvantage, he entered upon a treaty with him, and of- 
fered him what terms he could desire, either for himself or 
his brother, even to the paying him the whole charge of the 

VOL. IV. H 



v*v^ 



50 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1704. -^ar, upon condition that he would immediately break with 
the French, and send his array into Italy, to join mth the 
imperialists there : his subjects, who were now at mercy, 
pressed him vehemently to accept of those terms : he 
seemed inclined to hearken to them, and messengers went 
often between the tu o armies : but this was done only to 
gain time, for he sent courier after courier, with most press- 
ing instances to liasten the advance of the French army. 
When he saw he could gain no more time, the matter went 
so far, that the articles were ordered to be made ready for 
signing. In conclusion, he refused to sign them ; and then 
severe orders were given for military execution on his 
country. Every thing that was within the reach of the 
army, that was worth taking, was brought away, and the 
rest was burnt and destroyed. 

The t\\o generals did after that resolve on further action; 
and since the Elector's camp could not be forced, the siege 
of Ingolstad was to be carried on : it was the most impor- 
tant place he had, in which his great magazines were laid 
up. The Prince of Baden went to besiege it, and the Duke 
of Marlborough was to cover the siege, in conjunction 
with Prince Eugene, who commanded a body of the impe- 
rial army, which was now drawn out of the posts into 
which they had been put, in order to hinder the march of 
the French; but they were not able to maintain them, 
against so great a force as was now coming up : these 
formed a great army. Prince Eugene, having intelligence 
of the quick motions of the French, posted his troops, 
that were about eighteen thousand, as advantageously as 
he could ; and went to concert matters with the Duke 
of Marlborough, who lay at some distance. He upon 
that marched towards the Prince's army with all possi- 
ble haste, and so the two armies joined: it was now 
in the beginning of August. The Elector hearing how 
near M. Tallard was, marched with M. Marsin, and joined 
him. Their armies advanced very near ours, and were well 
posted ; having the Danube on one side, and a rivulet on 
the other, whose banks were high, and in some places 
formed a morass before them. The two French armies 
were now in view one of another: the French were supe- 
rior to us in foot, by about ten thousand ; but we had three 
tliousand horse more than they : the post of which they 



OF CiUEEN ANNE. 51 

were possessed was capable of being, in a very little time, ^^04. 
put out of all clanger of future attacks ; so the Duke of "^^"^ 
Marlborough and Prince Eugene saw how important it 
was, to lose no time, and resolved to attack them the next 
morning. They saw the danger of being forced, otherAAisc, 
to lie idle in their camp, till their forage should be con- 
sumed, and their provisions spent. They had also inter- 
cepted letters from Marshal Villeroy to the Elector, by 
which it appeared, that he had orders to march into Wir- 
temberg, to destroy that country, and to cut off the 
communication with the Rhine, which must have been 
fatal to us: so the necessary dispositions were made 
for the next morning's action. Many of the general 
officers came and represented to the Duke of Marlbo- 
rough the difficulties of the design; he said, he saw 
these well, but the thing was absolutely necessary: so 
they were sent to give orders every where, which was re- 
ceived all over the army with an alacrity that gave a 
happy presage of the success that followed. , 

I will not venture on a particular relation of that great 
day : I have seen a copious account of it, prepared by the 
Duke of Marlborough's orders, that will be printed some 
time or other : but there are some passages in it, which 
make him not think it fit to be published presently. He 
told me, he never saw more evident characters of a special 
Providence, than appeared that day : a signal one related 
to his own person : a cannon-ball went into the ground so 
ueai' him, that he was some time quite covered with the 
cloud of dust and earth that it raised about him. J will 
sum up the action in a few words. 

Our men quickly passed the brook, the French making The battle of 
no opposition : this was a fatal eiTor, and was laid aa holly 
to Tallard's charge : the action that followed was, for some 
time, very hot; many fell on both sides; ten battalions of 
the French stood their ground, but were, in a manner, 
mowed down in their ranks : upon that the horse ran many 
of them into the Danube ; most of these perished : Tallard 
himself was taken prisoner. The rest of his troops were 
posted in the village of Blenheim : these, seeing all lost, 
and that some bodies were advancing upon them, which 
seemed to them to be thicker than indeed they were, and 
apprehending that it was impossible to break through, they 



V*\-w/ 



52 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1704. did not attempt it, though brave men might have made their 
way. Instead of that, when our men came up to set fire to 
the village, the Earl of Orkney first beating a parley, they 
hearkened to it very easily, and were all made prisoners of 
war. There were about thirteen hundred officers, and 
twelve thousand common soldiers, who laid doAvn their 
arms, and Avere now in our hands. Thus all Tallard's 
army was either killed in the action, drowned in the Da- 
nube, or become prisoners by capitulation. Things went 
not so easily on Prince Eugene's side, where the Elector 
and Marsin commanded : he was repulsed in three attacks, 
but carried the fourth, and broke in; and so he was master 
of their camp, cannon, and baggage. The enemy retired 
in some order, and he pursued them as far as men, wearied 
with an action of about six hours, in an extieme hot day, 
could go : thus we gained an entire victory. In this action 
tliere was on our side about twelve thousand killed and 
wounded ; but the French and the Elector lost about forty 
thousand killed, wounded, and taken. 

The Elector marched with all the haste lie could to Ulm,. 
where he left some troops, and then, with a small body, got 
to Villeroy's army. Now all Bavaria was at mercy ; the 
Electoress received the civilities due to her sex, but she was 
forced to submit to such terms as were imposed on her : 
Ingolstad, and all the fortified places in the electorate, 
with the magazines that were in them, were soon delivered 
up : Augsburgh, Ulm, and Meming, quickly recovered 
their liberty ; so now our armj, having put a speedy con- 
clusion to the war, that was got so far into the bowels of 
the empire, marched quickly back to the Rhine. The Em- 
peror made great acknowledgments of this signal service, 
which the Duke of Marlborough had done him, and upon it 
offered to make him a prince of the empire ; he very de- 
cently said, he could not accept of this, till he knew the 
Queen's pleasure ; and, upon her consenting to it, he was 
created a prince of the empire, and, about a year after, 
Mindleheim was assigned him for his principality. 

Upon this great success in Germany, the Duke of Savoy 
sent a very pressing mess.age for a present supply. The 
Duke of Vendome was in Piedmont, and, after a long 
siege, had taken Verceil, and was like to make a further 
progress : the few remains of the imperial aimy, that lay in 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 53 

the Modenese, gave but a small diversion ; the Grand Prior ^^O'*- 
had so shut them up, that they lay on a feeble defensive. ^"^'^ 
Baron Leiningen was sent, with another small army, into 
the Brescian ; but he was so ill supplied, that he could do 
nothing but eat up the country ; and the Venetians were 
so feeble and so fearful, that they suffered their country to 
be eat up by both sides, without declaring for or against 
either. The Prince of Baden insisted on undertaking the 
siege of Landau, as necessary to secure the circles, Suabia 
in particular, from the excursions of that garrison: this 
was popular in Germany, and though the Duke of Marlbo- 
rough did not approve it, he did not oppose it with all the 
authority that his great success had given him : so the 
Prince of Baden undertook it, while the Duke, with his 
army, covered the siege. This was universally blamed; 
for while France was in the consternation which the late 
great loss brought them under, a more vigorous proceeding 
was like to have greater effects ; besides that the imperial 
army was ill provided ; the great charge of a siege was 
above their strength : the Prince of Baden suffered much 
in his reputation for this undertaking : it was that which 
the French \vished for ; and so it was suspected that some 
secret practice had prevailed on that Prince to propose it. 
It is certain that he was jealous of the glory the Duke had 
got, in which he had no share ; and it was believed that if 
he had not gone to besiege Ingolstad, the battle had never 
been fought: he was indeed so fierce a bigot in his religion, 
that he could not bear the successes of those he called he- 
retics, and the exaltation which he thought heresy might 
have upon it. 

While the Duke of Marlborough lay covering the siege, 
Villeroy with his army came and looked on him ; but as 
our soldiers were exalted Avith their success, so the French 
were too much dispirited with their losses to make any 
attack, or to put any thing to hazard, in order to raise the 
siege. They retired back, and went into quarters, and 
trusted to the bad state of the imperial army, who were ill 
provided and ill supplied : the garrison made as vigorous 
a defence, and drew out the siege to as great a length as 
could be expected : the Prince of Baden had neither en- 
gineers nor ammunition, and wanted money to provide 
them ; so that if the Duke had not supplied him, he must 



54 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

^'^^*- have been forced to srive it over. The King: of the Romans.' 
came again to have the honour of taking the place ; his 
behaviour there did not serve to raise his character; he 
was not often in the places of danger, and was content to 
look on at a great and safe distance ; he was always beset 
with priests, and such a face of superstition and bigotry 
appeared about him, that it very much damped the hopes 
that were given of him. 
The Dnke When it appeared, that there was no need of an army 
of Maribo- to covcr the siege, and that the place could not hold out 
vancecf to many days, the Duke of Marlborough resolved to possess 
Triers. himself of Triers, as a good winter quarter, that brought 
him near the contines of France ; from whence he might 
open the campaign next year, with great advantage : and 
he reckoned that the taking of Traerback, even in that 
advanced season, would be soon done : and then the com- 
munication with Holland, by water, Avas all clear : so that 
during the mnter every thing that was necessary could be 
brought up thither from Holland safe and cheap. This he 
executed with that diligence, that the French abandoned 
every place as he advanced with such precipitation, that 
they had not time given them to burn the places they for- 
sook, according to the barbarous method which they had 
long practised. The Duke got to Triers, and that being a 
large place, he posted a great part of his army in and about 
it, and left a sufficient force with the Prince of Hesse for 
the taking of Traerback, which held out some weeks, but 
capitulated at last. Landau was not taken before the mid- 
dle of November. 

Thus ended this glorious campaign ; in which England 
and Holland gained a very unusual gloiy : for as they had 
never sent their armies so far by land, so their triumphant 
return helped not a little to animate and unite their coun- 
sels. Prince Eugene had a just share in the honour of 
this great expedition, which he had chiefly promoted by his 
counsels, and did so nobly support by his conduct. The 
Prince of Baden had no share in the public joy : his con- 
duct was as bad as could be, and the fret he was possessed 
with, upon the glory that the otliei- generals canicd from' 
him, threw him, as was believed, into a languishing, of 
which he never quite recovered, and of wliich he died two 
ycais after. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 55 

At the conclusion of the campaign, the Duke of Marl- *^<^ 
borough went to Berlin, where he concerted the measures 
for the next campaign, and agieed witli the King of Prussia 
for eight thousand of his troops, which were to be sent to 
Italy upon the Queen's pay. He had settled matters with 
the Emperor's ministers, so that they undertook to send 
Prince Eugene, with an army of twenty thousand men, who 
should begin their march into Italy, as soon as it was pos- 
sible to pass the mountains : of these the Queen and the. 
states were to pay sixteen thousand. He returned by the 
court of Hanover, where he was treated with all the honour 
that the success of the campaign well deserved : he met 
with the same reception in Holland, and was as much 
considered and submitted to as if he had been their stadt- 
holder. The credit he was in among them was very happy 
to them, and was indeed necessary at that time for keep- 
ing down their factions and animosities, which were rising 
in every province, and in most of their towns. Only Am- 
sterdam, as it was the most sensible of the common danger, 
so it was not only quiet within itself, but it contributed not 
a little to keep all the rest so, which was chiefly maintained 
by the Duke of Marlborough's prudent management. Eng- 
land was full of joy, and addresses of congratulation were 
sent up from all parts of the nation ; but it was very visible, 
that, in many places, the tones went into these very coldly; 
and perhaps that made the whigs the more zealous and 
affectionate. 

I now turn to the other element, where our affairs were AflFairs «i 
carried on more doubtfully. Rook sailed into the Straits, 
where he reckoned he was strong enough for the Toulon 
squadron, which was then abroad in the Mediterranean : 
soon after that, a strong squadron from Brest passed by 
Lisbon into the Straits. Methuen, our ambassador there, 
apprehending, that if these two squadrons should join to 
attack Rook, it would not be possible for him to fight 
against so great a force, sent a man of war, that Rook 
had left at Lisbon, with some particular orders, which 
made him very unwilling to carry the message, but Me- 
thuen promised to save him hai-mless : he upon that sailed 
through the French fleet, and brought this important ad- 
vertisement to Rook ; who told him, that on this occasion 
he would pass by his not observing his orders, but that for 



s«». 




HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

the future he would find the safest course was to obey 
orders. Upon this Rook stood out of the way of the French, 
towards the mouth of the Straits, and there he met Shovel 
with a squadron of our best ships ; so being thus reinforced 
he sailed up the Straits, bemg now in a condition, if need 
were, to engage the French. He came before Barcelona, 
where the Prince of Hesse Darmstadt assured him there was 
a strong party ready to declare for King Charles, as it was 
certain, that there was a great disposition in many to it : 
but Rook woidd not stay above three days before it : so 
that the motions within the town, and the discoveries that 
many made of their inclinations, had almost proved fatal 
to them. He answered, when pressed to stay a few days 
more, that his orders were positive : he must make towards 
Nice : which it was believed the French intended to be- 
siege. 

But as he was sailing that way, he had advice that the 
t^rench had made no advances in that design : so he turned 
his course westward, and came in sight of the French fleet, 
sailing from Brest to Toulon : the advantage he had was so 
visible, that it was expected he would have made towards 
them ; he did it not : what orders he had was not known, 
for the matter never came under examination : they got to 
Toulon, and he steered another way. The whole French 
fleet was then together in that harbour ; for though the 
Toulon squadron had been out before, it was then in port. 

A veiy happy accident had preserved a rich fleet of 
merchant ships from Scanderoon, under the convoy of 
three or four frigates, from falling into their hands : the 
French fleet lay in their way in the Bay of Tunis, and no- 
thing could have saved them from being taken, but that 
which happened in the critical minute in which they need- 
ed it ; a thick fog covered them all the while that they were 
sailing by that bay, so that they had no apprehension of 
the danger they were in, till they had passed it. I know it 
is not possible to determine when such accidents rise from 
a chain of second causes in the course of nature, and >\hen 
they are directed by a special Providence ; but my mind 
has always carried me so strongly to acknowledge the lat- 
ter, that I love to set these reflections in the way of others, 
that they may consider them with the same scrioua atten- 
tion that I feel in myself. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 57 

Rook, as he sailed back, fell in upon Gibraltar; ^vhere ^~*^^- 
lie spent much powder, bombarding it to very little pur- Gibraltar 
pose, that he might seem to attempt somewhat, though ^^'^^ ^''''^'^• 
there was no reason to hope that he could succeed. Some 
bold men ventured to go ashore, in a place where it was 
not thought possible to climb up the rocks; yet they suc- 
ceeded in it : when they got up, they saw all the women of 
the town were come out, according to their superstition, to 
a chapel there, to implore the Virgin's protection: they 
seized on them, and that contributed not a little to dispose 
those in the towTi to surrender : they had leave to stay or 
go as they pleased ; and in case they staid, they were as- 
sured of protection in their religion, and in every thing 
else ; for the Prince of Hesse, who was to be their gover- 
nor, was a papist : but they all went away, with the small 
gaiTison that had defended the place. Tlie Prince of Hesse, 
with the marines that were on board the fleet, possessed 
himself of the place, and they were furnished out of the 
stores that went with the fleet, with every thing that was 
necessary for their subsistence or defence, and a regular 
method was laid down of supplying them constantly from 
Lisbon. 

It has been much questioned, by men who understand 
these matters well, whether our possessing ourselves of 
Gibraltar, and our maintaining ourselves in it so long, was 
to our advantage or not : it has certainly put us to a great 
charge, and we have lost many men in it ; but it seems the 
Spaniards, who should know the importance of the place 
best, think it so valuable, that they have been at a much 
greater charge, and have lost many more men, while they 
have endeavoured to recover it, than the taking or keeping 
it has cost us : and it is certain that in war, whatsoever loss 
on one side occasions a greater loss of men or of treasure 
to the other, must be reckoned a loss only to the side that 
suflers most. 

Our expedition in Portugal, and our armies there, which 'I'l,^^''' '*, 
cost us so dear, and from Avhich we expected so much, had 
not hitherto had any great efiects : the King of Portugal 
expressed the best intentions possible ; but he was much 
governed by his ministers, who v/ere all in the French inte- 
rests : they had a great army, but they had made no pre- 
parations for taking the field ; nor coitid they bring their 

VOL. IV. I 



'^rw/ 



58 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1704. troops together for want of provisions and carriages : the 
forms of their government made them very slow, and not 
easily accessible : they were too proud to confess that they 
wanted any thing when tliey had nothing, and too lazy to 
bestir themselves to execute what was in their power to do ; 
and the King's ill health furnished them with an excuse, 
for every thing that was defective, and out of order. The 
priests, both in Spain and Portugal, were so universally in 
the French interest, that even the house of Austria, that 
had been formerly so much in their favour, was now in dis- 
grace with them. Their alliance with heretics, and their 
bringing over an army of them, to maintain their preteh- 
tions, had made all their former services be forgotten. The 
governing body at Rome did certainly engage all their zea- 
lots every where to support that interest, which is now so 
set on the destruction of heresy. King Philip advanced 
towards the frontiers of Portugal, his army being com- 
manded by the Duke of Berwick, w ho began to shine there, 
though he had passed elsewhere for a man of no very great 
character. They had several advantages of the Portuguese : 
some of the English and Dutch battalions, which were so 
posted that they could not be relieved, and in places that 
were not tenable, fell into the enemies' hands, and were 
made prisoners of war. Some of the general officers, who 
came over, said to me, that if the Duke of Berwick had 
followed his advantages, nothing could have hindered liis 
coming to Lisbon. The Duke of Schomberg was a better 
officer in the field than in the cabinet ; he did not enough 
know how to prepare for a campaign; he was both too in- 
active and too haughty ; so it was thought necessary to send 
another to command. The Earl of Gall way was judged the 
fittest person for that service ; he undertook it, more in sub- 
mission to the Queen's commands, than out of any great 
prospect or hopes of success ; things went on very heavily 
there ; the distraction that the taking Gibraltar put the Spa- 
niards in, as it occasioned a diversion of some of the Spa- 
nish forces that lay on their frontier, so it furnished them 
with advantages, which they took no care to improve. 
Afij,'iitat Rook, after he had supplied Gibraltar, sailed again into 

the Mediterranean ; and there he met the Count of Thou- 
lous(% with tiie m hole French licet : they were superior to 
the English in number, and hud many galleys with them that 



sea. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 69 

^V'Cre of great use. Rook called a council of war, in which ^'^'^^ 
it was resolved to engage them ; there was not due care ''^ 
taken to furnish all the ships with a sufficient quantity 
of powder, for some had wasted a great part of their stock 
of ammunition before Gibraltar, yet they had generally 
twenty-five rounds, and it had seldom happened, that so 
much powder was spent in an action at sea. On the 12th 
of August, just ten days after the battle of Hocksted, the 
two fleets engaged. Shovel advanced with his squadron 
to a close fight, for it w as the maxim of our seamen to fight 
as near as they could ; he had the advantage, and the squa- 
dron before him gave way. Rook fought at agreater distance ; 
many broadsides passed, and the engagement continued till 
night parted them : some ships, that had spent all their am- 
munition, were forced on that account to go out of the line ; 
and if the French had come to a new engagement the next 
day, it might have been fatal, since many of our ships were 
without powder, whilst others had enough and to spare. 

In this long and hot action, there was no ship of either 
side, that was either taken, sunk, or burnt ; we made a shew 
the next day, of preparing for a second engagement ; but 
the enemy bore off, to the great joy of our fleet. The 
French suffered much in this action, and went into Toulon 
so disabled that they could not be put in a condition to go 
to sea again in many months. They left the sea, as the field 
of battle, to us, so the honour of the action remained ^v itli 
us ; though the nation was not much lifted up with the 
news of a drawn battle at sea with the French. We 
were long without a certain account of this action, but 
the modesty in which the King of France wrote of it to 
the Archbishop of Paris, put us out of all fears ; for 
uhereas their style was very boasting of their successes, 
in this it was only said, that the action was to his advant- 
age : from that cold expression we concluded the victory 
was on our side. 

When the full account was sent home from our fleet, the 
partialities on both sides appeared very signally ; the tories 
magnified this as a great victory, and in their addresses of 
congratulation to the Queen, they joined this with that 
which the Duke of Marlborough had gamed at Hocksted. 
I understand nothing of sea matters, and therefore cannot 
make a judgment in the point: I have heard men, skilled 



60 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

i''0 '• in those aifairs, differ much in the sentiments of Rook's 
'"^"'^^ conduct in that action; some not only justifying but extol- 
ling? it, as much as others condemned it. It was certainly ri- 
diculous to set forth the glory of so disputable an engage- 
ment, in the same words with the successes we had by 
land. The fleet soon after sailed home for England, Leak 
being left with a squadron, at Lisbon. 
Tlie siege of The Spaniards drew all the forces they had in Andalusia 
and Estremadura together, to retake Gibraltar ; that army 
was commanded by the Duke of Villadarias : he had with 
him some French troops, with some engineers of that 
nation, who were chiefly relied on, and were sent from 
France to carry on the siege. This gave some disgust to 
the Spaniards, who were so foolish in their pride, that 
though they could do nothing for themselves, and indeed 
knew not how to set about it, yet could not bear to be taught 
by others, or to see themselves out-done by them. The 
siege was continued for above four months, during which 
time the Prince of Hesse had many occasions given him to 
distinguish liimself veiy eminently, both as to his courage, 
conduct, and indefatigable application. Convoys came fre- 
quently from Lisbon, with supplies of men and provisions ; 
which the French were not able to hinder, or to intercept. 
•Pointy at last came, with a squadron of twenty French 
ships, and lay long in the bay, trying what could be done 
by sea, while the place was pressed by land : upon that, a 
much stronger squadron was sent from Lisbon, w ith a great 
body of men, and stores of all sorts, to relieve the place 
and to raise the siege ; and the court of France, not being 
satisfied with the conduct of the Spanish general, sent 
Marshal Tesse to carry on the siege with greater expedi- 
tion. The Portuguese, all this while, made no use of the 
diversion given by the siege of Gibraltar; they made great 
demands on us, for England was now considered as a 
source, that could never be exhausted : we granted all their 
demands, and a body of horse was sent to them at a vast 
charge. The King was in a very ill state of health, occa- 
sioned by disorders in his youth ; he had not been treated 
skilfully, so he was often relapsing, and was not in a con- 
dition to apply himself much to business. For some time, 
our Queen Dowager was set at the head of their councils : 
lier administration was much commended, and she was 
very careful of the English and all tlicir concerns. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 61 

In Italy, the Duke ol" Savoy had a melancholy campaign, i'"^- 
losing place after place ; but he supported his affairs with Affairs in 
great conduct ; and shewed a firmness in his misfortunes, ^'*'J^- 
beyond what could have been imagined. Verceil and 
Yvrea gave the Duke of Vendome the trouble of a tedious 
siege; they stood their ground as long as possible; the 
Duke of Savoy's army was not strong enough to raise 
tliese sieges, so both places fell in conclusion. The French 
had not troops both to carry on the war and to leave gar- 
risons in those places, so they demolished the fortifica- 
tions ; after they had succeeded so far, they sat doun be- 
fore Verue in the end of October. The Duke of Savoy 
posted his army at Crescentino, over against it, on the other 
side of the Po : he had a bridge of communication ; he 
went often into the place, during the siege, to see and ani- 
mate his men, and to give all necessary orders ; the sick 
and wounded were carried away, and fresh men put in their 
stead. This siege proved the most famous of all that had 
been during the late Avars ; it lasted above five months, the 
garrison being often changed, and always well supplied. 
Tlie French army suftercd much by continuing the siege 
all the A\ inter, and they were at a vast charge in carrying 
it on; the bridge of communication was, after many un- 
successful attempts, at last cut off; and the Duke of Sa- 
voy being thus separated from th6 place, retired to Chivaz, 
and left them to defend themselves as long as they could, 
which they did beyond what could in reason have been ex- 
pected. The Duke of Savoy complained much of the Em- 
peror's failing to make good his promises ; but, in a dis- 
course upon that subject with the Queen's envoy, he said, 
though he w as abandoned by his allies, he would not aban- 
don himself. 

The poor people in the Cevennes suffered much this -^ndin Uic 
summer : it was not possible to come to them with sup- ''^°°®'- 
plies till matters should go better in Piedmont, of which 
there was then no prospect : they were advised to preserve 
themselves the best they could. Marshal Villars was sent 
into the country to manage them with a gentler hand ; the 
severe methods taken by those formerly employed being 
now disowned, he was ordered to treat with their leaders, 
and to offer them full liberty to serve God in their own 
way A^ithout disturbance; they generally inclined to hearken 



62 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

•^^ to this ; for they had now kept themselves in a body much 
longer than was thought possible in their low and helpless 
state : some of them capitulated, and took service in the 
French army ; but, as soon as they came near the armies of 
the allies, they deserted and went over to them : so that, by 
all this practice, that fire was rather covered up at present 
than quite extinguished. 
H^"^* "5 '^'^^ disorders in Hungary had a deeper root, and a 
greater strength ; it was hoped that the ruin of the Elector 
of Bavaria would have quite disheartened them, and have 
disposed them to accept of reasonable terms ; if the Em- 
peror could have been prevailed on to offer them frankly, 
and immediately upon their first consternation, after the 
conquest of Bavaria. There were great errors in the go- 
vernment of that kingdom : by a long course of oppres- 
sion and injustice, the Hungarians were grown savage and 
intractable ; they saw they w ere both hated and despised 
by the Germans ; the court of Vienna seemed to consider 
them as so many enemies, who were to be depressed in 
order to their being extirpated : upon any pretence of plots 
their persons w ere seized on, and their estates confiscated : 
the Jesuits were believed to have a great share in all those 
contrivances and prosecutions ; and it was said that they 
purchased the confiscated estates upon very easy terms ; 
the nobility of Hungary seemed irreconcileable to tlie 
court of Vienna : on the other hand, those of that court, 
who had these confiscations assigned them, and knew that 
the restoring these would certainly be insisted on as a ne- 
cessary article, in any treaty that might follow, did all they 
could to obstruct such a treaty. It was visible that R*- 
gotski, who was at their head, aimed at the principality of 
Transylvania : and it was natural for the Hmigarians to 
look on his arriving at that dignity, by which he could pro- 
tect and assist them, as the best security they could liave. 
On the other hand, the court of Vienna, being possessed of 
that principality, would not easily part with it. In the 
midst of all this fermentation, a revolution happened in the 
Turkish empire : a new sultan was set up. So all things 
were at a stand, till it might be known a\ hat was to be ex- 
pected from him. They were soon delivered from this 
anxiety ; for he sent a chiaus to the court of Vienna, to as- 
sure theiii, that he was resolved to maintain the peace in all 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 63 

points, and that he would give no assistance to the male- ^^o-k 
contents. The court of Vienna being freed from those ap- ^^''^^ 
prehensions, resolved to carry on the war in Hungary as 
vigorously as they could : this was imputed to a secret 
practice from France on some of that court, and there 
were so many there concerned in the confiscations, that 
every proposition that way was powerfully supported : 
thus Italy was neglected, and the siege of Landau was ill 
supported ; their chief strength being employed in Hun- 
gary. Yet when the ministers of the allies pressed the 
opening atieaty with the malecontents, the Emperor seemed 
willing to refer the arbitration of that matter to his allies ; 
but, though it was fit to speak in that style, yet no such 
thing was designed. A treaty was opened ; but when it was 
known that Zeiher had the chief management of it, there 
was no reason to expect any good effect of it : he was bom 
a protestant, a subject of the palatinate, and was often em- 
ployed by the Elector Charles Lewis, to negotiate afi'airs 
at the court of Vienna^: he, seeing a prospect of rising in 
that court, changed his religion, and became a creature of 
the Jesuits ; and adhered steadily to all their interests. 
He managed that secret practice with the French, in the 
treaty of Ryswick, by which the protestants of the palati- 
nate suffered so considerable a prejudice. The treaty in 
Hungary stuck at the preliminaries ; for indeed neither side 
was then inclined to treat ; the malecontents w ere supported 
from France ; they were routed in several engagements, 
but these were not so considerable as the court of Vienna 
gave out in their public news ; the malecontents suffered 
much in them, but came soon together again ; and they sub- 
sisted so well, what by the mines, of which they had pos- 
sessed themselves, what by the incursions they made, and 
the contributions they raised from the Emperor's subjects, 
that unless the war w ere carried on more vigorously, or a 
peace were offered more sincerely, that kingdom was long 
like to be a scene of blood and rapine. 

So was its neighbouring kingdom of Poland : it was The affairs 
hoped, that the talk of a new election w^as only a loud 
threatening, to force a peace the sooner; but it proved 
otherwise : a diet was brought together of those who were 
irreconcilable to King Augustus, and after many delays, 
Stanislaus, one of the palatines, was chosen and proclaim- 



64 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

^'04- ed their King ; and he was presently oAMied by the King 
of Sweden. The Cardinal seemed at first unwilling to 
agree to this, but he suffered himself to be forced to it ; this 
was believed to be only an artilice of his to excuse himself 
to the court of France, whose pensioner he was, and to 
whom he had engaged to carry the election for the Prince 
of Conti. The war went on this year, with various success 
on both sides ; King Augustus made a quick march to 
Warsaw, where he surprised some of Stanislaus's party, 
he himself escaping nanowly: but the King of Sweden 
followed so close, that not being able to fight him, he was 
forced to retreat into Saxony, where he continued for some 
months : there he ruined his own dominions, by the great 
preparations he made to retiun with a mighty force : the 
delay of that made many forsake his party ; for it was 
given out that ho would return no more, and that he was 
weary of the war, and he had good reason so to be. Po- 
land, in the meanwhile, was in a most miserable condition ; 
the King of Sweden subsisted his army in it, and his tem- 
per grew daily more fierce and gothic ; he was resolved to 
make no peace till Augustus was driven out. In the mean- 
while, his own country suflFered much : Livonia was de- 
stroyed by the Muscovites; they had taken Narva, and 
made some progresses into Sweden. The Pope espoused 
the interests of King Augustus ; for to support a new con- 
vert of such importance was thought a point worthy the 
zeal of that see ; so he cited the Cardinal to appear at 
Rome, and to give an account of the share he had in all 
that war. 
The Pope The Popc was now wholly in the French interest, and 
J^JieVre'nch maintained the character, they pretend to, of a common fa- 
iriierest. thcr, with SO much partiality, that the Emperor himself, 
how tame and submissive soever to all the impositions of 
that see, yet could not bear it ; but made loud complaints 
of it. The Pope had threatened, that he would thunder out 
excommunications against all those troops that should 
continue in his dominions : the Emperor was so implicit 
in his faith, and so ready in his obedience, that he or- 
dered his troops to retire out of the ecclesiastical state : 
but all the eflect tluit tliis had, was to leave that state en- 
tirely in the hands ol" the French, against ^^hom the Popc 
did not tliink fit to fiilmiuate ; yet the Pope still pretended 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 65 

that he would maintain a neutrality, and both the Vene^ i'04. 
tians and the Great Duke adhered to him in that resolution, ''^ 
and continued neutral during the war. 

Having now given a view of the state of aflfairs abroad, The affairs 
I return back to prosecute the relation of those at home, ** '^^ "^ • 
and begin with Scotland. A session of parliament was held 
there this summer : the Duke of Queensberry's management 
of the plot was so liable to exception, that it was not thought 
fit to employ him, and it seems he had likewise brought him- 
self under the Queen's displeasure ; for it was proposed by 
some of his friends in the House of Lords, to desire the 
Queen to commmiicate to them a letter, which he had Avrote 
to her of such a date : this looked like an examination of 
the Queen herself, to whom it ought to have been left to 
send what letters she thought fit to the House, and they 
ought not to call for any one in particular. The matter of 
that letter made him liable to a very severe censure in Scot- 
land : for in plain words he charged the majority of the par- 
liament as determined in their proceedings, by an influence 
from St. Germains : this exposed him in Scotland to the 
fury of a parliament; for how tiue soever this might be, by 
the law s of that kingdom, such a representation of a parlia- 
ment to the Queen, especially in matters which could not 
be proved, was leasmg-making, and was capital. 

The chief design of the court in this session, was to get 
the succession of the crown to be declared, and a supply to 
be given for the army, which w as run into a great arrear. In 
the debates of the former session, those who opposed every 
thing, more particularly the declaring the succession, had 
insisted chiefly on motions to bring their owii constitution 
to such a settlement, that they might sufter no prejudice, by 
their King's living in England. Mr. Johnstone was now 
taken in by the ministers into a new management : it was pro- 
posed by him, in concert with the Marquis of Tweedale, 
and some others in Scotland, that the Queen should em- 
power her commissioner to consent to a revival of the whole 
settlement, made by King Charles the First, in the year 
1641. 

By that, the King named a privy council, and his minis- 
ters of state in parliament, who had a power to accept of, 
or to except to the nomination, without being bound to give 
the reason for excepting to it: in the intervals of parlia- 

VOL. IV. K 



66 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1704, jnent, the King was to give all employments, with the 
^^"^^ consent of the privy council: this was the main point of that 
settlement, which was looked on by the wisest men of that 
time, as a full security to all their laws and liberties. It 
did indeed divest the crowTi of a great part of the preroga- 
tive, and it brought the parliament into some equality with 
the crown. 

The Queen, upon the representation made to her by her 
ministers, offered this as a limitation on the successor, in 
case they would settle the succession, as England had done ; 
and, for doing this, the Marquis of Tweedale was named 
her commissioner. The Queen did also signify her plea- 
sure very positively to all who were employed by her, that 
she expected they should concur in settling the succession, 
as they desired the continuance of her favour. Both the 
Duke of Marlborough and the Lord Godolphin expressed 
themselves very fully and positively to the same purpose ; 
yet it was dexterously surmised, and industriously set about 
by the Jacobites, and too easily believed by jealous and 
cautious people, that the court was not sincere in this mat- 
ter ; and that at best they were indifferent as to the success. 
Some went further, and said, that those who were in a par- 
ticular confidence at court, did secretly oppose it, and 
entered into a management on design to obstruct it: I 
could never see any good ground for this suggestion ; yet 
there was matter enough for jealousy to work on, and 
this was carefully improved by the Jacobites, in order to 
defeat the design. Mr. Johnstone was made lord regis- 
ter, and was sent down to promote the design ; the Jacobites 
were put in hopes, in case of a rupture, to have a consider- 
able force sent to support them from Dunkirk. 

A session of parliament being opened, and the speeches 
made, and the Queen's letter read, all which tended to the 
settling the succession, that was the first debate : a great 
party was now wrought on, when they understood the secu- 
rity that was to be offered to them ; for the wisest patriots 
in that kingdom had always magnified that constitution, as 
the best contrived scheme that could be desired ; so they 
went in with great zeal to the accepting of it: but those, 
who, in the former session, had rejected all the motions of 
treating witli England with some scorn, and had made this 
their constant topic, that they must tn the first place secure 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 6t 

their own constitution at home, and then they might trust i^o-*- 
the rest to time, and to such accidents as time might bring ^^^^ 
forth ; now when they saw that every thing that could be 
desired was offered, with relation to their owti government, 
they (being resolved to oppose any declaration of the suc- 
cession, what terms soever might be granted to obtain it) 
turned the argument wholly another ^n ay, to shew the ne- 
cessity of a previous treaty with England. They were upon 
that told that the Queen was ready to grant them every 
thing that was reasonable, with relation to their own con- 
stitution, yet without the concurrence of the parliament of 
England, she could grant nothing in which England was 
concerned ; for they were for demanding a share of the 
plantation trade, and that their ships might be comprehend- 
ed within the act of navigation. 

After a long debate, the main question was put, whether Debates 
they should then enter upon the consideration of the limi- gac"es$io*D. 
tations of the government, in order to the fixing the suc- 
cession of the croAAii, or if that should be postponed till 
they had obtained such a security by a treaty with Eng- 
land as they should judge necessary. It was caiTied by a 
majority of forty, to begin with a treaty with England : of 
these, about thirty were in immediate dcpendance on the 
court, and were determined according to the directions given 
them. So, notAvithstanding a long and idle speech of the 
Earl of Cromarty's, which was printed, running into a dis- 
tinction among divines, between the revealed and secret 
will of God, shewing, that no such distinction could be ap- 
plied to the Queen ; she had but one will, and that was re- 
vealed ; yet it was still suspected, that at least her minis- 
ters had a secret w ill in the case. They went no further in Jiie settling 
this vote for a treaty with England ; for they could not Ihaulsslon' 
agree among themselves, who should be the commissioners, 
and those who opposed the declaring the succession, were 
concerned for no more, when that question w as once set 
aside : so it was postponed, as a matter about which they 
took no further care. 

They ofi'ered to the court six months' cess, for the pay a money 
of the army ; but they tacked to this a great part of a bill j^^'^jj^tJ,'^ J 
which passed the former session of parliament, but was re- 
fused by the throne : by that it was provided, that if the 
Queen should die without issue, a parliament should pre- 




HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
sently meet, and they \vere to declare the successor to the 
crowD, who should not be the same person that was pos- 
sessed of the crown of England, unless before that time 
there should be a settlement made in parliament, of the 
rights and liberties of the nation, independent on English 
councils. By another clause in the act, it was made law- 
ful to arm the subjects, and to train them and put them in 
a posture of defence. This was chiefly pressed, in behalf 
of the best affected in the kingdom, who were not armed ; 
for the highlanders, who were the w orst affected, were well 
armed ; so, to balance that, it was moved, that leave should 
be given to arm the rest. All was carried Avith great heat 
and much vehemence ; for a national Immour, of being in- 
dependent on England, fermented so strongly among all 
sorts of people without doors, that those who went not into 
every hot motion that was made, were looked on as the be- 
trayers of their country ; and they were so exposed to a 
popular fury, that some of those who studied to stop this 
tide, were thought to be in danger of their lives. The 
presbyterians were so over-awed with this, that though they 
v.ished well to the settling the succession, they durst not 
openly declare it. The Dukes of Hamilton and Athol led 
all those violent motions, and the whole nation was 
strangely inflamed. 

The ministers were put to a great difficulty with the sup- 
ply bill, and the tack that was joined to it: if it was de- 
nied, the army could be no longer kept up : they had run 
so far in arrear, that considering the poverty of the coun- 
try, that could not be carried on much longer. Some sug- 
gested, that it should be proposed to the English ministry, 
to advance the subsistence money, till better measures 
could be taken ; but none of the Scotch ministry would con- 
sent to that. An army is reckoned to belong to those who 
pay it ; so an army paid from England, would be called an 
English army ; nor was it possible to manage such a thing 
secretly. It w as well known, that there w as no money in 
the Scotch Trcasiny to pay them ; so if money were once 
brought into the Treasury, how secretly soever, all men 
must conclude that it came from England ; and men's 
minds were tlicn so full of tlie conceit of independency, 
that if a suspicion arose of any such practice, probably it 
vy'ould have occasioned tumults. Even the army was so 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 69 

kindled with this, that it was believed that neither officers ^^"^^ 
nor soldiers would have taken their pay, if they had be- ^"^^^^ 
lieved it came from England. It came then to this, that 
either the army must be disbanded, or the bill must pass. 
It is true, the army was a very small one, not above three 
thousand ; but it was so ordered, that it was double or tre- 
ble officered ; so that it could have been easil^^ increased 
to a much ^eater number, if there had been occasion for 
it. The officers had served long, and were men of a good 
character : so since they were alarmed with an invasion, 
which both sides looked for, and the intelligence which the 
court had from France, assured them it was intended ; they 
thought the inconveniences arising from the tack might be 
remedied afterwards : but the breaking of the army was 
such a pernicious thing, and might end so fatally, that it 
was not to be ventured on. Therefore, by common con- 
sent, a letter was wrote to the Queen, which was signed by Tiie minis- 
all the ministers there, in which thev laid the whole matter *^".^'i<'^« 

' " aiUise the 

before her ; every thing was stated and balanced ; all con- yueen to 
eluded in an humble advice to pass the bill. This was ^'*** ''' 
very heavy on the Lord Godolphin, on whose advice the 
Queen chiefly relied : he saw the ill consequences of break- 
ing the army, and laying tliat kingdom open to an invasion, 
would tall on him, if he should, in contradiction to the ad- 
vice given by the ministry of Scotland, have advised the 
Queen to reject the bill. This was under consultation in 
the end of July, when our matters abroad were yet in a 
great uncertainty ; for though the victory at Schcllemberg 
was a good step, yet the great decision was not then come : 
so he thought, considering the state of affairs, and the acci- 
dents that might happen, that it was the safest thing for 
the Queen to comply with the advices of those, to whom 
she trusted the aftairs of that kingdom. 

The Queen sent orders to pass tlie bill : it passed on the it was pass- 
6th of August, after the great battle was over, but several ^'^• 
days before the news of it came to us. When the act 
passed, copies of it were sent to England ; where it was 
soon printed, by those who were uneasy at the Lord Go- 
dolphin's holding the white staft', and resolved to make use 
of this against him ; for the whole blame of passing it was 
cast on him. It was not possible to prove that he had ad- 
vised the Queen to it : so some took it by another handle^ 



70 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

17^0*- and resolved to urge it against him, that he had not per- 
^^'^ suaded the Queen to reject it : though that seemed a great 
stretch ; for he being a stranger to that kingdom, it might 
have been liable to more objection, if he had presumed to 
advise the Queen to refuse a bill, passed in the parliament 
of Scotland, which all the ministry there advised her to pass. 
Censures Scvcrc ceusurcs passcd on this : it was said, that the two 

passed upon kingdoms Were now divided by law, and that the Scotch 
were putting themselves in a posture to defend it ; and all 
saw by whose advices this was done. One thing that con- 
tributed to keep up an ill humour in the parliament of 
Scotland, was more justly imputed to him: the Queen had 
promised to send do^vn to them all the examinations re- 
lating to the plot : if these had been sent down, probably 
in the first heat the matter might have been carried far 
against the Duke of Queensberry. But he, who staid all 
the while at London, got it to be represented to the Queen, 
that the sending down these examinations, with the persons 
concerned in them, would run the session into so much 
heat, and into such a length, that it would divert them quite 
from considering the succession, and it might produce a 
tragical scene. Upon these suggestions, the Queen altered 
her resolution of sending them do^^^^, though repeated ap- 
plications were made to her, both by the parliament and 
by her ministers, to have them sent ; yet no answer was 
made to these, nor was so much as an excuse made for not 
sending them. The Duke of Queensberry having gained 
this point, got all his friends to join with the party that op- 
posed the new ministry: this both defeated all their pro- 
jects, and softened the spirits of those, who were so set 
against him, that in their first fury no stop could have been 
put to their proceedings : but now, the party that had de- 
signed to ruin him, was so much ^^TOUght on, by the assist- 
ance that his friends gave them in this session, that they 
resolved to preserve him. 

This was the state of that nation, which was aggravated 
very odiously all England over : it was confidently, though, 
as was afterwards known, very falsely reported, that gTcat 
quantities of arms were brought over, and dispersed through 
the whole kingdom ; and it being well known how poor the 
nation was at that time, it was said, that those arms were 
paid for by other hands, in imitation of what it was be- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 7l 

lieved Cardinal Richelieu did, in the year 1638. Another it'Oo. 
thing was given out very maliciously, by the Lord Trea- ^'^^^ 
surer's enemies, that he had given directions underhand to 
hinder the declaring the succession, and that the secret of 
this was tiusted to Johnstone, who they said talked openly 
one way, and acted secretly another ; though T could never 
see a colour of truth in those reports. Great use was to 
be made of the affairs of Scotland, because there was no 
ground of complaint of any thing in the administration at 
home : all the Duke of Marlborough's enemies saw his 
chief strength lay in the credit that the Lord Godolphin 
was in at home, while he was so successful abroad : so it 
being impossible to attack him in such a course of glory, 
they laid their aims against the Lord Treasurer. The tories 
resolved to attack him, and that disposed the whigs to pre- 
serve him; and this was so managed bj' them, that it gave 
a great turn to all our councils at home. 

In the beginning of November, the session of parliament a session of 
was opened : it might well be expected, that after such a pari'^"'*-"* 

1 11 /'111 11 •" Fuglaud, 

summer, the addresses ot both houses would run m a very 
high strain : the House of Commons, in their address, put 
the successes by sea and land on a level, and magnified 
both in the same expressions : but the House of Lords, in 
their address, took no notice of Rook nor of the sea. The 
lower house of convocation were resolved to follow the ex- 
ample of the House of Commtjns, and would have the sea 
and land both mentioned in the same terms ; but the bishops 
would not vary from the pattern set them by the House of 
Lords; so no address was made by the convocation. The 
Commons agreed to every thing that the court proposed 
for supp5rting the war another year ; this was carried 
through vdih great dispatch and unanimity : so that the 
main business of the session was soon over : all the money 
bills were prepared and carried on in the regular method 
without any obstruction: those who intended to embroil 
matters saw it was not advisable to act above board, but 
to proceed more covertly. 

The act against occasional conformity was again brought i705. 
in, but moderated in several clauses : for those who pressed ^0,^^"^! j^ 
it, were now resolved to bring the terms as low as was again 
possible, in order once to carry a bill upon that head. The a,^XwidX' 
opposition in the House of Commona made to it, was be- voarediobe 



72 HISTORY OF THE KEIGN 

1705. come so considerable (for the desigTi was now more clearly 

^''^^ discerned), that it was carried in that House only by a ma- 
tacked fo a . „ ^ . ^-^, , , .,, . , • 

inonej bill, jority oi fitty. AV hen the bill was to be committed, it was 
moved, that it should be committed to the same committee, 
which was preparing the bill for the land-tax : the design of 
this was, that the one should be tacked to the other, and 
then the Lords would have been put under a great difficulty. 
If they should untack the bill, and separate one from the 
other ; then the House of Commons would have insisted on 
a maxim that was now settled among them, as a funda- 
mental principle never to be" departed from, that the Lords 
caiuiot alter a money bill, but must either pass it or reject 
it, as it is sent to them : on the other hand, the Lords could 
not agree to any such tack without departing from that so- 
lemn resolution, aaIucIi was in their books, signed by most 
of them, never to admit of a tack to a money-bill : if they 
yielded now, they taught the House of Commons the way 
to impose any thing on them at their pleasure. 

The party in the House of Commons put their whole 
sti'ength to the carrying this point : they went further in 
their design : that v, liich was truly aimed at, by those in 
the secret, was to break the war, and to force a peace : 
they knew a bill aa itli this tack could not pass in the House 
of Peers : some lords of their party told myself that they 
would never pass the bill Avith this tack ; so by this means 
money would be stopped : this would put all matters in 
great confusion both at home and abroad ; and dispose our 
allies, as despairing of any help from us, to accept of such 
terms as France would offer them : so here was an artful 
design formed to break, at least to shake, the whole alli- 
ance. The court was very apprehensive of this ; and the 
Lord Godolphin opposed it with much zeal. The party 
disowned the design for some time, till they had brought 
up their whole strength, and thought they were sure of a 
majority. 

The debate held long : those who opposed it said, this 
now aimed at was a change of the whole constitution ; and 
was, in eflect, turning it into a commonwealth ; for it im- 
ported the denying, not only to the Lords, but to the 
crown, the free use of their negative in the legislature : if 
this was once settled, then as often as the public occasions 
made a money-bill necessary, every thing that thq majority 
6 



OP QUEEN ANNE. 73 

hi their House had a mind to, would be tacked to it. It is :i70.5. 
true some tacks had been made to money bills in King ^^-^^ 
Charles's time; but even these had still some relation to the 
money that was given : but here a bill, Avhose operation 
was only for one year, and which determined as soon as 
the four shillings in the pound was paid, was to have a per- 
petual law tacked to it, that must continue still in force 
after the greatest part of the act was expired and dead : to 
all this, in answer, some precedents were opposed, and the 
necessity of the bill for the preservation of the church was 
urged, which they saw was not like to pass, unless sent to 
the Lords so accompanied ; which some thought was very 
wittily pressed, by calling it a portion annexed to the 
church, as in a marriage ; and they said, they did not 
doubt but those of the court would bestir themselves to 
get it passed, when it was accompanied Miih two millions 
as its price. 

Upon the division, one hundred and thirty-fouv were for The laclc 
the tack, and two liundred and fifty were against it : so that ^j? ^^^^'^ ' 
design was lost by those who had built all their hopes upon 
it, and were now highly oft'ended with some of their own 
party, who had by their opposition wrought themselves 
into good places, and forsook that interest to A\hich they 
owed their advancement : these, to redeem themselves with 
their old friends, seemed still zealous for the bill, which 
after went on coldly and slowly in the House of Commons, 
for they lost all hopes of carrying it in the House of Lords, 
now that the mine they had laid was sprung. 

While this was going on in the House of Commons, the Debates 
debate about the Scotch act was taken up with great heat in scotiMd"* 
the House of Lords : the ill eflects that were like to follow 
upon it were opened in very tragical strains : it was, after 
much declaiming, moved, that the Lords might pass some 
votes upon it. The tories, who pressed this, intended to 
add a severe vote against all those who had advised it ; 
and it was visible at whom this was aimed. The whigs 
diverted this : they said, the putting a vote against an act 
passed in Scotland, looked like the claiming some supe- 
riority over them, which seemed very improper at that 
time, since that kingdom was possessed with a national 
jealousy on this head, that would be much increased by 
sucli a proceeding : more moderate methods were therefore 

VOL. IV. L 



v^-v/ 



74 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. proposed and agreed to, in order to the making up of ft 
breach in this island, with which they seemed to be then 
threatened. So an act was brought in, empowering the 
Queen to name commissioners to treat of a full miion of 
both kingdoms, as soon as the parliament of Scotland 
should pass an act to the same purpose : but if no such 
union should be agreed on, or if the same succession to the 
crown with that of England should not be enacted by a day 
l^refixed, then it was enacted, that after that day no Scotch- 
man, that was not resident in England or Ireland, or em- 
iployed in the Queen's service by sea or land, should be 
esteemed a natural-born subject of England : they added 
to this, a prohibition of the importation of Scotch cattle, 
and the manufacture of Scotland : all this fell in the House 
of Commons, when sent down to them, because of the 
money penalties which were put in the several clauses of 
the bill. The Commons were resolved to adhere to a no- 
tion, that had now taken such root among them, that it 
could not be shaken, that the Lords could not put any such 
clause in a bill begun with them : this was wholly new : 
penalties upon transgressions could not be construed to be 
a giving of money : the Lords were clearly in possession of 
proceeding thus ; so that the calling it in question, was an 
attempt on the share which the Lords had in the legislature. 
The Commons let this bill lie on the table, and began a new 
one to the same purpose : it passed : and the following 
Christmas was the day prefixed for the Scotch to enact the 
succession, or on failure thereof, then this act was to have 
its effect. A great coldness appeared in many of the Com- 
mons, who used to be hot on less important occasions : 
they seemed not to desire that the Scotch should settle the 
succession ; and it was visible that some of them hoped 
that the Lords would have used their bill as they had used 
that sent down by the Lords. Many of them were less 
concerned in the fate of the bill, because it diverted the 
censure which they had intended to fix on the Loi d Trea- 
surer. The Lords were aware of this, and passed the bill. 
Those who wished well to the union, were afraid that 
tlie prohibition, and the declaring the Scots aliens after the 
day prefixed, would be looked on as thrcatcnings : and 
they saw cause to apprehend, that ill-tempered men in that 
kingdom would use this as a handle to divert that nation. 




OF GUEEN ANNE. 
which was already much soured, from hearkening to any 
motion that might tend to promote the union, or the de- 
claring the succession : it was given out by these, that this 
was an indignity done their kingdom, and that they ought 
not so much as to treat ^^ith a nation that threatened them 
in such a manner. The Marquis of Tweedale excused 
himself from serving longer: so the Duke of Argyle, whose 
father was lately dead, was named to be sent dowTi com- 
missioner to hold a parliament in Scotland : he was then 
very young, and was very brave. 

This being dispatched easier than was expected, the Complaint* 
parliament went on to other business : complaints of an ill mk^'ty 
management both at tlie board of the Prince s council and 
at sea rose very high : this House of Commons, during the 
whole continuance of the parliament, never appointed a 
committee to look into those matters, which had been 
formerly a main part of their care : they saw things were 
ill conducted, but the chief managers of sea affairs were 
men of their party, and that atoned for all faults, and made 
them unwilling to find them out, or to censure them : the 
truth was, the Prince was prevailed on to continue still 
in the Admiralty, by those who sheltered themselves under 
his name : though this brought a gi'eat load on the govern- 
ment. The Lords went on as they had done the former 
session, examining into all complaints : they named two 
committees, the one to examine the books of the Admiralty, 
the other to consider the proceedings at sea : no progress 
was made in the first of these ; for though there was a great 
deal suggested in private, yet since this seemed to be com- 
plaining of the Prince, none would appear directly against 
him : but the other afforded matter enough, both for inquiry 
and censure : the most important, and that >vhich had the 
worst consequences was, that though there were twenty-two 
ships appointed for cruising, yet they had followed that 
service so remissly, and the orders -sent them were so lan- 
guid, and so little urgent, that three diligent cruising ships 
could have performed all the services done by that nu- 
merous fleet : this was made out -in a scheme, in which 
all the days of their being out at sea were reckoned up, 
which did not exceed what three cruisers might have 
performed. It did not appear, whether this was only 
the effect of sloth or ignorance, or if there lay any designed 




HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
treachery at bottom ; it seemed very plain, -that there was 
treachery somewhere, at least among the imder officers : 
for a French privateer being taken, they found among 
his papers instructions sent him by his owners, in which he 
was directed to lie in some stations, and to avoid others : 
and it happened that this agreed so exactly with the orders 
sent from the Admiralty, that it seemed that could not 
be by chance, but that the directions were sent ujjon sight 
of the orders. The Queen began this winter to come to 
the House of Lords upon great occasions to hear their de- 
bates, which as it was of good use for her better informa- 
tion, so it was very serviceable in l)riuging the House into 
better order. The first time she came, was when the 
debate w as taken up concerning the Scotch act : she knew 
the Lord Treasurer was aimed at by it, and she diverted 
the storm by her endeavours, as well as she restrained 
it by her presence. 
The bill She came likewise thither to hear the debates upon 

aciainst oc- ., , .,, . . -, ^ . • • i j. 

casionai the bill agamst occasional conformity, whicii was sent 
coniorraity ^p ^jy (he Commons ; if it had not been for the Queen's 

debated and , . "^ ' , , , i . 

rejected by bciug prcseut, there would have been no long debate on 
the Lords, ^jjj^j head, for it w as scarce possible to say much, that 
had not been formerly said ; but to give the Queen full 
information, since it was supposed, that she had heard 
that matter only on one side, it was resolved to open 
the whole matter in her hearing ; the topics most insisted 
on were, the quiet that we enjoyed by the toleration, on 
which head the severities of former reigns were laid open, 
both in their injustice, cruelty, and their being managed 
only to advance popery, and other bad designs : the peace- 
able behaviour of the dissenters, and the zeal tlioy ex- 
pressed for the Queen, and her government, was also 
copiously set forth ; while others shewed a malignity to it. 
That which w^as chiefly urged was, that every new law 
made in the matter, altered the state of things from what it 
was when the act for toleration first passed ; this gave the 
dissenters an alarm, they might from thence justly con- 
clude, that one step would be made after another, till 
tlie whole effect of that act should be overturned. It did 
not appear from the behaviour of any among tlicm, that 
they were not contented Avith the toleration they enjoyed, 
or that they were carrying on designs against the church : 




OF QUEEN ANNE. 

ill that case it might be reasonable to look for a farther se- 
curity, but nothing tending that way was so much as pre- 
tended : all went on jealousies and fears, the common 
topics of sedition. On the other hand, to support the bill, 
old stories were brought up to shew, how restless and 
imquiet that sort of men had been in former times. When 
it came to tlic question, whether the bill should be read 
a second time or not, it went for the negative by a majority 
of twenty lords. 

Another debate, that brought the Queen to the House, Bishop 
was concerning Watson, late Lord Bishop of St. David's : practice* 
his business had been kept long on foot in the courts 
below, by all the methods of delay that la\vyers could 
invent: after five years pleading the concluding judgment 
was given in the Exchequer, that he had no riglit to the 
temporalities of that bishopric : and that being affirmed in 
the Exchequer-chamber, it was now by a writ of error 
brought before the Lords, in the last resort: but as the 
House seemed now to be set, he had no mind to let it go to 
a final decision : so he delayed the assigning the errors of 
judgment, till the days were lapsed, in which, according to 
a standing order, errors ought to be assigned, upon a writ 
of error : in default of which, the record was to be sent 
back. He suffered the time to lapse, though particular 
notice was ordered to be given him, on the last day, in 
Avhich, according to the standing order, he might have 
assigned his eiTors : and the House sat that day some 
hours on purpose waiting for it. Some weeks after that, 
when the session was so near an end, that he thought 
his cause could not be heard during the session, and so 
must in course have been put off to another session, he pe- 
titioned for leave to assign his errors : this was one of the 
most solemn orders that related to the judicature of the 
Lords, and had been the most constantly stood to : it was 
not therefore thought reasonable to break through it, in fa- 
vour of so bad a man, of whom they were all ashamed, 
if parties could have any shame : he had aftected, in every 
step he had made, to seek out all possible delays for keeping 
the see still void, which by reason of a bad bishop and a 
long vacancy, was fallen into great disorder ; yet, after all 
this, he had still by law the benefit of a writ of error, which 
he might bring in any subsequent session of parliament. 




HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
Upon this the Queen resolved to fill that see : and she 
promoted to it the celebrated Dr. Bull, who had writ the 
learned est treatise that this age had produced, of the doc- 
trine of the primitive church concerning the Trinity : this 
had been so well received all Europe over, that in an as- 
sembly general of the clergy of France, the Bishop of 
Meaux was desired to write over to a correspondent he 
had in London, that they had such a sense of the service 
he had done their common faith, that upon it they sent him 
their particular thanks : I read the letter, and so 1 can de- 
liver it for a certain truth, how uncommon soever it may 
seem to be. The Queen had a little before this promoted 
Dr. Beveridge to the see of St. Asaph, who had shewed 
himself very learned in ecclesiastical knowledge. They 
were both pious and devout men, but were now declining ; 
both of them being old, and not like to hold out long. 
Soon after this the see of Lincoln became vacant by that 
Bishop's death. Dr. Wake was after some time promoted 
to it ; a man eminently learned, an excellent writer, a good 
preacher, and, which is above all, a man of an exemplary 
life. 
Desiijns A dcsigu was formed in this session of parliament, but 

tuti.eEieo- there was not strength enough to carry it on at this time, 
toress of the Earl of Rochester gave a hint of it in the House of 
Lords, by saying, that he had a motion of great conse- 
quence to the security of the nation, which he would not 
make at this time, but would do it when next they should 
meet together. He said no more to the House ; but in pri- 
vate discourse he o\^Tied it was for bringing over the Elec- 
toress of Hanover to live in England : upon this I will di- 
gress a little to open the design and the views which he and 
some others might have in this motion. 

It seemed not natural to believe that a party, which had 
been ail along backward at best, and cold in every step 
that was made in settling the succession in that family, 
should become all on the sudden such converts as to be 
zealous lor it ; so it was not an unreasonable jealousy ta 
suspect, that somewhat lay hid under it. It was thought 
that they either knew, or did apprehend, that this would 
not be acceptable to the Queen; and they being highly 
displeased with the measures she took, went into (his de- 
sign both to vex her, and in hopes that a faction might arise 




OF QUEEN ANNE, 
mit of it, which might breed a distraction in our councils, 
and some of them might hope thereby to revive the Prince 
of ^^'ales's pretensions. They reckoned such a motion 
would be popular : and if either the court or tlie vvhiirs, on 
whom the court was now beginning to look more favour- 
ably, should oppose it, this would cast a load on them as 
men, who after all the zeal they had expressed for that suc- 
cession, did now, upon the hopes of favour at court, throw 
it up : and those who had been hitherto considered as the 
enemies of that house, might hope, by this motion, to over- 
come all the prejudices that the nation had taken up against 
them, and they might create a merit to themselves in the 
minds of that family, by this early zeal which they resolved 
now to express for it. 

This was set on foot among all the party; but the more 
sincere among them could not be prevailed on to act so 
false a part, though they were told this was the likeliest 
way to advance the pretended Prince of Wales's interests. 

I now come to give an account of the last business of The House 
this session, with which the parliament ended. It was "o,^°fited°* 
formerly told what proceedings had been at law upon the lo prison 
election at Aylesbury ; the judgment that the Lords gave in ^ng^^of" 
that matter was executed, and upon tliat live others of the Aviesbary. 
inhabitants brought their actions against the constables 
upon the same grounds. The House of Commons looked 
on this as a great contempt of their votes, and they voted 
this a breach of privilege, to which they added a new, 
and till then unheard-of crime, that it was contrary to the 
declaration that they had niade ; upon that they sent their 
messenger for these tive men, and committed them to New- 
gate, where they lay three months prisoners : they were all 
the while well supplied, and much visited, so they lay 
without making any application to tlie House of Commons: 
it was not thought advisable to move in such a matter, 
till all the money bills were passed ; then motions were 
made, in the interval between the terms, upon the statute 
for a habeas corpus ; but the statute relating only to com- 
mitments by the royal authority, this did not lie witliin it. 

When the term came, a motion was made in the Queen's 
Bench upon the common law, in behalf of the prisoners for 
a habeas corpus ; the lawyers who moved it produced the 
commitment, in which their offence was set forth, that they 



v-%-*^ 



80 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. ijad claimed the benefit of the law in opposition to a vote 
of the House of Commons to the contrary ; they said the 
subjects were sjoverned by the laws, which they might, and 
were bound to know, and not by the votes of a house of 
parliament, which they were neither bound to know, nor 
to obey. Three of the judges were of opinion, that the 
court would take no cognizance of that matter ; the Chief 
Justice was of another mind ; he thought a general warrant 
of commitment for a breach of privilege was of the nature 
of an execution ; and, since the ground of the commitment 
was specified in the warrant, he thought it plainly appeared 
that the prisoners had been guilty of no legal otfence, and 
that therefore they ought to be discharged : he was but one 
against three, so the prisoners were remanded. 

Upon that they moved for a ^wit of error to bring the 
matter before the Lords ; that was only to be come at by 
petitioning the Queen to order it : the Commons were 
alarmed at this, and made an address to the Queen, setting 
forth that they had passed all the money bills, thertfore 
they hoped her Majesty would not grant this. Ten judges 
agreed, that in civil matters a petition for a writ of error 
was a petition of right, and not of grace : two of them only 
were of another mind ; it was therefore thought a very 
strange thing, wiiich might have most pernicious conse- 
quences, for a House of Commons to desire the Queen not 
to grant a petition of right, which was plainly a breach of 
law and of her coronation oath : they also took on them to 
affirm, that the writ did not lie ; though that was clearly the 
work of the judicature to declare whether it lay or not, and 
that was unquestionably the right of the Lords ; they only 
could determine that : the supplying the public occasions 
was a strange consideration to be otFered the Queen as an 
argument to persuade her to act against law: as if they had 
pretended that they had bribed her to infringe the law, and 
to deny justice. Money given for public service was given 
to the country, and to themselves, as properly as to the 
Queen, 

The Queen answered their address, and in it said, that 
the stopping proceedings at law, was a matter of such con- 
sequence, that she must consider well of it: this was 
thought so cold that they returned her no thanks for it ; 
though a well-composed House of Commons would car- 



^^*^ 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 81 

tainly have thanked her, for that tender regard to law and i^^s. 
justice. The House of Commons carried their anger far- 
ther ; they ordered the prisoners to be taken out of Xew- 
gate, and to be kept by their serjeant : they also ordered 
the lawyers and the solicitors to be taken into custody, for 
appearing in behalf of the prisoners. These were such 
strange and unheard-of proceedings, that by them the minds 
of all the people were much alienated from the House of 
Commons. But the prisoners were under such manage- 
ment, and so well supported, that they would not submit, 
nor ask pardon of the House ; it was generally believed 
that they were supplied and managed by the Lord Whar- 
ton : they petitioned the House of liOrds for relief, and the 
Lords resolved to proceed in the matter by sure and regular 
steps. They tirst came to some general resolutions, that 
neither house of parliament could assume or create any 
new privilege, that they had not been formerly possessed 
of: that subjects claiming their rights in a course of law, 
against those who had no privilege, could not be a breach 
of privilege of either house : that the imprisoning the men 
of Aylesbury, for acting contrary to a declaration made by 
the House of Commons, was against law : that the com- 
mitting their friends and their counsel for assisting them, 
in order to the procuring their liberty in a legal way, was 
contrary to law : and that the writ of error could not be 
denied without breaking the magna charta and the laws of 
England. These resolutions were communicated to the 
House of Commons at a conference. 

They made a long answer to them : in it they set forth, 
that the right of determining elections was lodged only 
with them, and that therefore they only could judge who 
had a right to elect ; they only were the judges of their 
own privileges, the Lords could not intermeddle in it : they 
quoted very copiously the proceedings in the year 1675, 
upon an appeal brought against a member of their House ; 
they said their prisoners ought only to apply themselves to 
them for their liberty, and that no motion had ever been 
made for a wTit of eiTor in such a case. Upon this second 
conference, according to form, the matter was brought to a 
free conference, where the point was fully argued on both 
sides : the city and the body of the nation were on the Lords' 
side in the matter. Upon this the Lords drew up a full re- 

VOL. IV. M 



82 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1T05. presentation of the whole thing, and laid it betbre the 
Queen, with an earnest prayer to her Majesty, to give order 
for the writ of error : this was thought so well drawn, that 
some preferred it to those of the former sessions ; it con- 
tained a long and clear deduction of the whole aflfair, with 
great decency of style, but with many heavy reflections on 
the House of Commons. 

By this time the whole business of the session was 
brought to a conclusion ; for the Lords, who had the money 
bills, would not pass them, till this was ended : they carried 
their representation to the Queen, who in ansAver to it told 
them, that she would have granted the writ of error, but she 
saw it was necessary to put a present conclusion to the 
session. This being reported to the House, was looked on 
by them as a clear decision in their favour ; therefore they 
ordered their humble thanks to be immediately returned to 
her Majesty for it. An hour after that, the Queen came 
to the House of Lords, and passed all the bills, and ended 
the session, with a speech full of thanks for the supplies so 
readily granted : she took notice with regret of the effects 
of the ill humour and animosity that had appeared, and 
spoke of the narrow escape we had made, which she hoped 
would teach all persons to avoid such dangerous experi- 
ments for the future : this was universally understood to 
be meant of the tack, as indeed it could be meant of no- 
thing else. 
The end of Thus this scssiou, and with it this parliament, came to an 
mmir*^''^ end : it was no small blessing to the Queen, and to the na- 
tion, that they had got well out of such hands. They had 
discovered, on many occasions, and very manifestly, what 
lay at bottom with most of them, but they had not skill 
enough to know how to manage their advantages, and to 
make use of their numbers ; the constant successes with 
which God had blessed the Queen's reign, put it out of their 
power to compass that which was aimed at by them, the 
forcing a peace, and of consequence the delivering all up 
to France. Sir Christopher Musgrave, the wisest man of the 
party, died before the last session ; and by their conduct 
after his death, it appeared that they wanted his direction. 
He had been at the head of the opposition, that was made 
in the last reign from the begimiing to the end ; but he gave 
up many points of great importance in the critical minute, 



ment. 



OP QUEEN ANNE. 83 

ibr which I had good reason to believe that he had 12,000Z. i705. 
from the late King, at dift'erent times. At his death it ap- ""^"^ 
peared that he was much richer than, by any visible com- 
putation, he could be valued at ; which made some cast an 
imputation on his memory, as if he had received great 
sums even from France. 

I shall conclude the relation of tiiis parliament with an Bills that 
account of some things that were begun, but not perfected passed? 
by them : there was a bill offered for the naturalization of 
some hundreds of Frenchmen, to which the Commons added 
a clause, disabling the persons so naturalized from voting 
in elections of parliament : the true reason of this was, be- 
cause it was observed that the French among us gave in 
all elections their votes for those who were most zealous 
against France; and yet, with an apparent disingenuity, 
some gave it as a reason for such a clause, that they must 
be supposed so partial to the interests of their OAvn country, 
that it was not fit to give them any share in oui' government. 
The Lords looked on this as a new attempt, and the clause 
added was a plain contradiction to the body of the bill, 
which gave them all the rights of natural-born subjects, 
and this took from them the chief of them all, the choosing 
their representatives in parliament : they v> ould not agree to 
it, and the Conmiohs resolved not to depart from it ; so with- 
out coming to a free conference, the bill fell with the session. 

Another bill was begun by the Lords against the papists : 
it was occasioned by several complaints brought from many 
parts of the kingdom, cliiefly from Cheshire, of the prac- 
tices and insolence of those of that religion : so a bill was 
ordered to be brought in, with clauses in it, that would have 
made the act passed against them four years before, prove 
effectual ; which, for want of these, has hitherto been of no 
effect at all : this passed in the House of Lords, and was 
sent to the Commons. They had no mind to pass it, but to 
avoid the ill effects of their refusing such a bill, they added 
a clause to it, containing severe penalties on papists who 
should once take the oaths, and come into the communion 
of our church, if they should be guilty of any occasional 
conformity with popery afterwards : they fancied that this 
of occasional conformity was so odious to the Lords, that 
every clause that condemned it, would be rejected by them: 



"-^-^^ 



84 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. but when they came to understand that the Lords were re- 
solved to agree to the clause, they would not put it to that 
hazard: so the bill lay on their table, and slept till the 
prorog:ation. 

A general self-denying bill was oflered in the House of 
Commons, by those very men, who, in the first session of 
parliament, when they hoped for places themselves, had 
opposed the motion of such a bill with great indignation : 
now the scene was a little altered, they saw they were not 
like to be favourites, so they pretended to be patriots. This 
looked so strangely in them, that it was rejected : but ano- 
ther bill of a more restrained nature passed, disabling some 
oflScers, particularly those that were concerned in the Prize 
Office, from serving in parliament : to this a general clause 
was added, that disabled all who held any office that had 
been created since the year 1684, or any office that should 
be created for the future, from sitting in parliament : this 
passed among them, and was sent to the Lords, who did 
not think fit to agree to so general a clause, but consented 
to a particular disability, put on some offices by name : 
the Commons did not agree to this alteration ; they would 
have all or nothing : so the bill fell. 

The conclusion of the parliament set tiie whole nation in 
a general ferment : both sides studied how to dispose peo- 
ple's minds in the new elections, with gTeat industry and 
zeal : all people looked on the affairs of France, as reduced 
to such a state, that the war could not run beyond the pe- 
riod of the next parliament: a w^ell chosen one must prove 
a public blessing, not only to England, but to all Europe ; 
as a bad one would be fatal to us at home, as well as to 
olur allies abroad : the affairs of France were run very low : 
all methods of raising money were now exhausted, and 
could afford no great supplies : so, in imitation of our Ex- 
chequer bills, they began to give out mint bills; but they 
could not create that coufideuce, whicli is justly put in par- 
liamentary credit. The French had hopes from their party 
here in England, and there was a disjointing in the several 
provinces of the United Netherlands : but as long as we 
were firm and united, we had a groat influence on the states, 
at least to keep things entire during the w ar : so it was vi- 
sible that a good election in England must give such a pros- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 85 

pect for three years, as would have a great influence on all i705. 
the affairs of Europe. v*^^^ 

I must, before I end the relation of the parliament, say proceedings 
somewhat of the convocation that attended upon it, though *'» ^*»f <^"- 
it was then so little considered, that scarce any notice was 
taken of them, and they deserved that no mention should 
be made of them. The lower house continued to proceed 
with much indecent violence : they still held their interme- 
diate sessions, and brought up injurious and reflecting ad- 
dresses to the upper house, which gave a veiy large exer- 
cise to the patience and forbearance of the Archbishop and 
bishops ; the Archbishop, after he had borne long with their 
perverseness, and saw no good eflect of it, proceeded to an 
ecclesiastical monition against their intermediate meetings : 
this put a stop to that, for they would not venture on the 
censures, that must in course follow, if no regard was had 
to the monition. At the final prorogation, the Archbishop 
dismissed them with a wise, well-composed speech : he laid 
open to them their indecent behaviour, and the many wrong 
steps they had made : to this he added a severe, but grave 
reprimand, with much good advice. The governing men 
among them were headstrong and factious, and designed to 
force themselves into preferments by the noise they made, 
and by the ill humour that they endeavoured to spread 
among the clergy, who were generally soured, even with 
relation to the Queen herself, beyond what could be ima- 
gined possible. 

Now having given a full relation of our counsels and 
other affairs at home, I shall next consider the progress of 
those abroad. The first operation of the campaign was be- 
fore Gibraltar : Leak was sailing from Lisbon thither, a^d 
as he went out he met Dilks, who was sent from England 
to increase his force ; by this addition he had a strong fleet 
of thirty men of war, so he held on his course with all ex- 
pedition, hoping to find Pointy in the Bay of Gibraltar ; The siege oi 
but a great storm had blown all but five ships up the Me- GibraUar 
diterranean. Pointy remained only with these, when he 
was surprised by Leak, who did quickly overpower him, 
and took three capital ships ; the other two, that were the 
greatest of them, were run ashore, and burnt near Mar- 
bella. Leak sailed to the Levant, to see if he could over- 
take those ships that the wind had driven from the rest ; 



^6 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705, )j|it atler a fruitless pursuit for some days, he returned back 
to Gibraltar : that garrison was now so well supplied, that 
the Spaniards lost all hopes of being able to take it ; so 
they raised the siege, turning it into a very feeble blockade. 
This advantage came at the same time that Verue was lost, 
to balance it, 
Mlribr"^^ ""^ Now the campaign was to be opened, the Duke of Marl- 
rough borough designed that the Moselle should be the scene of 
Tvlers^'' ^'^ actiou, and care had been taken to lay up magazines of all 
sorts in Triers : the states consented that he should cany 
the gieatest part of their army to the Moselle, and resolved 
to lie on the defensive upon their own frontiers ; for they 
reckoned that how strong soever the Elector of Bavaria's 
army was at that time, yet whensoever France should be 
pressed with so great a force as they reckoned would be 
on the Moselle, he would be ordered to send such detach- 
ments thither, that his army would be quickly diminished, 
and so would not have the superior strength long. Prince 
Lewis, of Baden, seemed to like this scheme of the campaign 
so well, and had concurred so cordially in the concert of it 
during the winter, that no doubt was made of his being both 
able and willing to enter upon this new scene of the war : 
but as the Duke of Marlborough Avas setting out, depend- 
ing on his concurrence, he received an express from him, 
excusing himself both on his own want of health, and be- 
cause the force he had about him was not considerable, 
nor was that, which he expected, like to come to him so 
soon as might be wished for. This could not stop the 
Duke of Marlborough, who had set his heart on opening 
the campaign in those parts, and had great hopes of suc- 
cess : so he resolved to push the matter as far as he could. 
He went to the Prince of Baden to concert matters with 
him ; whose ill health seemed only to be a pretence : it 
was true, that the princes and circles of the empire had not 
sent in their quotas, but it appeared that there was already 
strength enough, in conjunction with the army that the 
Duke of Marlborough was to bring, to advance, and open 
the campaign with great advantage, at least till detach- 
ments should come from other parts : the Prince of Baden 
at last consented to this, and promised to follow with all 
the forces he could bring. 
The Duke of Marlborough was so satisfied witli these 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 87 

assurances, that he came back to his army, and quickened i^o"). 
their march, so that he brought them to Triers ; and he ad- -^^ 
vanced eight leagues further, through so many defiles, that the'prinoe 
the French might easily have made his march both dan- "<" Ba*eD. 
gerous and difl&cult. He posted himself very near Mar- 
shal Villars's camp, not doubting but that the Prince of 
Baden would quickly follow him : instead of that, he repeat- 
ed his former excuse of want of health and force. That 
which gave the worst suspicions of him was, that it appeared 
plainly, that the French knew what he intended to do, and 
their management shewed they depended on it, for they or- 
dered no detachments to increase M. Villars's army : on the 
contrary, the Elector of Bavaria, having the superior 
force, pressed the states on their frontier. Huy was be- 
sieged and taken, after it had, beyond all expectation, held 
out ten days : Liege was attacked next ; the town was 
taken, but the citadel held out. Upon this, the states sent 
to the Duke of Marlborough to march back with all possi- 
ble haste : he had then eat up the forage round about him, 
and was out of all hope of the Prince of Baden's coming 
to join him; so he saw the necessity of marching back, 
after he had lost some weeks in a fruitless attempt: he 
made such haste in his march, that he lost many of his 
men in the way, by fatigue and desertion. The French 
gave him no trouble, neither while he lay so near their 
camp, nor when he drew off to march away with so much 
haste. To complete the ill conduct of the Germans, those wim foiled 
who were left with the magazines at Triers, pretending ^^' 
demger, destroyed them all, and abandoning Triers, retired 
back to the Rhine. 

The Prince of Baden's conduct, through this whole mat- 
ter, was liable to great censure : the worst suspicion was, 
that he was corrupted by the French. Those who did not 
carry their censure so far, attributed his acting as he did to 
his pride, and thought he, envying the Duke of Marlbo- 
rough, and apprehending that the whole glory of the cam- 
paign would be ascribed to him, since he had the stronger 
army, chose rather to defeat the whole design, than see an- 
other carry away the chief honour of any successes that 
might have happened. The Duke of Marlborough came 
back in good time to raise the siege of the citadel of Liege'; 
and he retook Huy in three days : after that, in conjunction 




HISTORY OP THE REIGN 
with the Dutch army, he advanced towards the French 
TheDokl of hncs : he for some days amused them with feints ; at last 
Maribo- he made the attack where he had designed it, and broke 
through u.e' through the lines, and gave a great defeat to the body of 
French t^g Frcuch that defended them, with the loss only of seven 
men on his side ; and so without more opposition he came 
very near Louvain, the Dyle ruruiing between his camp 
and the town : a deluge of rain fell that night, and swelled 
the Dyle so, that it was not possible to pass it. This gave 
the French time to recover themselves out of the first con- 
sternation that the advantages he had gained put them in : 
after a few days, when the passing the Dyle was practica- 
ble, the Duke of Marlborough gave orders for it : but the 
French were posted with so much advantage (m the other 
The Dutch side, that the Dutch generals persuaded the deputies of the 
wonidnot states, that they must run a great risk if they should 
battle. venture to force the passage. The Duke of Marlborough 
was not a little mortified with this, but he bore it calmly, 
and moved another way. After some few motions, another 
occasion was oflered, which he intended to lay hold on : 
orders were given to force the passage ; but a motion 
through a wood, that was thought necessary to support that, 
was not believed practicable ; so the deputies of the states 
were again possessed with the danger of the attempt; and 
they thought their affairs were in so good a condition, that 
such a desperate undertaking, as that seemed to be, was 
not to be ventured on. 

This was very uneasy to the Duke, but he was forced to 
submit to it, though very unwillingly. All agreed that the 
enterprise was bold and doubtful : some thought it must 
have succeeded, though with some loss at first; and that if 
it had succeeded, it might have proved a decisive action : 
others, indeed, looked on it as too desperate. A great 
breach was like to arise upon this, both in the army and 
among the states at the Hague, and in the to^vns of Hol- 
land, in Amsterdam in particular ; where the burghers came 
in a body to the Stadthouse, complaining of the deputies, 
and that the Duke of Marlborough had not fuller powers. 

I can give no judgment in so nice a point, in which mili- 
tary men were of very different opinions, some justifying 
the Duke of Marlborough, as much as others censured him(. 
He shewed great temper on this occasion ; and though it 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 89 

gave him a very sensible trouble, yet he set himself to calm 1705. 
all the heat that was raised upon it. The campaign in Flan- ^-'^'^ 
ders produced nothing after this but fruitless marches, while 
our troops were subsisted in the enemy's country, till the 
time came of going into winter quarters. Prince Lewis's 
backwardness, and the caution of the deputies of the states, 
made this campaign less glorious than was expected ; for 
I never knew the Duke of Marlborough go out so full 
of hopes as in the beginning of it: but things had not 
answered his expectations. 

This summer the Emperor Leopold died : he was the The Empe- 
most knowing and the most virtuous prince of his com- and^c^^rat- 
munion ; only he wanted the judgment that was necessary ter. 
for conducting great affairs in such critical times. He was 
almost always betrayed, and yet he was so firm to those 
who had the address to insinuate themselves into his good 
opinion and confidence, that it was not possible to let him 
see those miscarriages that ruined his aff'airs so often, and 
brought them sometimes near the last extremities : of 
these every body else seemed more sensible than he him- 
self. He was devout and strict in his religion, and was so 
implicit in his submission to those priests who had credit 
with him, the Jesuits in particular, that he owed all his 
troubles to their counsels. The persecution they began in 
Hungary raised one great war ; which gave the Turks oc- 
casion to besiege Viemia, by which he was almost entirely 
swallowed up : this danger did not produce more caution : 
after the peace of Carlowitz, there was so much violence 
and oppression in the government of Hungary, both of 
papists and protestants, that this raised a second war there, 
which, in conjunction with the revolt of the Elector of Ba- 
varia, brought him a second time very near utter ruin : yet 
he could never be prevailed on either to punish, or so 
much as to suspect, those who had so fatally entangled his 
affairs ; that without foreign aid nothing could have ex- 
tricated them. He was naturally merciful to a fault, for 
even the punishment of criminals was uneasy to him. Yet 
all the cruelty in the persecution of heretics seemed to raise 
no relenting in him. It could not but be observed by all 
protestants, how much the ill influence of the popish re- 
ligion appeared in him, who was one of the mildest and 
most \irtuous princes of the age, since cruelty in the mat- 

VOL. IV. N 



90 HISTQRY OF THE REIGN 

^^ ters of religion had a full course under him, though it was 
as contrary to his natural temper, as it was to his interests, 
and proved oftener than once almost fatal to all his affairs. 
His son Joseph, elected King of the Romans, succeeded 
him both in his hereditary and elective dignities. It was 
given out, that he would apply himself much to business, 
and would avoid those rocks on which his father had 
struck, and almost split ; and correct those errors to which 
his father's easiness had exposed him. He promised to 
those ministers that the Queen and the states had in his 
court, that he would offer all reasonable terms to the Hun- 
garians ; and he consented to their setting a treaty on foot, 
in which they were to be the mediators, and become the 
guarantees, for the observance of such articles as should 
be agreed on ; and he gave great hopes that he would not 
continue in that subjection to the priests with which his 
father had been captivated. 

He desired to confer with the Duke of Marlboroiigh, and 
to concert all affairs with him : the Queen consented to 
this, and the Duke went to Vienna, where he was treated 
with great freedom and confidence, and he had all assurances 
given him that could be given in words. He found that the 
Emperor was highly dissatisfied with the Prmce of Baden, 
but he had such credit in the empire, especially with the 
circles of Suabia and Franconia, that it was necessary to 
bear with that which could not be helped. The Duke of 
Marlborough returned through the hereditary dominions to 
Berlin, where he had learned so perfectly to accommodate 
himself to that King's temper, that he succeeded in every 
thing he proposed, and renewed all treaties for one year 
longer. He came from thence to the court of Hanover, 
and there he gave them full assurances of the Queen's ad- 
hering firmly to their interests, in maintaining the succes- 
sion to the crown in their family, with which the Elector 
was fully satisfied ; but it appeared that the Electoress had 
a mind to be invited over to England. From thence he 
came back to Holland, and it was near the end of the year 
before he came over to England. Thus I have cast all that 
relates to him in one continued series, though it ran out 
into a course of many months. 
Aflairs in The German army was not brought together before Au- 
Geriuaiij. g^gj . jj ^yg^g ^ ^^^ bravc onc, yet it did not much ; the 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 91 

French gave way and retired before them : Haguenaw and 1^05. 
some other places were left by the French and possessed ^"'^^^ 
by the imperialists : a blockade was laid to Fort Lewis. 
But nothing was done by that noble army, equal either to 
their numbers and strength, or to the reputation that the 
Prince of Baden had formerly acquired. This was con- 
trary to the general expectation ; for it was thought, that, 
being at the head of so great an army, he would have 
studied to have signalized himself, if it had been but to 
rival the glory that the Duke of Marlborough and Prince 
Eugene had acquired. 

Prince Eugene had a hard time in Italy. He had a weak ^nd in 

Italy 

army, and it was both ill-provided and ill-paid : he was long 
shut up within the country of Bergamo ; at last he broke 
through to Cusano, where there was a very hot action be- 
tween him and the Duke of Vendome : both sides pre- 
tended they had the victory, yet the Duke of Vendome 
repassed the river, and the imperialists kept the field of 
battle. The French threatened Turin with a siege, but 
they begun with Chivas, which held out some months, and 
was at last abandoned : the Duke of Feuillade command- 
ed the army near Turin, and seemed to dispose every thing 
in order to a siege ; but the design was turned upon IN ice, 
though late in the year : they made a brave resistance for 
many weeks ; in December they were forced to capitulate, 
and the place was demolished by the French. 

The firmness that the Duke of Savoy expressed under 
all these losses, was the wonder of all Europe ; he had 
now but a small army of eight thousand foot and four thou- 
sand horse, and had scarce territory enough to support 
these ; he had no considerable places left him but Turin 
and Coni ; but he seemed resolved to be driven out of all, 
rather than abandon the alliance. His Dutchess, with all 
the clergy, and indeed all his subjects, prayed him to sub- 
mit to the necessity of his afiairs : nothing could sheike 
him : he admitted none of his bishops nor clergy into his 
councils, and, as his envoy the Count Briancon told me, he 
had no certain father confessor, but sent sometimes to the 
Dominicans, and sometimes to the Franciscans for a priest, 
when he intended to go to confession. 

I turn next to Spain, which was this year a scene of Affairs b 
most important transactions. The first campaign in Por- ^'""* 



92 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. tugal, before the hot season, produced nothing : the second 
campaign seemed to promise somewhat, but the conduct 
was so feeble, that though the Earl of Gall way did all that 
was possible to put things in a good posture, yet he saw a 
disposition in the ministers, and in their whole manage- 
ment, that made him often despair and wish himself out of 
the service. Fagel, that commanded the Dutch forces, 
acted in every thing in opposition to him, and it was visible 
that the ministers did secretly encourage that by which 
they excused themselves. 
A fleet and King Charles was so disgusted with these proceedings, 

aim V sent .i.i , . r- ■ • -r* i 

to Spain, that he was become quite weary of staying m Portugal : 
so when the fleet of the allies came to Lisbon with an army 
on board of above five thousand men, commanded by the 
Earl of Peterborough, he resolved to go aboard and to try 
his fortune with them. The Almirante of Castillo died 
about that time : some thought that was a great loss ; 
though others did not set so high a value upon him, nor 
on any of the intrigues that were among the gTandees at 
Madrid : they were indeed offended with several small mat- 
ters in King Philip's conduct, and with the ascendant that 
the French had in all their councils ; for they saw every 
thing was directed by orders sent from Versailles, and that 
their King was really but a viceroy : they were also highly 
provoked at some innovations made in the ceremonial, 
which they valued above more important matters ; many 
seemed disgusted at that conduct, and withdrew from the 
court. The Marquis of Leganes was considered as most 
active in infusing jealousies and a dislike of the govern- 
ment into the other grandees, so he was seizjed on, and sent 
prisoner to Navarre ; the grandees, in all their conduct, 
shewed more of a haughty sullenness in maintaining their 
own privileges, than of a generous resolution to free their 
countiy from the slavery under which it was fallen ; they 
seemed neither to have heads capable of laying any solid 
designs for shaking off the yoke, nor hearts brave enough 
to undertake it. 

Our fleet sailed from Lisbon with King Charles : they 
stopped at GibiJiltar, and carried along with them the 
Prince of Hesse, who had been so long Governor of Bar- 
celona, that he knew both the tempers, and the .•strength, 
and importance of the place. The first design of this 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 93 

expedition was concerted with the Duke of Savc?y ; and i'^'^^. 
the forces they had on board were either to join him, or to 
make an attempt on Naples or Sicily, as should be found 
most advisable : there were agents employed in diflferent 
parts of Spain to give an account of the disposition people 
were in, and of what seemed most practicable. A body 
of men rose in Catalonia about Vick : upon the knowledge 
King Charles had of this, and upon other advertisements 
that were sent to our court of the dispositions of those of 
that principality, the orders which King Charles desired 
were sent, and brought by a runner that Avas dispatched 
from the Queen to the fleet : so the fleet steered to the 
coast of Catalonia to try what could be done there. The 
Earl of Peterborough, who had set his heart on Italy, and 
on Prince Eugene, was not a little displeased with this, as 
appeared in a long letter from him, which the Lord Trea- 
surer shewed me. 

They landed not far from Barcelona, and were joined '^•'^J'^"'^^"' 
With many Miquelets, and others of the country ; these were lona. 
good at plundering, but could not submit to a regular dis- 
cipline, nor were they willing to expose themselves to dan- 
gerous services. Barcelona had a garrison of five thousand 
men in it ; these were commanded by officers, who were en- 
tirely in the interests of King Philip ; it seemed a very un- 
reasonable thing to undertake the siege of such a place, 
with so small a force ; they could not depend on the raw 
and undisciplined multitudes that came in to join them, 
who, if things succeeded not in their hands, would soon 
abandon them, or perhaps study to merit a pardon, by cut- 
ting their throats. A council of war was called, to consult 
on what could be proposed and done : Stanhope, who was 
one of them, told me, that both English and Dutch were all 
of opinion, that the siege could not be undertaken >\ith so 
small a force ; those within being as strong as they were, 
nor did they see any thing else worth the attempting : they 
therefore thought that no time was to be lost, but that they 
were all to go again on board, and to consider what course 
%vas next to be taken, before the season were spent, when 
the fleet would be obliged to return back again, and if they 
could not fix themselves any where before that time, they 
must sail back With the fleet. The Prince of Hesse only 
was of opinion, that they ought to sit doTVTi before Barcc- 



94 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. lona; he said, he had secret intelligence of the good affec- 
^^"^^ tions of many in the to\vn, who were well-known to him, 
and on whom he relied, and he undertook to answer for 
their success : this could not satisfy those who knew nO" 
thing of his secrets, and so could only judge of things by 
what appeared to them. 
Tke King The debate lasted some hours : in conclusion, the King 
Mege.^ ^ himself spoke near half an hour ; he resumed the whole de^ 
bate, he answered all the objections that were made against 
the siege ; and treated every one of those who had made 
them, as he answered them, with particular civilities ; he 
supported the truth of what the Prince of Hesse had assert- 
ed, as being known to himself; he said, in the state in which 
his affairs then stood, nothing could be proposed that had 
not great difficulties in it, all was doubtful, and much must 
be put to hazard ; but this seemed less dangerous than any 
other thing that was proposed : many of his subjects had 
come and declared for him, to the hazard of their lives ; it 
became him therefore to let them see, that he would run the 
same hazard with them : he desired that they would stay so 
long with him, till such attempts should be made, that all 
the world might be convinced that nothing could be done, 
and he hoped that till that appeared, they would not leave 
him ; he added, that if their orders did oblige them to leave 
him, yet he could not leave his own subjects : upon this 
they resolved to sit do^\Ti before Barcelona. They W'Cre 
all amazed to see so young a prince, so little practised in 
business, argue in so nice a point, with so much force, and 
conclude with such heroical resolutions. This proved 
happy in many respects : it came to be known afterwards, 
that the Catalans and Miquelets, who had joined them, hear- 
ing that they were resolved to abandon them, and go back 
to their ships, had resolved, either out of resentment, or 
that they might merit their pardon, to murder as many of 
them as they could. When this small army sat down be- 
fore Barcelona, they found they were too weak to besiege 
it; they could scarce mount their cannon : when they came 
to examine their stores, thry found (hem very defective ; 
and far short of the quanlilies that by their lists they ex- 
pected to find : whclher this flowed from treachery or care- 
lessness, I will not determine ; there is mucli of both in all 
our offices. It soon appeared, that the intelligence was true 



OP QUEEN ANNE. 95 

concerning the inclinations of those in the to\vn, their affec- i^05. 
tions were entire for King Charles : but they were over- ^"^"'^ 
awed by the garrison, and by Velasco, who, as well as the 
Duke of Popoli, who had the chief command, was devoted 
to the interests of King Philip. Deserters came daily from 
the town and brought them intelligence : the most consider- Fort Mont- 
able thing was, that Fort Montjuy was very ill guarded, it ^ ^'^''*'''" 
being thought above their strength to make an attempt on 
it; so it was concluded that all the hopes of reducing Bar- 
celona, lay in the success of their design on that fort. Two 
bodies were ordered to march secretly that night, and to 
move towards the other side of Barcelona, that the tiue de- 
sign might not be suspected, for all the hopes of success 
lay in the secrecy of the march. The first body consisted 
of eight hundred, and both the Prince of Hesse and the 
Earl of Peterborough led them : the other body consisted 
of six hundred, who were to follow these at some distance ; 
and were not to come above half way up the hill till further 
order : Stanhope led this body, from whom I had this ac- 
count. They drew up with them some small field pieces 
and mortars ; they had taken a great compass, and had 
marched all night, and were much fatigued by the time that 
they had gained the top of the hill ; three hundred of them, 
being commanded to another side of the fort, were sepa- 
rated from the rest, and, mistaking their way, fell into the 
hands of a body of men, sent up from the tovm to reinforce 
the garrison in the fort : before they were separated, the 
whole body had attacked the outworks, and carried them ; 
but while the Prince of Hesse was leading on his men, he re- 
ceived a shot in his body, upon which he fell ; yet he would 
not be carried off, but continued too long in the place giving 
orders, and died in a few hours, much and justly lamented. 
The governor of the fort, seeing a small body in possession 
of the outworks, resolved to sally out upon them, and drew 
up four hundred men in order to it ; these would soon have 
mastered a small and wearied body, disheartened by so 
great a loss ; so that if he had followed his resolution, all 
was lost, for all that Stanhope could have done, was, to re- 
ceive and bring off such as could get to him ; but one of 
those newly taken, happening to cry out, " O poor Prince 
of Hesse!" the governor, hearing this, called for him, and ex- 
amined him, and when he learned that both the Prince of 



96 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. Hesse and the Earl of Peterborough were with that body, 
^"^■'^ he concluded that the whole army was certainly coming up 
after them ; and reflecting on that, he thought it was not fit 
for him to expose his men, since he believed the body they 
were to attack ^^'x^uld be soon much superior to him ; so he 
resolved not to risk a sally, but to keep within and jnain- 
tain the fort against them. Thus the Earl of Peterborough 
continued quiet in the outAvorks, and being reinforced with 
more men, he attacked the fort, but with no great hopes of 
succeeding : he threw a few bombs into it ; one of these fell 
happily into the magazine of powder, and blew it up : by 
this, the governor and some of the best officers were killed, 
which struck the rest vdih such a consternation, that they 
And taken, delivered up the place. This success gave them great hopes, 
the toAvn lying just under the hill which the fort stood on : 
upon this, the part>' in Barcelona, that was well aflfected to 
King Charles, began to take heart, and to shew themselves : 
Barcelona and after a few days' siege, another happy bomb fell with 
capiiointtd. gQ good an effect, that the garrison was forced to capitulate. 
King Charles was received into Barcelona with great 
expressions of joy : in the first transport, they seemed 
resolved to break through the articles granted to the garri- 
son, and to make sacrifices of the chief officers at least. 
Upon that the Earl of Peterborough, with Stanhope and 
other officers, rode about the streets, to stop this fury, and to 
prevail with the people to maintain their articles religious- 
ly ; and in doing this. Stanhope said to me, they ran a 
greater hazard, from the shooting and fire that was flying 
about in that disorder, than they had done during the whole 
siege : they at last quieted the people, and the articles 
of capitulation were punctually observed. Upon this un- 
expected success, the whole principality of Catalonia 
declared for King Charles : I will not prosecute this rela- 
tion so minutely in other parts of it, haAing set down so 
particularly that which I had from so good a hand, chiefly 
to set forth the signal steps of Providence tliat did appear 
in this matter. 
K>ng ^ Soon after, our fleet sailed back to England, and Stan- 

leiterb. hopc was scut ovcr in it, to give a full relation of this great 
transaction : by him King Charles wrote to the Queen a 
long and clear account of all his affairs ; full of great ac- 
knowledgments of her assistance, with a high comnieuda- 
G 




OF QUEEN ANNE. 
tioii of all her subjects, more particularly of the Earl of 
Peterborough: the Queen was pleased to shew me the 
letter ; it was all \Mit in his o\^ti hand, and the French of it 
was so little conect, that it was not like what a secretary 
would have drawn for him : so from that I concluded he 
penned it himself. The Lord Treasurer had likewise 
another long letter from him, which he shewed me : it 
was all in bis own hand : one correction seemed to make it 
evident that he himself composed it. He wrote towards 
the end of the letter, that he must depend on his pro- 
tection ; upon reflection, that word seemed not fit for him 
to use to a subject, so it was dashed out, but the letters 
were still plain, and instead of it. Application was 'WTit 
over head : these letters gave a great idea of so yoimg and 
unexperienced a prince, who was able to wTite with so 
much clearness, judgment, and force. By all that is re- 
ported of the Prince of Lichtenstein, that King could not 
receive any great assistance from him : he was spoken 
of, as a man of a low genius, who thought of nothing 
but the ways of enriching himself, even at the hazard 
of ruining his master's business. 

Our aftairs at sea were more prosperous this year, than Affairs at 
they had been formerly : in the beginning of the season our ^^^• 
cruizers took so many of the French privateers, that we 
had some thousands of their seamen in our hands : we 
kept such a squadron before Brest, that the French fleet 
did not think fit to venture out ; and their Toulon squadron 
had suffered so much in the action of the former years, that 
they either could not, or would not venture out : by this 
means our navigation was safe, and our trade was pros- 
perous. 

The second campaign in Portugal ended worse than the 
first : Badajos was besieged, and the Earl of Gallway 
hoped he should have been quickly master of it ; but his 
hopes w ere not w ell grounded, for the siege was raised : in jhe siege of 
one action the Earl of Gallway's arm was broke by a can- Badajos 
non-ball : it was cut off, and for some days his life w as in 
great danger ; the miscarriage of the design heightening 
the fever that followed his wound, by the vexation that 
it gave him. But now upon the news from Catalonia, 
the councils of Portugal were quite changed : they had Thecounciu 
a better prospect than formerly of the reduction of Spain : ° ""^ "S • 

VOL. IV. o 



98 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. fiie war was now divided, which lay wholly upon them be- 
fore : and the French party in that court had no more the 
old pretence to excuse their councils by, which was, that it 
was not fit for them to engage themselves too deep in that 
war, nor to provoke the Spaniards too much, and so expose 
themselves to revenges, if the allies should despair and 
grow weary of the war, and recall their troops and fleets. 
But now that they saw the war earned on so far, in the re- 
motest corner of Spain, which must give a great diversion 
to King Philip's forces, it seemed a much safer, as well as 
it was an easier thing, to carry on the war with more vigour 
for the future. Upon this all possible assurances were 
given the Earl of Gallway, that thiugs should be conducted 
hereafter fully to his content. So that by two of his dis- 
patches, which the Lord Treasurer shewed me, it appeared 
that he was then fully convinced of the sincerity of their in- 
tentions, of which he was in great doubt, or rather despair- 
ing forraerlJ^ 

Affairs in In Hungary matters went on very doubtfully : Transyl- 
I'lgary. y^nia was almost entirely reduced ; Ragotzi had great 
misfortunes there, as the court of Vienna published the 
progress of the new emperor's arms, but this was not much 
depended on : They could not conceal on the other hand 
the great ravages that the malecontents made in other 
places : so that Hungary continued to be a scene of confu- 
sion and plunder. 
AnA in Po- Poland was no better : King Augustus's party continued 
film to him, though his long stay in Saxony gave credit to 
a report spread about, that he was resolved to abandon 
that kingdom, and to return to it no more : this summer 
passed over in motions, and actions of no great conse- 
quence : wiiat was gained in one place, was lost in another. 
Stanislaus got himself to be crowned : the old Cardinal, 
though summoned to Rome, would not go thither : he suf- 
fered himself to be forced to own Stanislaus, but died 
before his coronation, and that ceremony was performed 
by the Bishop of Cujavia : the Muscovites made as great 
ravages in Lithuania, as they had done formerly in Li- 
vonia : the King of Sweden was in perpetual motion : but 
though he endeavoured it much, he could not bring things 
to a decisive action. In the beginning of winter. King Au- 
gustus, with two pcfsons only, broke through Poland in 



land 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 99 

Oisguise, and got to the Muscovite army, which was put i''^^- 
under his command. The campaign went on all the >vinter 
season, which, considering the extreme cold in those parts, 
was thought a thing impracticable before. In the spring 
after, Reinschild, a Swedish general, fell upon the Saxon 
army, that was far superior to his in number : he had not 
above ten thousand men, and the Saxons were about 
eighteen thousand : he gave them a total defeat, killed 
about seven thousand, and took eight thousand prisoners, 
and their camp, baggage, and artillery: numbers upon 
such occasions are often swelled, but it is certain this was 
an entire victory : the Swedes gave it out, that they had 
not lost a thousand men in the action ; and yet even this 
great advantage was not like to put an end to the war, nor 
to the distractions into which that miserable kingdom 
was cast. In it the world saw the mischiefs of an elective 
government, especially when the electors have lost their 
virtue, and set themselves to sale. The King of Sweden 
continued in an obstinate aversion to all terms of peace : 
his temper, his courage, and his military conduct were 
much commended ; only all said he grew too savage, 
and was so positive and peremptory in his resolutions, 
that no applications could soften him : he would scarce 
admit them to be made : he was said to be devout almost 
to enthusiasm, and he was severely engaged in the Lutheran 
rigidity, almost equally against papists and Calvinists: 
only his education was so much neglected, that he had not 
an equal measure of knowledge to direct his zeal. 

This is such a general view of the state of Europe this Apariia- 

■ 1 1 ., . , • me lit chosen 

summer, as may serve to shew how things went on m every j^ Kntriand. 
part of it. I now return to England. The election of the 
members of the House of Commons was managed with 
zeal and industry on both sides: the clergy took great 
pains to infuse into all people tragical apprehensions of 
the danger the church was in. The universities were in- 
flamed with this, and they took all means to spread it over 
the nation with much vehemence. The danger the church 
of England was in, grew to be as the word given in an 
army ; men were known as they answered it : none carried 
this higher than the Jacobites, though they had made a 
schism in the chuich. At last, even the papists, both at 



100 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. home and abroad, seemed to be disturbed with the fearS 
^"^^^^ that the danger our church was in put them under : and 
this was supported by the Paris Gazette, thoujjh the party 
seemed concerned and ashamed of that. Books w ere -writ 
and dispersed over the nation with great industry, to pos- 
sess all the people with the apprehensions that the church 
was to be given up, that the bishops were betraying it, and 
that the court would sell it to the dissenters. They also 
hoped, that this campaign, proving less prosperous than 
had been expected, might put the nation into ill humour, 
which might furnish them with some advantages. In op- 
position to all this, the court acted wdth such caution and 
coldness, that the whigs had very little strength given them 
by the ministers, in managing elections : they seemed ra- 
ther to look on as indifferent spectators, but the whigs ex- 
erted themselves with great activity and zeal. The dis- 
senters, who had been formerly much divided, were now 
united entirely in the interest of the government, and joined 
with the whigs every where. 

When the elections were all over, the court took more 
heart : for it appeared that they were sure of a great ma- 
jority, and the Lord Godolphin declared himself more 
openly, than he had done formerly, in favour of the whigs. 
The first instance given of this was the dismissing of 
Wright, who had continued so long lord keeper, that he 
was fallen under a high degree of contempt on all sides, 
even the tories, though he was wholly theirs, despising 
him. He was sordidly covetous, and did not at all live 
suitably to that high post : he became extremely rich, yet I 
never heard him charged with bribery in his court ; but there 
was a foul rumour, with relation to the livings of the 
crown, that were given by the great seal, as if they were 
set to sale by the officers under him. 
Cowper The seals being sent for, they were given to Cowper, a 

lord keeper, gentleman of a good family, of excellent parts, and of an 
engaging deportment, very eminent in liis profession, and 
who had for many years been considered, as the man who 
spoke the best of any in the House of Commons : he was a 
very acoeptablc man to the whig parly : they had been 
much disgusted with the Lord Treasurer, for the coldness 
he expressed, as if he would have maintained a neutrality 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 101 

between the- two parties, though the one supported him, i"^*^^- 
while the other designed to ruin him : but this step went a 
great way towards the recoucilirig the Avhigs to him. 

A session of parliament met this summer in Scotland: 
there was a change made in the ministry there : those who 
were employed in the former session, could not undertake 
to carry a majority ; so all the Duke of Queensberry's 
friends were again brought into employment. The Duke 
of Argyle's instructions were, that he should endeavour to 
procure an act, settling the succession as it was in Eng- 
land, or to set on foot a treaty for the union of the two 
kingdoms. When he came to Scotland, and laid his in- 
structions before the rest of the ministers there, the Mar- 
quis of Annandale pressed that they should first try that, 
which was first named in the instructions, and he seemed 
confident, that if all who were in employments would con- 
cur in it, they should be able to caiTy it. Those of another 
mind, who were in their hearts for the pretended Prince of 
Wales, put this by with great zeal : they said they must not 
begin with that, which would meet with gTcat opposition, 
and be perhaps rejected : that Avould beget such an union 
of parties, that if they miscarried in the one, they would 
not be able to carry the other ; therefore they thought that 
tlie first proposition should be for the union : that was po- 
pular, and seemed to be a remote thing ; so there would be 
no great opposition made to a general act about it. Those 
who intended still to oppose it, would reckon they would 
find matter enough in the particulars, to raise a great oppo- 
sition, and so to defeat it. This course was agreed on, at An act iw a 
which the Marquis of Annandale was so highly olfended that \l^^^^;] j,^^, 
he concurred no more in the councils of those who gave the ed. 
other advice. Some did sincerely desire the union, as that 
which would render the whole island happy : others were 
in their hearts against it ; they thought it w as a plausible 
step, which they believed would run, by a long treaty, into 
a course of some years ; that during that time, they would 
be continued in their employments, and they seemed to 
think it was impossible so to adjust all matters, as to frame 
such a treaty as w ould pass in the parliament of both king- 
doms. The Jacobites concurred all heartily in this: it 
kept the settling the succession at a distance, and very few 
looked on the motion for tlie union, as any thing but a pre- 



102 

1705. 



The slate 
Ireland. 



A parlia- 
ment inEn; 
land. 



A S|)caker 
cjioseii. 



HISTORY OF THE REIUN 
tence to keep matters yet longer in suspense : so this 
being proposed in parliament, it was soon and readily 
agreed to, with little or no opposition. But that being 
over, complaints were made of the acts passed in the 
parliament of England : which carried such an appearance 
of threatening, that many thought it became them not to 
enter on a treaty till these should be repealed. It was 
carried, but not without difficulty, that no clause relating to 
that should be in the act, that empowered the Queen to 
name the commissioners; but that an address should be 
made to the Queen, praying her that no proceedings should 
be made in the treaty, till the act that declared the Scotch 
aliens by such a day, should be repealed. They also 
voted, that none of that nation should enter upon any such 
treaty till that were first done. This was popular, and no 
opposition was made to it ; but those who had ill intentions 
hoped that all would l)e defeated by it. The session run 
out into a great length, and in the harvest time, which put 
the country to a great charge. 

of In Ireland, the new heat among the protestants there, 
raised in the Earl of Rochester's time, and comiived at, if 
not encouraged by the Duke of Ormond, went on still : a 
body of hot clergymen, sent from England, began to form 
meetings in Dublin, and to have emissaries and a corres- 
pondence over Ireland, on design to raise the same fury 
in the clergy of that kingdom against the dissenters, that 
they had raised here in England. Whether tMs was only 
the effect of an unthinking and ill-2:overned heat among: 
them, or if it was set on by foreign practices, was not yet 
visible. It did certainly serve their ends ; so that it was not 
to be doubted, that they were not wanting in their endea- 
vours to keep it up, and to promote it, whether they were 
tlie original contrivers of it or not ; for indeed hot men, 
not practised in afl'airs, are apt enough, of their o>mi ac- 
cord, to run into wild and unreasonable extravagances. 
The parliament of England met in the end of October : 

>- the first struggle was about the choice of a speaker, by 
which a judgment was to be made of the temper and incli- 
nations of the members. The court declared for Mr. Smith : 
he was a man of clear parts, and of a good expression : he 
was then in no employment, but he had gone through great 
posts in the former reign, witli reputation and honour. He 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 103 

had been a commissioner of the Treasury and chancellor ^^^^ 
of the Exchequer : he had, from his first setting out in the 
world, been thoroughly in the principles and interests of the 
whigs, yet with a due temper in all personal things, with 
relation to the tories : but they all declared against him for 
Mr. Bromley, a man of a grave deportment and good mo- 
rals, but looked on as a violent tory, and as a great favourer 
of Jacobites, which appeared evidently in a relation he 
printed of his travels. Xo matter of that sort had ever been 
carried with such heat on both sides, as this was ; so that 
it was just to form a judgment upon it of the temper of the 
House. It went for Mr. Smith, by a majority of forty-four. 

The Queen, after she had confirmed this choice, made a 
speech, in which she recommended union to them in a 
very particular manner : she complained of the reports that 
were spread by ill-designing men, of the danger the church 
was in, who under these insinuations covered that, which 
they durst not own: she recommended the care of the pub- 
lic supplies to the Commons, and spoke of the Duke of 
Savoy in high and very obliging terms. This produced ad- 
dresses from both Houses, in which they expressed a detes- 
tation of those practices of infusing into her subjects ground- 
less fears concerning the church : this went easily ; for some 
kept out of the way, from whom it was expected that they 
would afterwards open more copiously on the subject. The 
chairmen of the several committees of the House of Com- 
mons were men of whom the court was well assured. 

The first matter, with which they commonly begin, is to 
receive petitions against the members returned, so that gave 
a further discovery of the inclinations of the majority: the 
corruption of the nation was grown to such a height, and 
there was so much foul practice on all hands, that there 
was, no doubt, great cause of complaint. The first elec- 
tion that was judged, was that of St. Albans, where the 
Dutchess of Marlborough had a house : she recommended 
Admiral Killigrcw to those in the town, ^a hich was done all 
England over, by persons of quality who had any interest 
in the burghers : yet, though much foul practice was proved 
on the other hand, and there was not the least colour of 
evidence to fix any ill practice on her, some reflected very 
indecently upon her: Bromley compared her to Alice Piers, 
ia King Edward the Third's time, and said many other viru- 




Debates 
at>oul Ihfc 
uext suc- 
cessor. 



HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
lent things against her ; for indeed she was looked upon, 
by the whole party, as the person who had reconciled the 
whigs to the Queen, from whom she was naturally very 
averse. Most of the controverted elections were carried in 
iavour of the whigs : in some few they failed, more by rea- 
son of private animosities, than by the strength of the other 
side. The House of Commons came readily in to vote all 
the supplies that were asked, and went on to provide pro- 
per funds for them. 

The most important debates that were in this session 
began in the House of Lords ; the Queen being present at 
them all. The Lord Haversham opened the motions of 
the tory side. He arraigned the Duke of Marlborough's 
conduct, both on the Moselle and in Brabant, and reflected 
severely on the Dutch, which he carried so far as to say, 
that the war cost them nothing ; and after he had wandered 
long in a rambling discourse, he came at last to the point 
which was laid to be the debate of the day : he said we 
had declared a successor to the crown, who was at a great 
distance from us, while the Pretender was much nearer ; 
and Scotland was armed and ready to receive him, and 
seemed resolved not to have the same successor, for whom 
England had declared. These were threatening dangers 
that hung over us, and might be near us. He concluded, 
that he did not see how they could be prevented, and the 
nation made safe, by any other way, but by inviting the 
next successor to come and live among us. The Duke of 
Buckingham, the Earls of Rochester, Nottingham, and 
Anglesey, carried on the debate with great earnestness. 
It was urged, that they had sworn to maintain the succes- 
sion, and by that they were bound to insist on this motion, 
since there was no means so sure to maintain it, as to have 
the successor upon the spot, ready to assume and maintain 
his right. It appeared through our whole history, that 
whosoever came first into Engianii had always carried it: the 
pretending successor might be in Eiigland within three days, 
whereas it might be three weeks before the declared suc- 
cessor could come : from thence it was inferred, that the 
danger was apparent and dreadful, if the successor should 
not be brought over. If King Charles had been in Spain, 
when the late King died, probably that would have pre- 
vented all this war, in which we were now engaged. With 



V— ,-^ 



0?* QUEEN ANNlS. 105 

these Lords, by a strange reverse, all the tories joined, arid it^O'- 
by another, and as strange a reverse, all the whigs joined 
in opposing it. They thought this matter was to be left 
wholly to the Queen ; that it was neither proper nor safe, 
either for the crown or for the nation, that the heir should 
not be in an entire dependance on the Queen ; a rivalry be- 
tween two courts might throw us into great distractions, and 
be attended with very ill consequences. The next sue- 
cessor had expressed a full satisfaction, and rested on the 
assurances the Queen had given her, of her firm adherence 
to her title, and to the maintaining of it. The nation was 
prepared for it, by the orders the Queen had given to name 
her in the daily prayers of the church ; great endeavours 
had been used to bring the Scotch nation to declare the 
same successor. It was true, we still wanted one great 
security ; we had not yet made any provision for carrying 
on the government, for maintaining the public quiet, for 
proclaiming and sending for the successor, and for keeping 
things in order till the successor should come : it seemed, 
therefore, necessary to make an effectual provision against 
the disorders that might happen in such an interval. This 
was proposed first by myself, and it was seconded by the 
Lord Godolphin, and all the whigs went into it ; and so 
the question was put upon the other motion, as first made 
by a previous division, whether that should be put or not, 
and was carried in the negative by about three to one. 

The Queen heard the debate, and seemed amazed at the 
behavour of some, who, when they had credit with her, and 
apprehended that such a motion might be made by the 
whigs, had possessed her with deep prejudices against it : 
for they made her apprehend, that when the next suc- 
cessor should be brought over, she herself would be so 
eclipsed by it, that she would be much in the successor's 
power, and reign only at her or his courtesy : yet these very 
persons, having now lost their interest in her, and theiF 
posts, were driving on that very motion, which they had 
made her apprehend was the most fatal thing that could be- 
fal. This the Dutchess of Marlborough told me, but she 
named no person : and upon it a very black suspicion was 
taken up, by some, that the proposers of this matter knew, 
or at least believed, that the Queen would not agree to the 
motion, which way soever it might be brought to her; whe- 

VOL. IV. p 



106 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. ther in an address or in a bill : and then they might reckon, 
"""^^^^ that this would give such a jealousy, and create such a mis- 
understanding between her and the parliament, or rather 
the whole nation, as would unsettle her whole government, 
and put all things in disorder. But this was only a suspi- 
cion, and more cannot be made of it. 
A bill for The Lords were now engaged to go on in the debate for a 
a regency, j^gggj^^y . j|- ^.^g opened by the Lord Wharton in a manner 
that charmed the whole house. He had not been present 
at the former debate, but he said he was much delighted 
with what he had heard concerning it ; he said he had ever 
looked on the securing a protestant succession to the 
crown, as that which secured all our happiness : he had 
heard the Queen recommend from the throne, union and 
agreement to all her subjects, with a great emotion in his 
own mind : it was now evident, that there was a divinity 
about her when she spoke ; the cause was certainly super- 
natural, for we saw the miracle that was wTought by it ; now 
all were for the protestant succession ; it had not been al- 
ways so : he rejoiced in their conversion, and confessed 
it was a miracle : he would not, he could not, he ought not 
to suspect the sincerity of those who moved for inviting the 
next successor over ; yet he could not hinder himself from 
remembering what had passed, in a course of many years ; 
and howmen had argued, voted, and protestedall that while. 
This confirmed his opinon that a miracle was now wrought, 
and that might oblige some to shew their change, by an ex- 
cess of zeal, which he could not but commend, though he 
did not fully agree to it. After this preamble, he opened 
the proposition for the regency, in all the branches of it ; 
that regents should be empowered to act, in the nimie of 
the successor, till he should send over orders ; that besides 
those whom the parliament should name, the next succes- 
sor should send over the nomination sealed up, and to be 
opened when that accident should happen, of persons who 
should act in the same capacity, with those who should be 
named by parliament : so tlie motion being thus digested, 
was agreed to by all the whigs, and a bill was ordered to 
be brought in, pursuant to these propositions. But upon 
the debate on the heads of the bill, it did appear that the 
conversation, which the Lord Wharton had so pleasantly 
magnified, was not so entire as he seemed to suppose : 



%^'^ 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 107" 

there was some cause given to doubt of the miracle ; for i^os. 
when a security, that was real and visible, was offered, 
those who made the other motion flew otF from it. They 
pretended, that it w as because they could not go off from 
their first motion ; but they were told, that the immediate 
successor might, indeed, during her life, continue in Eng- 
land ; yet it was not to be supposed, that her son, the Elec- 
tor, could be always absent from his own dominions, and 
throw off all care of them, and of the concerns of the em- 
pire, in which he bore so great a share. If he should go 
over, for ever so short a time, the accident might happen, 
in wliich it was certainly necessary to provide such an ex- 
pedient, as was now offered. This laid them open to much 
censure, but men engaged in parties are not easily put out 
of countenance. It was resolved, that the regents should be 
seven and no more ; and they were fixed by the post they 
were in : the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Lord Keeper, 
the L©rd Treasurer, Lord President, Lord Privy Seal, Lord 
High Admiral, and the Lord Chief Justice, for the time 
being, were named for that high trust. The tories strug- 
gled hard that the Lord Treasurer should not be one, only 
to shew their spite to the Lord Godolphin, but the motion 
was rejected with scorn ; for it seemed ridiculous, in a 
time when there might be much occasion for money, to ex- 
clude an officer from that high trust, who alone could fur- 
nish them with it, or direct them how to be finnished. The 
tories moved that the Lord Mayor of London should be 
one, but that was likewise rejected : for the design of the 
act was, that the government should be carried on, by those 
who should ))e at that time in the conduct and secret of 
affairs, and were persons nominated by the Queen ; whercr^ 
as the Lord Mayor w as chosen by the city, and had na 
practice in business. These regents were required to pro- 
claim the next successor, and to give orders for the like 
proclamation over England and Ireland. The next suc- 
cessor might send a triplicate of the persons, named by her 
or him ; one of these was to be deposited with the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, another with the Lord Keeper, and 
a third with his ovra minister, residing at this court ; upon 
the producing whereof, the persons nominated were to 
join with the regents, and to act in equality \dth them : 
the last parliament, even thougl^ dissolved, was to be pre- 



108 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. sently brought together, and empowered to continue sitting 
for six months ; and thus things were to be kept in order, 
till the successor should either come in person, or send 
over his orders. 
GrsBt oppo- fpjjg tories made some opposition to every branch of the 
to it. " tict ; but in that of the parliament's sitting, the opposition 
was more remarkable. The Earl of Rochester moved, 
that the parliament and the regents should be limited to 
pass no act of repeal of any part of the act of uniformity ; 
and in his positive way said, if this was not agreed to, he 
should still think the church was in danger, notwithstand- 
ing what they had heard from the throne in the beginning of 
the session. It was objected to this, that if the regal power 
was in the regents, and if the parliament was likewise a 
legal one, then by the constitution the whole legislature 
was in them, and that could not be limited : for they could 
repeal any law that limited them ; but the judges were of 
opinion, that the power of regents might be limited: so 
that, as the design of moving this might be to have a new 
colour to possess the clergy, that there was a secret design 
against the church, which might break out at such a time, 
the Lords gave way to it, though they thought it unreason- 
able, and proposed with no good design. The tories, upon 
the yielding this to them, proposed a great many more li- 
mitations, such as the restraining the regents from consent- 
ing to a repeal of the act for triennial parliaments, the acts 
for trials in cases of treason, and some others ; and so ex- 
travagant were they in their design of making the act ap- 
pear ridiculous, that they proposed as a limitation, that 
they should not have power to repeal the acts of succes- 
sion : all these were rejected with scorn and indignation ; 
tlie Lords seeing by this their error in yielding to that pro- 
posed by the Earl of Rochester : the bill passed in the 
House of Lords, but the tories protested against it. 

I never knew any thing in the management of the tories 
by which they sufl'ered more in their reputation than by this : 
they hoped that the motion for the invitatioti would have 
cleared them of all suspicions of inclinations towards the 
pretended Prince of Wales, and would have reconciled 
the body of the nation to them, and turned them against 
all who should oppose it: but the progress of the matter 
produced a contrary cfl'cct. The management was so ill 



OP QUEEN ANNE. 109 

disguised, that it was visible they intended only to provoke it^os. 
the Queen by it, hoping that the provocation might go so ^"^^^"^ 
far, that in the sequel all their designs might be brought 
about, though by a method that seemed quite contrary to 
them, and destructive of them. 

The bill lay long in the House of Commons, by a secret '^ secret 

. . , . ii-i- luanagemeut 

management that was agamst it : the tones there likewise in tiie House 
proposed that the next successor should be brought over, of Com- 
which was opposed by the whigs, not by any vote against 
it, but by resolving to go through the Lords' bill first : the 
secret management was from Hanover. Some indigent 
persons, and others employed by the tories, had studied to 
infuse jealousies of the Queen and her ministers into the 
old Electoress. She was then seventy-five ; but had still 
so much vivacity, that as she was the most knowing, and 
the most entertaining woman of the age, so she seemed 
willing to change her scene, and to come and shine among 
us here in England ; they prevailed with her to AVTite a 
letter to the Archbishop of Canterbury, intimating her rea- 
diness to come over, if the Queen and parliament should 
desire it : this was made public by the intriguing persons 
in that court : and a colour was soon found to keep some 
whigs from agreeing to the act. In the act that first settled 
the succession, one limitation (as was told in its proper 
place,) had been, that when the crown should pass into 
that House, no man who had either place or pension should 
be capable of sitting in the House of Commons : the clause 
in this bill, that empowered either the parliament that 
should be current at the Queen's death, or that which had 
sat last, (though dissolved,) to sit for six months, or till the 
successor should dissolve it, seemed contrary to this inca- 
pacitating clause in the former act. Great exceptions were 
taken to this by some zealous whigs, who were so possess- 
ed with the notion of a self-denying bill, as necessary to 
preserve public liberty from the practices of a designing 
court, that for some weeks there was cause to fear, not 
only the loss of the bill, but a breach among the whigs 
upon this head : much pains were taken, and with very 
good effect, to heal this : it was at last settled ; a great 
many offices were enumerated, and it was declared that 
every man who held any of these, was thereby incapaci- 
tated from sitting in the House of Commons ; and every 



110 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705- member of the House, who did not accept of any other 

"^ office, was upon that excluded the House, and a new writ 

was to go out to those whom he represented to choose agam ; 

but it was left free to them to choose him, or any other 

The act of as they pleased. It was desired by those who pressed this 

the recfency , ., iii i i-i 

passed. matter most, that it should take place only m tne next reign ; 
but, to remove all jealousy, the ministers were content that 
these clauses should take place immediately, upon the dis- 
solution of the present parliament. And when the House 
of Commons sent up these self-denying clauses to the 
Lords, they added to them a repeal of that clause in the 
first act of succession, by which the succeeding princes 
were limited to govern by the advice of their council, and 
by which all the privy-counsellors were to be obliged to 
sign their advices, which was impracticable, since it was 
visible that no man would be a privy-coimsellor on those 
terms : the Lords added the repeal of this clause, to the 
amendments sent up by the Commons ; and the Commons 
readily agreed to it. 
The dangers After this act Lad passed, the Lord Hallifax, remember- 
inquired ^^S" what the Earl of Rochester had said concerning the 
into- danger the church might be in, moved that a day might be 

appointed to inquire into those dangers, about which so 
many tragical stories had been published of late : a day 
was appointed for this, and we were all made believe that 
we should hear many frightful things ; but our expectations 
were not answered : some spoke of danger from the presr- 
bytery that was settled in Scotland : some spoke of the ab- 
sence of the next successor : some reflected on the occa- 
sional bill that was rejected in that House : some complain- 
ed of the schools of the dissenters : and others reflected 
on the principles that many had drank in, that were dif- 
ferent from those formerly received, and that seemed de- 
structive of the church. 

Li opposition to all this it was said, that the church was 
safer now than ever it had been : at the Revolution, provi- 
sion was made that our king must be of the reformed reli- 
gion; nor was this all, in the late act of succession it 
was enacted, that he should be of the communion of the 
church of England. It was not reasonable to object to tlie 
House rojcrting a bill, which was done by the majority, of 
whom it became not the lesser number to complain : we 



OF QUEEN ANNE. Ill 

liad all our former laws left to us, not only entire, but for- 1705. 
titled by late additions and explanations ; so tluit v, e were ^^^^^-^^ 
safer in all these, than we had been at any time formerly : 
the dissenters gained no new strengtli, they were visibly 
decreasing : the toleration had softened their tempers, and 
they concurred zealously in serving all the ends of the go- 
vernment : nor was there any particular complaint brought 
against them : they seemed quiet and content with their 
toleration, if they could be but secure of enjoying it: the 
Queen was taking the most efl'ectual means possible to de- 
liver the clergy from the depressions of poverty, that 
brought them under much contempt, and denied them the 
necessary means and helps of study. The bishops looked 
after their dioceses with a care tliat had not been known in 
the memory of man. Great sums were yearly raised by 
their care and zeal, for serving the plantations, better than 
had ever yet been done : a spirit of zeal and piety appear- 
ed in our churches, and at sacrament beyond the example 
of former times. In one respect it was acknowledged the 
church was in danger ; there was an evil spirit and a viru- 
lent temper spread among the clergy; there were many in- 
decent sermons preached on public occasions, and those 
hot clergymen, who were not the most regular in their 
liyes, had raised faction^ in many dioceses against their 
bishops : these were dangers created by those very men 
who jfilled the nation with this outcry against imaginary 
ones, while their own conduct produced real and threaten- 
ing dangers. Many severe reflections were throA\n out on 
both sides in the progress of this debate. 

It ended in a vote, carried by a great majority, that the a >oteiuiJ 
church of England, under the Queen's happy administra- ^"ttiVQulen 
tion, was in a safe and flourishing condition ; and to this a about iimu 
severe censure was added on the spreaders of these reports 
of dangers ; that they were the enemies of the Queen and 
of her government. They also resolved to make an ad- 
dress to the Queen, in which, after this was set forth, they 
prayed her to order a prosecution, according to law, of all 
who should be found guilty of this ofl'ence. They sent this 
down to the House of Commons, where the debate was 
brought over again, but it was run down with great force. 
The Commons agreed with the Lords, and both houses went 
together to the Queen with this address. Such a concur- 



112 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1705. rcnce of both houses had not been seen for some years; 

'"^'^"'^-^ and, indeed, there was in both so great a majority for car- 
rying on all the interests of the government, that the men 
of ill intentions had no hopes, during the whole session, of 
embroiling matters, but in the debates concerning the self- 
denying clause aboveraentioned. 

1706. But though the main designs and hopes of the party had 
Complaints thus not ouly failed them, but turned against them; yet 
rJjltted.'""' they resolved to make another attempt : it was on the Duke 

of Marlborough, though they spoke of him with great re- 
spect. They complained of the errors committed this year 
in the conduct of the war : they indeed laid the blame of 
the miscarriage of the design on the Moselle on the Prince 
of Baden, and the errors committed in Brabant on the 
states and their deputies ; but they said they could not 
judge of these things, nor be able to lay before the Queen 
those advices that might be fit for them to ofier to her, un- 
less they were made acquainted with the whole series of 
those affairs ; therefore they proposed, that by an address 
tliey might pray the Queen to communicate to them all that 
she knew concerning those transactions during the last 
campaign : for they reckoned, that if all particulars should 
be laid before them, they would find somewhat in the Duke 
of Marlborough's conduct on which a censure might be 
fixed : to this it was answered, that if any complaint was 
brought against any of the Queen's subjects, it would be 
reasonable for them to inquire into it by all proper ways : 
but the House of Lords could not pretend to examine or to 
censure the conduct of the Queen's allies : they were not 
subject to them, nor could they be heard to justify them- 
selves : and it was somewhat extraordinary if they should 
pass a censure or make a complaint of them. It was one 
of the trusts that was lodged with the government to ma- 
nage all treaties and alliances : so that our commerce with 
our allies was wholly in the crown : allies might sometimes 
fail, being not able to perform what they undertook : they 
are subject both to errors and accidents, and are sometimes 
ill served. The entering into that matter was not at all 
proper lor the House, unless it was intended to run into rash 
and indiscreet censures, on design to provoke the allies, 
and by that meaus to weaken, if not break the alliance : 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 113 

the Queen would, no doubt, endeavour to redress what- ^"^^^^ 
soever was amiss, and that must be trusted to her conduct. ^■^^**^ 

So this attempt not only failed, but it happened upon 
this, as upon other occasions, that it was turned against 
those who made it : an address was made to the Queen, 
praying her to go on in her alliances, and in particular to 
cultivate a perfect union and correspondence with the States 
of the United Provinces : this had a very good effect in Hol- 
land, for the agents of France were, at the same time, both 
spreading reports among us, that the Dutch were inclined 
to a peace, and among them, that the English had very 
unkind thoughts of them. The design was to alienate us 
from one another, that so both might be thereby the better 
disposed to hearken to a project of peace ; which in the 
state in which matters were at that time, was the most de- 
structive thing that could be thought on : and all motions 
that looked that way, gave very evident discoveries of the 
bad intentions of those who made them. 

The next business of a public nature that came before The acts 
the parliament, was carried very unanimously. The Queen Seoirre- ^ 
laid before the two houses the addresses of the Scotch pealed. 
parliament against any progress in the treaty of union, till 
the act which declared them aliens by such a day should 
be repealed : the tories, upon this occasion, to make them- 
selves poptilar, after they had failed in many attempts, re- 
solved to promote this ; apprehending that the whigs, who 
had first moved for that act, would be for maintaining their 
own work : but they seemed to be much surprised, when, 
after they had prefaced their motions in this matter, with 
such declarations of their intentions for the public good, 
that shewed they expected opposition and a debate, the 
whigs not only agreed to this, but earned the motion further, 
to the other act relating to their manufacture and trade : 
this passed very unanimously in both houses ; and by this 
means way was made for opening a treaty as soon as the 
session should come to an end. All the northern parts of 
England, which had been disturbed for some years with 
apprehensions of a war with Scotland, that would certainly 
be mischievous to them, whatsoever the end of it might 
prove, were much delighted with the prospect of peace and 
union with their neighbours. 

These were the most important debates during this ses- 

VOL. IV. Q 



114 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1706. sion ; at all which the Queen was present: she staid all the 
^•'"''^ while, and hearkened to every thing with great attention. 
The debates were managed on the one side by the Lords 
Godolphin, Wharton, Somers, Hallifax, Sunderland, and 
Townshend ; on the other side by the Duke of Bucking- 
ham, and the Lords Rochester, Nottingham, Anglesey, 
Guernsey, and Havershara. There was so much strength 
and clearness on the one side, and so much heat and arti- 
fice on the other, that nothing but obstinate partiality could 
resist s evident a conviction. 
The public rpi^g House of Commous went on in creating funds for 

credit very ^ 

high. the supplies they had voted for the next year ; and the na- 

tion was so well satisfied ^vith the government, and the con- 
duct of affairs, that a fund being created for 2,500,000/., by 
way of annuities for ninety-nine years, at six and a half 
per cent, at the end of which the capital was to sink ; the 
whole sum was subscribed in a very few days : at the same 
time the Duke of Marlborough proposed the advance of a 
sum of 500,000/. to the Emperor, for the use of Prince Eu- 
gene, and the service of Italy, upon a branch of the Empe- 
ror's revenue in Silesia, at eight per cent., and the capital 
to be repaid in eight y-ears : the nation did so abound, both 
in money and zeal, that this w as likewise advanced in a very 
few days : our armies, as well as our allies, were every 
where punctually paid : the credit of the nation was never 
raised so high in any age, nor so sacredly maintained : the 
Treasury was as exact and as regular in all payments as 
any private banker could be. It is true, a great deal of 
money w ent out of the kingdom in specie : that w hich main- 
tained the war in Spain, was to be sent thither in that man- 
ner, the way by bills of exchange not being yet opened : 
our trade with Spain and the N^^est Indies, which formerly 
brought us great returns of money, was now stopped : by 
this means there grew to be a sensible w ant of money over 
the nation : this was in a great measure supplied, by the 
currency of Exchequer bills and Bank notes : and this lay so 
obvious to the disafiected party, that they were often at- 
tempting to blast, at least to disparage this paper credit : 
but it was still kept up. It bred a just indignation in all 
who had a true love to their country, to see some using all 
possible methods to .shake the administration, which, not- 
withstanding the ditUculties at home and abroad, was much 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 115 

the best that had been in the memory of man : and was I'^oe. 
certainly not only easy to the subjects in general, but gentle '^ 
even towards those who were endeavouring to undermine it. 

The Lord Somers made a motion in the House of a bill to re- 
Lords to coiTect some of the proceedings in the common ceedhiKs at 
law, and in Chancery, that were both dilatory and very law. 
chargeable. He began the motion with some instances 
that were more conspicuous and gross; and he managed 
the matter so, that both the Lord Keeper and judges con- 
curred "with him ; though it passes generally for a maxim, 
that judges ought rather to enlarge than contract their juris- 
diction. Abill passed the House, that began a reformation 
of proceedings at law, which, as things now stand, are 
certainly among the greatest grievances of the nation : 
when this went through the House of Commons, it was 
visible that the interest of under-officers, clerks, and attor- 
neys, whose gains were to be lessened by this bill, was 
more considered than the interest of the nation itself. Se- 
veral clauses, how beneficial soever to the subject, which 
touched on their profit, were left out by the Commons : 
bnt what fault soever the Lords might have found with 
these alterations, yet, to avoid all disputes ^^^th the Com- 
mons, they agreed to their amendments. 

Tliere was another general complaint made of the pri- 
Aate acts of parliament, that passed through both houses 
too easily, and in so great a number, that it took up a great 
part of the session to examine them, even in that cursory 
way, that was subject to many inconveniences. The fees 
that were paid for these, to the speakers and clerks of both 
houses, inclined them to favour and promote them : so the 
Lord Somers proposed such a regulation in that matter, as 
will probably have a good effect for the future. The pre- 
sent Lord Keeper did indeed very generously obstruct 
those private bills, as much as his predecessor had pro- 
moted them. He did another thing of a great example ; on 
the first day of the year, it was become a custom for all 
those who practised in Chancery, to offer a new-year's gift 
to the lord, who had the gieat seal : these grew to be so 
considerable, that they amounted to L500/. a year. On 
this new-year's day, which was his first, he signified to all 
who, according to custom, were expected to come with 
their presents, that he would receive none, but woul4'break 



116 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1706. that custom. He thought it looked like the insinuating 
themselves into the favour of the court ; and that if it was 
not bribery, yet it came too near it, and looked too like it : 
this contributed not a little to the raising his character. 
He managed the court of Chancery with impartial justice 
and great dispatch ; and was very useful to the House of 
Lords in the promoting of business. 
Coinpiaiiiis When the session was near at an end, great complaints 
"r *^^ f"^" were made in both houses of the progress of popery in 
popery. Lancashire, and of many insoleucies committed there, both 
by the laity and priests of that religion : upon this a bill 
was brought into the House of Commons, with clauses 
that would have rendered the bill, passed against papists 
in the end of the last reign, effectual : this alarmed all of 
that religion : so 'that they made very powerful, or (to 
follow the raillery of that time) very weighty intercessions 
with the considerable men of that House. The court look- 
ed on, and seemed indifferent in the matter, yet it was 
given out that so severe a law would be very unreasonable, 
when we were in alliance with so many princes of that reli- 
gion, and that it must lessen the force of the Queen's inter- 
cession in favour of tlie protestants, that lived in the domi- 
nions of those princes : the proceeding seemed rigorous, 
and not suited to the gentleness that the Christian religion 
did so particularly recommend, and was contrary to the 
maxims of liberty of conscience and toleration that were 
then in great vogue. It was answered, that the dependanee 
of those of that religion on a foreign jurisdiction, and at 
present on a foreign pretender to the crown, put them out 
of the case of other subjects, who might differ from the 
established religion ; since there seemed to be good reason 
to consider the papists as enemies, rather than as subjects: 
but the application was made in so effectual a manner, that 
the bill was let fall : and though the Lords had made some 
steps towards such a bill, yet, since they saw what fate it 
was like to have in the House of Commons, instead of 
proceeding farther in it, they dismissed that matter with an 
address to the Queen, that she would give orders, both to 
the justices of peace and to the clergy, that a return might 
be made to the next session of parliament, of all the papists 
ill England. 

There was another project set on foot at this time by the 




OP QUEEN ANNE. 

Lord Hallifax, for putting the records and the public offices 

of the kino'dom in better order. He had, in a former ses- . ^'^f , 

•3 ^ A desiga tor 

sion, moved the Lords to send some of their number to view a public li- 
the records in the Tower, wliich were in great disorder, ^^^^' 
and in a visible decay for w ant of some more officers, and 
by the neglect of those we had. These lords, in tlieir re- 
port, proposed some regulations for the future, which have 
])een since followed so efi'ectually, though at a considera- 
ble charge, by creating several n€w officers, that the nation 
will reap the benefit of all this very sensibly ; but Lord 
Hallifax carried his project much further. The famous 
library collected by Sir Robert Cotton, and continued 
down in his family, was the greatest collection of ma- 
nuscripts relating to the public, that perhaps any nation in 
Europe could shew. The lat-e o\Mier of it. Sir Jolm Cot- 
ton, had, by his will, left it to the public, but in such words, 
that it was rather shut up than made any way useful : and 
indeed it was to be so carefully preserved, that none could 
be the better for it : so that Lord moved the House to en- 
treat the Queen, that she would be pleased to buy Cotton 
House, which stood just between the two houses of parlia- 
ment ; so that some part of that ground would furnish 
them with many useful rooms, and there would be enough 
left for building a noble structure for a library : to which, 
besides the Cotton library, and the Queen's library, the 
Royal Society, who had a very good library at Gresham 
College, would remove and keep their assemblies there, as 
soon as it was made convenient for them. This was a great 
design, which the Lord Hallifax, who set it first on foot, 
seemed resolved to carry on till it was finished. It vnW set 
learning again on foot among us, and be a great honour to 
the Queen's reign. 

Thus this session of parliament came to a very happy 
conclusion ; there was in it the best harmony within both 
houses, and between them, as well as with the cro^\'n, and 
it was the best applauded in the city of London, over tlie 
whole nation, and indeed over all Europe, of any session 
that I had ever seen ; and w hen it was considered that this 
was the first of the three, so tliat we were to have two other 
sessions of the same members, it gave an universal satis- 
faction, both to our own people at home, and our allie.«i 
abroad, and afl'orded a prospect of a happy end, that 



1^^ HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

^^ should he put to this devouring^ war, which in all proba- 
bility must come to a period before the conclusion of the 
present parliament. This gave an unspeakable satisfac- 
tion to all who loved their country and their religion, who 
now hoped that we had in view a good and a safe peace. 
Proceedings The convocation sat at the same time : it was chosen as 
uou. "*°'^^" the former had been, and the members that were ill affected 
were still prevailed on to come up, and to continue in an 
expensive but useless attendance in town. The bishops 
drew up an address to the Queen, in which, as the two 
houses of parliament had done, they expressed a just in- 
dignation at the jealousies that had been spread about the 
nation, of the danger of the church. When this was com- 
municated to the lower house, they refused to join in it, 
but would give no reason for their refusal : they drew an 
address of their own, in which no notice was taken of these 
aspersions : the bishops, according to autient precedents, 
required them either to agree to their address, or to offer 
their objections against it: they would do neither ; so the 
address Avas let fall : and, upon that, a stop was put to all 
further communication between the two houses. The lower 
house, upon this, went on in their former practice of inter- 
mediate sessions, in which they began to enter upon busi- 
ness, to approve of some books, and to censure others : 
and they resolved to proceed upon the same grounds that 
factious men among them had before set up, though the 
falsehood of their pretensions had been evidently made to 
appear. The Archbishop had prorogued them to the 1st 
of March : when that day came, the lower house was sur- 
prised Avith a protestation, that was brought to the upper 
house, by a great part of their body, who, being dissatisfied 
with the proceedings of the majority, and haAing long 
struggled against them, though in vain, at last drew up a 
protestation against them : they sent it up and doA\Ti, 
through the whole province, that they might get as many 
hands to it as they could ; but the matter was managed 
with such caution, that (hough it was in many hands, yet it 
was not known to the other side, till they heard it was pre- 
sented to the president of the upper house : in it all the 
irregular motions of the lower house were reckoned up, in- 
sisting more particularly on that of holding intermediate 
sessions, against all which they protested, and prayed tliat 



v^-^ 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 119 

their protestation might be entered in the books of the ^^oe. 
upper house, that so they might not be involved in the 
guilt of the rest : this was signed by above fifty, and the 
whole body was but an hundred and forty-five : some were 
neutral : so that hereby very near one half broke oft' from 
the rest, and left them, and sat no more with them. The 
lower house was deliberating how to vent their indignation 
against these, when a more sensible mortification followed : 
the Archbishop sent for them, and when they came up, he 
read a letter to them, that was wrote to him by the Queen, 
in which she took notice that the difiierences between the 
two houses w^ere still kept up ; she was much concerned to 
see that they were rather increased than abated : she was 
the more surprised at this, because it had been her con- 
stant care, as it should continue always to be, to preserve 
the constitution of the church, as it was by law established, 
and to discountenance all divisions and innovations what- 
soever : she was resolved to maintain her supremacy, and 
the due subordination of presbyters to bishops, as funda- 
mental parts of it : she expected, that the Archbishop and 
bishops would act conformable to this resolution, and in 
so doing they should be sure of the continuance of her pro- 
tection and favour, which should not be wanting to any of 
the clergy, as long as they were tnie to the constitution, 
and dutiful to her, and their ecclesiastical superiors, and 
preserved such a temper as became those who were in 
holy orders. The i\rchbishop, as he was required to read 
this to them, so he was directed to prorogue them, for such 
a time as should appear convenient to him : they were 
struck with this ; for it had been carried so secretly, that it 
was a surprise to them all. AVhen they saw they were to 
be prorogued, they ran very indecently to the door, and 
with some difficulty were kept in the room till the proroga- 
tion was intimated to them : they went next to their own 
house, where, though prorogued, they sat still in form, as if 
they had been a house, but they did not venture on passing 
any vote. So factious were they, and so implicitly led by 
those who had got an ascendant over them, that though 
they had formerly submitted the matters in debate to the 
Queen, yet now, when she declared her pleasure, they 
would not acquiesce in it. 

The session of parliament being now at an end, the pre- 



120 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1706. parations for the campaign were carried on Avith all possi- 
prepara- ble dispatcli : that which was most pressing was first done. 
tions for the Upon Stanhopc's first coming over, in the beginning of 

campaign. ^ '^ . ,,.t /• j- 

January, orders were immediately issued out lor sending 
over five thousand men, with all necessary stores, to Spain: 
the orders were given in very pressing terms ; yet so many 
ofiices were concerned in the execution, that many delaysr 
were made ; some of these were much censured : at last 
they sailed in March. The fleet that had gone into the 
Mediterranean with King Charles, and was to return and 
AWnter at Lisbon, was detained by westerly winds longer in 
those seas than had been expected. 
A revolt in The pcoplc of Valencia seemed to hope, that they were 
to winter in those seas ; and by tliis they were encouraged 
to declare for King Charles : but they were much exposed 
to those who commanded in King Philip's name. All Ca- 
talonia had submitted to King Charles, except Roses ; gar- 
risons were put in Gironne, Lerida, and Tortosa ; and the 
states of that principality prepared themselves, with great 
zeal and resolution, for tlie next campaign, which, they 
had reason to expect, would come both early and severely 
upon them. There was a breach between the Earl of 
Peterljorough and the Prince of Lichtenstein, whom he 
charged very heavily, in the King's own presence, with 
corruption and injustice : the matter went far, and the King 
blamed the Earl of Peterborough, who had not much of a 
forbearing or forgiving temper in him. There was no 
method of communication with England yet settled : we 
did not hear from them, nor they from us, in five months : 
this put them out of all hope : our men wanted every thing, 
and could be supplied there with nothing. The revolt in 
Valencia made it necessary to send such a supply to them 
from Barcelona as could be spared from thence. The dis- 
gust that was taken, made it advisable to send the Earl of 
Peterborough thither, and he willingly undertook the ser- 
vice : he marched towards that kingdom with about fifteen 
hundred English, and a thousand Spaniards: they were all 
ill equipped and ill furnished, without artillery, and with 
very little ammunition : but, as they marched, all the coun- 
try either came into them or fled before them. He got to 
Valencia without any opposition, and was received there 
with all possible deraonstiations of joy. This gave a great 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 121 

disturbance to the Spanish councils at Madrid : they ad- ^^°*- 
vised the King to begin with the reduction of Valencia : it 
lay nearer, and was easier come at; and by this the dis- 
position to revolt would be checked, wliich might otherwise 
go further : but this was overruled from France, where little 
regard was had to the Spaniards. They resolved to begin 
with Barcelona : in it King Charles himself lay ; and on 
taking it they reckoned all the rest would fall. 

The French resolved to send every thing that was neces- Tbe siege of 
sary for the siege by sea ; and the Count of Toulouse was ^"'^^^°^- 
ordered to lie with the fleet before the place, whilst it was 
besieged by land : it was concerted to begin the siege in 
March, for they knew that if they begun it so early, our 
fleet could not come in time to relieve it : but two great 
storms, that came soon one after another, did so scatter 
their tartanes, and disable their ships of war, that as some 
were cast away, and others were much shattered, so they 
all lost a month's time, and the siege could not be formed 
before the beginning of April. King Charles shut himself 
up in Barcelona, by which the people were both animated 
and kept in order : this gave all the allies very sad appre- 
hensions ; they feared not only the loss of the place, but of 
his person. Leak sailed from Lisbon in the end of March : 
he missed the galleons very narrowly, but he could not 
pursue them ; for he was to lose no time, but haste to Bar- 
celona : his fleet was increased to thirty sliips of the line 
by the time he got to Gibraltar ; but though twenty more 
were following him, he would not stay, but hasted on to the 
relief of the place as fast as the wind served. 

At the same time, the campaign was opened on the side Alcantara 
of Portugal : the Earl of Gallway had full powers, and a ^''^^^' 
brave army of about twenty thousand men, well furnished 
in all respects : he left Badajos behind him, and marched 
on to Alcantara. The Duke of Berwick had a very small 
force left him to defend that frontier : it seems the French 
trusted to the interest they had in the court of Portu- 
gal : his troops were so bad, that he saw in one small 
action, that he could not depend on them : he put a good 
garrison in Alcantara, where their best magazine was laid 
in. But when the Earl of Gallway came before the town/ 
within three days, the garrison, consisting of four thousand 
men, delivered up the place ^nd themselves as prisoners of 

VOL. IV. R 



122 HISTORY OF THE HEIGN 

1706. war : the Portuguese would have stopped there, and thought 
^'^^ they had made a good campaign, though they had done no 
more ; but the English ambassador at Lisbon went to the 
King of Portugal, and pressed him, that orders might be im- 
mediately sent to the Earl of Gallway to march on ; and when 
he saw a great coolness in some of the ministers, he threat- 
ened a present rupture, if it was not done : and he con- 
tinued waiting on the King, till the orders were signed, and 
sent away. Upon receipt of these, the Earl of Gallway 
advanced towards Placentia, all the country declaring for 
him as soon as he appeared; and the Duke of Berwick 
still retiring before him, not being able to give the least in- 
tenuption to his march. 
The Ger- -pj^g campaign was opened in Italy with great advantage to 
defeated in the Frcuch : the Duke of Vendome marched into the Bres- 
^^*'^' ciau, to attack the imperialists, before Prince Eugene could 

join them, who was now come very near: he fell on a 
body of about twelve thousand of them, being double their 
number; he drove them from their posts, with the loss of 
about three thousand men killed and taken ; but it was be- 
lieved there were as many of the French killed as of the 
imperialists. Prince Eugene came up within two days, 
and put all in order again. He retired to a surer post, 
waiting till the troops from Germany should come up : the 
slowness of the Germans was always fatal, in the begin- 
ning of the campaign. The Duke of Savoy was now reduced 
to great extremities : he saw the siege of Turin was design- 
ed ; he fortified so many outposts, and put so good a gar- 
rison in it, that he prepared well for a long siege, and a 
great resistance ; he wrote to the Queen, for a further sup- 
ply of 50,000/. assuring her, that by that means the place 
should be put in so good a state, that he would undertake 
that all should be done, which could be expected from 
brave and resolute men : and so careful was the Lord 
Treasurer to encourage liim, that the courier was sent back 
the next d^y, after he came, with credit for the money. 
There was some hopes of a peace, as there was an actual 
cessation of war in Hungary : the malecontents had been 
put in hopes of a great diversion of the Emperor's forces, 
on the side of Bavaria, where there was a great insurrec- 
tion, provoked, as was said, by the oppression of the im- 
Ijcrial officers, who were so accustomed to be heavy in 



OP QUEEN ANNE. 123 

their quarters, that when they had the pretence, that they ^^^oe. 
were among enemies, it may be easily believed, there was 
much just occasion of complaint ; and that they were guilty 
of great exactions and rapine. This looked formidably at 
first, and seemed to threaten a new war in those parts, but 
all was soon suppressed : the peasants had no officers 
among them, no discipline, nor magazines, and no place of 
strength : so they were quickly dispersed, and stricter orders 
were given, for the better regulating the military men, 
though it was not expected that these would be long ob- 
served. 

While matters were in this disposition abroad, the treaty The treaty 
for the union of the two kingdoms was brought on, and B,!ion*of tbe 
managed with great solemnity. Commissions were given t^o ting- 
out for thirty-two persons of each kingdom, to meet at °™ * 
London on the 18th of April ; Somerset House was ap- 
pointed for the place of the treaty : the persons who were 
named to treat on the English side, were well chosen ; they 
were the most capable of managing the treaty, and the 
best disposed to it, of any in the kingdom. Those who 
came from Scotland, were not looked on as men so well 
aflFected to the design : most of them had stood out in a 
long and firm opposition to the Revolution, and to all that 
had been done afterwards, pursuant to it. The nomination 
of these was fixed on by the Dukes of Queensberry and 
Argyle: it was said by them, that though these objections 
did indeed lie against them, yet they had such an interest in 
Scotland, that the engaging them to be cordially for the 
union, would be a great means to get it agreed to in the 
parliament there: the Scotch had got among them the 
notion of a foederal union, like that of the United Pro- 
vinces, or of the cantons in Swisserland : but the English 
resolved to lose no time in the examining or discussing 
of that project, for this reason, besides many others, that 
as long as the two nations had two difierent parliaments, 
they could break that union w hensoever they pleased ; for 
each nation would follow their own parliament. The de- 
sign was now to settle a lasting and indissoluble union 
between tlie kingdoms, therefore they resolved to treat only 
about an incorporating union, that should put an end to all 
distinctions, and unite all their interests : so they at last 
entered upon the scheme of an entire union. 



^'VW 



124 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1706. But now to look again into our affairs abroad. The 
French seemed to have laid the design of their campaign 
so well, that it had every where a formidable appearjince : 
and if the execution had answered their scheme, it would 
have proved as glorious, as it was in the conclusion fatal 
to them. They reckoned the taking of Barcelona and Turin 
sure : and by these, they thought the war, both in Spain and 
Italy, would be soon brought to an end : they knew they 
would be superior to any force that the Prince of Baden 
could bring together, on the Upper Rhine ; and they in- 
tended to have a great army in Flanders, where they knew 
our chief strength would be, to act as occasion or their 
other affairs should require. But how well soever this design 
might seem to be laid, it appeared Providence had another : 
which was brought to bear every where, in a most wonder- 
ful manner, and in a reverse to all their ^dews. The steps 
of this, I intend to set out, rather as a meditation on the 
providence of God, than as a particular history of this sig- 
nal year, for which I am no way furnished : beside that, if I 
were, it does not answer my principal design in writing. 

The French lay thirty-seven days before Barcelona : of 
that time, twenty-two were spent in taking Mountjoy ; they 
seemed to think there was no danger of raising the siege, 
and that therefore they might proceed as slowly as they 
pleased : the town was under such a consternation, that 
nothing but the King's presence could have kept them 
from capitulating the first week of the siege : there were 
some mutinies raised, and some of the magistrates were 
killed in them; but the King came among them on all oc- 
casions, and both quieted and animated them. Stanhope 
wrote, after the siege was over, (whether as a courtier or not, 
I cannot tell, for he had now the character of the Queen's 
envoy to King Charles,) that the King went into all places 
of danger, and made all about him examples to the rest, 
to be hard at work, and constant upon duty. After Mount- 
joy was taken, the town was more pressed : the Earl of 
Peterborough came from Valencia, and was upon the hills, 
but could not give them any great assistance : some few 
from Gironne, and other places, got into the town: the 
French engineers performed their part with little skill and 
isuccess ; those they relied most on, happened to be killed 
in the beginning of the siege. The Levant wind was all 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 125 

this while so strong, that it was not possible for Leak to i^oe. 
come up, so soon as was desired, to their relief. "-^^^^ 

But when their strength, as well as their patience, was "^^ ",^* °^ 

, . 1X1-11, Barcelona 

almost quite exhausted, the wind turned, and Leak with all raised. 
possible haste sailed to them : as soon as the Count of 
Toulouse had intelligence that he was near him, he sailed 
back to Toulon. Tesse, mth King Philip, (who was in 
the camp, but was not once named in any action,) conti- 
nued three days before Barcelona, after their fleet sailed 
away : they could then have no hopes of carrying it, im- 
less a storm at sea had kept our fleet at a distance : at last, 
on the 1st of May, O. S. the siege was raised, with great pre- 
cipitation, and in much disorder : their camp was left well fur- 
nished, and the sick and wounded could not be carried oflF. 

On the day of the raising the siege, as the French army An eclipse 
was marching ofl", the sun was eclipsed, and it was total in °" * '""■ 
those parts : it is certain that there is no weight to be laid 
on such things ; yet the vulgar being apt to look on them 
as ominous, it was censured as a great error in Tesse, not 
to have raised the siege a day sooner ; and that the rather, 
because the King of France had made the sun, with a 
motto of Nee plurihus impar, his device. King Philip 
made all the haste he could to Perpignan, but his army was 
almost quite ruined before he got thither : there was no 
manner of communication, over landj between Barcelona 
and Portugal: so the Portuguese, doubting the issue of 
that siege, had no mind to engage further, till they saw how 
it ended : therefore they ordered their army to march aside The^aricrf 
to Ciudad Roderigo, on pretence that it was necessary to acTvalced 
secure their frontier, by taking that place : it was taken 
after a very short siege, and with small resistance : from 
thence they advanced to Salamanca. But upon the news 
of raising the siege of Barcelona, they went on towards 
Madrid ; the Duke of Berwick only observing their mo- 
tions, and still retiring before them. King Philip went, ^^iui; pli- 
with great expedition, and a very small train, from Perpig- MadrXaad 
nan to Navarre ; from thence he came post to Madrid : but *ooii leti it. 
finding he had no army that he could trust to, the grandees 
being now retired, and looking as so many dead men ; and 
he seeing that the Portuguese were still advancing, sent his 
Queen to Burgos, and followed her in a few days, carrying 
with him that which was valuable in the palace : and it 



120 HISTORY OP THE RElGN 

I'^o^^ seems he despaired ever to return thither again, since he 
destroyed all that could not be carried away ; in which he 
acted a very extraordinary part, for he did some of this with 
his own hand ; as the gentleman, whom the Earl of Gall- 
way sent over, told me was universally believed in Madrid. 
The Earl of The Capital city beinij: thus forsaken, the Earl of Gall- 
came to it. Way Came to it by the end of June ; he met vnth no re- 
but King sistance indeed, but with as little welcome : an army of 
layed too Portugucsc, w ith a heretic at their head, were certainly very 
long to come strange sights to the Castilians, who retained all the pride, 
without any of the courage, of their ancestors : they thought 
it below them to make their submissions to any, but to the 
King himself; and if King Charles had come thither im- 
mediately, it was believed that the entire reduction of 
Spain would have been soon brought about. It is not yet 
certain what made him stay so long as he did at Barcelona, 
even from the beginning of May till near the end of July. 
Those about him pretended, it was not tit to go to Madrid, 
till he was well furnished with money to make a decent en- 
try : Stanhope offered to furnish him with what was neces- 
sary for the journey, but could not afford a magnificent 
equipage for a solemn entry. King Charles vrrote a very 
pressing letter to the Duke of Marlborough, setting forth 
his necessities, and desiring greater supplies ; I saw this 
letter, for the Duke sent it over to the Lord Treasurer : 
but little regard was had to it, because it was suggested 
from many different hands, that the Prince of Lichtenstein 
was enriching himself, and keeping his King poor. Others 
pretended the true cause of the delay was a secret amour 
of that King's at Barcelona ; whatsoever the cause of it 
might be, the effects have hitherto proved fatal: it was 
first proposed, that King Charles should march through 
Valencia, as the nearest and much the safest way, and he 
came on that design as far as Tarracona : but advice being 
brought him there, that the kingdom of Arragon was in 
a good disposition to declare for him, he was diverted 
£rom his first intentions, and prevailed on to go to Sa- 
ragossa ; where he was acknowledged by that kingdom : 
but he lost much time, and more in the reputation of his 
arms, by delaying so long to move towards Madrid : so 
King Philip took heart, and came back from Burgos 
to Madrid. The Earl of Gall way was very uneasy at this 



v*-,-^ 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 127 

slow motion which King Charles made: King Philip had Z^'^^^- 
some more troops sent him from France, and the broken 
bodies of his army being now brought together, he had an 
army equal in numbers to the Earl of Gallway, and so 
he marched up to him : but since so much depended on the 
issue of an action, the Earl of Gallway avoided it, because 
he expected every day reinforcements to be brought up 
to him, both by King Charles, and by the Earl of Peterbo- 
rough from Valencia : therefore, to facilitate this conjunc- 
tion, he moved towards Arragon; so that Madrid was 
again left to be possessed by King Philip. At last, in the 
beginning of August, King Charles came up, but with 
a very inconsiderable force: a few days after, the Earl 
of Peterborough came also with an escort, rather than 
any strength; for he had not with him above five hun- 
dred dragoons. He was now uneasy, because he could 
not have the supreme command, both the Earl of Gallway 
and Count Noyelles being much antienter officers than 
he was. But, to deliver him from the uneasiness of being 
commanded by them, the Queen had sent him the powers 
of an ambassador extraordinary ; and he took that charac- 
ter on him for a few days. His complaining so much 
as he did of the Prince of Lichtenstein and the Germans, 
who were still possessed of King Charles's confidence, 
made him very unacceptable to that King : so he, waiting 
for orders from the Queen, withdrew from the camp, and 
sailed away in one of the Queen's ships to Genoa. Our 
fleet lay all the summer in the Mediterranean ; which 
obliged the French to keep theirs within Toulon. Car- 
thagena declared for King Charles, and was secured by some 
of our ships : the fleet came before Alicant : the seamen 
landed and stormed the town ; the castle held out some 
weeks, but then it capitulated, and the soldiers by articles 
were obliged to march to Cadiz. Soon after that, our fleet 
sailed out of the Straits; one squadron was sent to the 
West Indies, another was to lie at Lisbon, and the rest 
were ordered home. After King Charles had joined Lord 
Gallway, King Philip's army and his looked on one an- 
other for some time, but without venturing on any action : 
they were near an equality, and both sides expected to be 
reinforced ; so in that uncertainty, neither side would put 
any thing to hazard. 



128 HISTORY or THE IIEIGN 

1706. But now I turn to another and a greater scene : the King 
The battle of France was assured, that the King of Denmark would 
ofRamii- stand upon some high demands, he made to the allies, 
so that the Duke of Marlborough could not have the 
Danes, who were about ten or twelve thousand, to join 
him for some time; and that the Prussians, almost as 
many as the Danes, could not come up to the confederate 
army for some weeks : so he ordered the Elector of Ba- 
varia and Villeroy to march up to them, and to venture on 
a battle ; since, without the Danes, they would have been 
much superior in number. The states yielded to all Den- 
mark's demands, and the Prince of Wirtemberg, who com- 
manded their troops, being very well aft'ected, reckoned 
that all being granted, he needed not stay till he sent 
to Denmark, nor wait for their express orders ; but marched 
and joined the army the day before the engagement. Some 
thought, that the King of France, upon the news of the dis- 
grace before Barcelona, that he might cover that, resolved 
to put all to venture, hoping that a victory would have set 
all to rights : this passed generally in the world. But the 
Duke of Marlborough told me, that there being only twelve 
days between the raising of the siege of Barcelona and 
this battle, the one being on the 1st of May, and the other 
on the 12th, eight of which must be allowed for the cou- 
rier to Paris, and from thence to Brabant, it seemed not 
possible to put things in the order in which he saw them in 
so short a time. The French left their baggage and heavy 
cannon at Judoign, and marched up to the Duke of Marl- 
borough : he was marching towards them, on the same de- 
sign ; for if they had not offered him battle on the 12th, 
he was resolved to have attacked them on the 13th of May : 
they met near a village called Ramillies (not far from the 
Mehaigne), from whence the battle takes its name. 
A great vie- The engagement was an entire one, and the action was 
orj game . j^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ hours : both the French mousquetaires and the 
cuirassiers were there : the Elector of Bavaria said, it was 
the best army he ever beheld : but, after two hours, the 
French gave way every where, so it ended in an entire de- 
feat. They lost both their camp, baggage, and artillery, as 
well as all that they had left in Judoign ; and in all possi- 
ble confusion they passed the Dyle ; our men pursuing, till 
it was dark. The Duke of Marlborough said to me, the 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 129 

Frendi army looked the best of any he had ever seen : but i~06. 
that their officers did not do their part, nor shew the cou- ^^-"^ 
rage that had appeared among them on other occasions. 
And when 1 asked him the difference between the actions 
at Hocksted and at Ramillies ; he said, the first battle 
lasted between seven and eight hours, and we lost above 
twelve thousand men in it ; whereas the second lasted not 
above two hours, and we lost not above two thousand five 
hundred men. Orders were presently sent to the great ci- 
ties to draw the garrisons out of them, that so the French 
might have again the face of an army : for their killed, their 
deserters, and their prisoners, on this great day, were about 
twenty thousand men. The Duke of Marlborough lost no 
time, but followed them close : Louvain, Mechlin, and 
Brussels submitted, besides many lesser places : Antwerp Fi"'«^ers 
made a shew ot standing out, but soon lollowed the exam- reduced. 
pie of the rest : Ghent and Bruges did the same : in all these 
King Charles was proclaimed. Upon this unexpected ra- 
pidity of success, the Duke of Marlborough went to the 
Hague to concert measures with the states, where he staid 
but few days ; for they agreed to every thing he proposed, 
and sent him back with full powers. The first thing he un- 
dertook was the siege of Ostend, a place famous for its long Ostend and 
siege in the last age : the natives of the place were disposed ten. 
to return to the Austrian family, and the French, that were 
in it, had so lost all heart and spirit, that they made not the 
resistance that was looked for : in ten days after they sat 
down before it, and within four days after the batteries were 
finished, they capitulated. From thence the confederates 
went to Menin, which was esteemed the best finished forti- 
fication in all those parts : it was built after the peace of 
Nimeguen ; nothing that art could contrive was wanting to 
render it impregnable ; and it was defended by a gaiTison 
of six thousand men, so that many thought it was too bold 
an undertaking to sit down before it. Tlie French army 
was become considerable, by great detachments brought 
from the Upper Rhine, where Marshal Villars was so 
far superior to the Germans, that, if it had not been for this 
revulsion of his forces, the circles of Suabia and Franco- 
nia would have been much exposed to pillage and con- 
tribution. 

The Duke of Vendome's conduct in Italy had so raised 
VOL. IV. ' ■ s 



130 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1706. his character, that he was thought the only man fit to be at 
Tiie Duke ^^^ head of the army in Flanders : so he was sent for, and 
of Vendorae had that Command given him, with a very high compliment, 
inFlandei^s. ^^^icli was Very injurious to the other officers, since he was 
declared to be the single man on whom France could de- 
pend, and by whom it could be protected in that extremity. 
The Duke of Orleans was sent to command in Italy, and 
Marshal Marsin was sent with him to assist, or rather in 
reality to govern him ; and so obstinately was the King of 
France set on pursuing his first designs, that notwithstand- 
ing his disgraces, both in Spain and in the Netherlands, 
yet (since he had ordered all the preparations for the siege 
of Turin) he would not desist from that attempt, but order- 
ed it to be pursued with all possible vigour. The siege of 
Menin was, in the meanwhile, carried on so successfully, 
that the trenches were opened on the 24th of July, and the 
batteries were finished on the 29th ; and they pressed the 
place so warmly, that they capitulated on the 11th of Au- 
gust, and marched out on the 14th, being St. Lewis's day : 
lour thousand men marched out of the place. 

It seemed strange, that a garrison, which was still so nu- 
merous, should give up, in so short a time, a place that was 
both so strong and so well furnished : but as the French 
were much sunk, so the allies were now become very ex- 
pert at carrying on of sieges ; and spared no cost that was 
necessary for dispatch. Dendermonde had been for some 
weeks under a blockade : this the Duke of Marlborough 
D«i<ief- ordered to be turned into a formal siege. The place was 

mande and ii-i i it^./^t-. i 

Aetuiaken. SO surrounded with water, that the Kmg of France havmg 
once begun a siege there, was forced to raise it ; yet it was 
now so pressed, that the garrison offered to capitulate, but 
the Duke of Marlborough would give them no other terms 
but those of being prisoners of war, to which they were 
forced to submit. Aeth was next invested ; it lay so in- 
conveniently between Flanders and Brabant, that it was 
nece>ssary to clear that communication, and to deliver Brus- 
sels from the danger of that neighbourhood : in a fortnight's 
time it was also obliged to capitulate, and the garrison 
were made prisoners of war. 

During those sieges, the Duke of Vendome having fixed 
himself in a camp that could not be forced, did not think 
lit to give the Duke of Marlborough any disturbancOj while 



OF QUEjEN ANNE. 131 

he lay with his army covering the sieges : the French were '^'^^^^ 
jealous of the Elector of Bavaria's heat, and though he de- '^*^ 
sired to command an army apart, yet it Avas not thought fit 
to divide the forces, though now grown to be very nume- 
rous. Deserters said the panic was still so great in the 
army, that there was no appearance of their venturing on 
any action : Paris itself was under a high consternation ; and 
though the King carried his misfortunes with an appear- 
ance of calmness and composure, yet he was often let 
blood, which was thought an indication of a great commo- 
tion within ; and this was no doubt the greater, because it 
was so much disguised. No news was talked of at that 
court ; all was silent and solemn ; so that even the Dutch- 
ess Dowager of Orleans knew not the true state of their af- 
fairs, which made her write to her aunt, the Electoress of 
Hanover, to learn news of her. 

There was another alarm given them, which heightened ^^*'^^^'?'" 

1 /-w 11 /• 1 ^ descent id 

the disorder they were m : the Queen and the states tormed France. 
a design of a descent in France, with an army of about ten 
thousand foot, and twelve hundred horse. The Earl of Ri- 
vers commanded the land army, as Shovel did a royal 
fleet, that was to convoy them, and to secure their landing ; 
it was to be near Bourdeaux : but the secret was then so 
well kept, that the French could not penetrate into it ; so 
the alarm was general. It put all the maritime counties of 
France to a vast charge, and under dismal apprehensions : 
officers were sent from the court to exercise them ; but they 
saw what their militia was, and that was all their defence. 
I have one of the manifesto's that the Earl of Rivers was 
ordered to publish upon his landing : he declared by it, 
that he was come neither to pillage the country, nor to con- 
quer any part of it ; he came only to restore the people to 
their liberties, and to have assemblies of the states, as they 
had antiently, and to restore the edicts to the protestants ; 
he promised protection to all that should come in to him. 
The troops were all put aboard at Portsmouth, in the be- 
ginning of July, but they were kept in our ports, by con- 
trary winds, till the beginning of October : the design on 
France was then laid aside ; it was too late in the year for 
the fleet to sail into the Bay of Biscay, and to lie there, for 
any considerable time, in that season : the reduction of 
^ain was of the greatest importance to us ; so new orders 



132 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1706. were sent them to sail first to Lisbon, and there to take 
^'^^^'^ sucli measures as the state of the atFairs of Spain should 
require. 
The siege of The slege of Turin was begun in May, and was continued 
till the beginning of September : there was a strong garri- 
son wnthin it, and it was well furnished, both with provi- 
sions and ammunition. The Duke of Savoy put all to the 
hazard : he sent his Dutchess with his children to Genoa > 
and himself, with a body of three thousand horse was mov- 
ing about Turin, from valley to valley, till that body was 
much diminished ; for he was, as it were, hunted from place 
to place by the Duke of Feuillade, who commanded in the 
siege, and drove the Duke of Savoy before him ; so that all 
hope of relief lay in Prince Eugene. The garrison made a 
noble resistance, and maintained their outworks long; they 
blew up many mines, and disputed every inch of ground 
^^'ith great resolution : they lost about six thousand men, 
who were either killed, or had deserted during the siege ; 
and their powder was at last so spent, that tliey must have 
capitulated within a day or two, if they had not been re- 
lieved. The siege cost the French very dear; they were 
often forced to change their attacks, and lost about four- 
teen thousand men before the place, for they were fre- 
quently beat from the posts that they had gained. 
Prir.ee Priucc Eugeuc made all the haste he could to their re- 

marcUes to ^^^^- The court of Vienna had not given due orders, as 
raise it. they had undertaken, for the provision of the troops that 
were to march through their country to join him : this oc- 
casioned many complaints, and some delay. The truth 
was, that court was so much set on the reduction of Hun- 
gary, that all other things were much neglected, while that 
alone seemed to possess them. A treaty was set on foot 
with the malecontents there, by the mediation of England 
and of the states ; a cessation of anus was agreed to for 
two months. All that belonged to that court were very 
uneasy while that continued ; they had shared among thciu 
the confiscations of all the great estates in Hungary, and 
they saw, that if a peace was made, all these would be va- 
cated, and the estates would be restored to their former 
owners : so they took all possible means to traverse the 
negotiation and to inflame the Emperor. There seemed to 
be some probability of bringing tilings to a settlement, but 



^--v-^ 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 133 

tfeat coulcl not be brought to any conclusion during the 1706. 
term of the cessation ; when that was lapsed, the Emperor 
could not be prevailed on to renew it : he recalled his 
troops from the Upper Rhine, though that was contrary to 
all his agreements with the empire. Notwithstanding all 
this ill management of the court of Vienna, Prince Eugene 
got together the greatest part of those troops that he ex- 
pected in the Veronese before the end of June : they were 
not yet all come up, but he, believing himself strong enough, 
resolved to advance ; and he left the Prince of Hesse with 
a body to receive the rest, and by them to force a diver- 
sion while he should be going on. The Diike of Vendome 
had taken care of all the fords of the Adige, the Mincio, 
and the Oglio ; and had cast up such lines and entrench- 
ments every where, that he had assured the court of France 
it was not possible for Prince Eugene to break through all 
that opposition, at least to do it in any time to relieve Tu- 
rin. By this time the Duke of Orleans was come to take 
the army out of Vendome's hands ; but before that Duke 
had left it, they saw that he had reckoned wrong in all those 
hopes he had given the court of France of stopping Prince 
Eugene's march. For, in the beginning of July, he sent a 
few battalions over one of the fords of the Adige, where 
the French were well posted, and double their number; 
yet they ran away with such precipitation, that they left 
every thing behind them : upon that. Prince Eugene passed 
the Adige with his whole army, and the French, in a con- 
sternation, retired behind the Mincio. After this, Prince 
Eugene surprised the French with a motion that they had 
not looked for nor prepared against, for he passed the Po ; 
the Duke of Orleans followed him, but declined an en- 
gagement ; whereupon Prince Eugene wrote to the Duke 
of Marlborough that he felt the eflects of the battle of Ra- 
millies even in Italy, the French seeming to be every where 
dispirited with their misfortunes. Prince Eugene, march- 
ing nearer the Appenines, had gained some days' march of 
the Duke of Orleans ; upon which that Duke repassed the 
Po, and advanced with such haste towards Turin, that h^ 
took no care of the pass at Stradella, which might have 
been kept and disputed for some days : Prince Eugene 
found no opposition there ; nor did he meet with any other 
difficulty, but from the length of the march, and the heat 



134 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1706. of {[if. season ; for he was in motion all the months of July 
and August. 

In the beginning: of September, the Duke of Savoy joined 
him, with the small remnants of his anny, and they hasted 
on to Turin. The Duke of Orleans had got thither before 
them, and the place was now reduced to the last extremi- 
ties: the Duke of Orleans, with most of the chief officers, 
were for marching out of the trenches ; Marsin was of an- 
other mind, and when he found it hard to maintain his opi^ 
nion, he produced positive orders for it, which put an end 
to the debate. The Duke of Savoy saw the necessity of 
attacking them in their trenches; his army consisted of 
twenty-eight thousand men, but they were good troops ; the 
French were above forty thousand, and in a well fortified 
camp ; yet, after two hours' resistance, the Duke of Savoy 
broke through, and then there w as a great destruction ; the 
French flying in much disorder, and leaving a vast treasure 
in their camp, besides great stores of provisions, ammu- 
Tiie French uitiou, and artillery. It was so entire a defeat, that not 
md "jhe" '^' ' ^t)ove sixteen hundred men of that great army got off in a 
siege raised, body ; and they made all the haste they could into Dau- 
phiny. The Duke of Savoy went into Turin, where it may 
be easily imagined he w as received w ith much joy ; the gar- 
rison, for want of powder, was not in a condition to make 
a sally on the French while he attacked them ; the French 
were pursued as far as men wearied with such an action 
could follow them, and many prisoners were taken. The 
Duke of Orleans, though he lost the day, yet gave grea,t 
demonstrations of courage, and received several wounds : 
Marshal Marsin fell into the enemies' hands, but died of 
his wounds in a few hours ; and upon him all the enors of 
this dismal day w ere cast, though the heaviest part of the 
load fell on Chamillard, who was then in the supreme de- 
gree of favour at court, and was entirely possessed of Ma- 
dame Maintenon's confidence. Feuillade had married his 
daughter, and, in order to the advancing him, he had the 
command of this siege given him, which was thus obsti- 
nately pursued till it ended in tliis fatal manner. The ob- 
stinacy continued, for the King sent orders, for a month 
together, to the Duke of Orleans to march back into Pied- 
mont, when it was absolutely impossible ; yet repeated or- 
ders were sent, and the reason of this was understood af- 



OF QUfiEN ANNE» 135 

tersvards : Madame Maintenon, it seems, took that care of I'^^e. 
the King's health and humour, that she did not suffer the ill ''^"'^^ 
state of his aifairs to be fully told to him ; he, all that 
while, was made believ e that the siege was only raised upon 
the advance of Prince Eugene's army, and knew not that 
his OAvn was defeated and ruined. I am not enough versed 
in military affairs to offer any judgment upon that point, 
whether they did well or ill not to go out of their camp to 
fight : it is certain that the light was more disorderly, and 
the loss was much greater, by reason of their lying within 
their lines : in this I have known men of the trade of differ- 
ent opinions. 

While this was done at Turin, the Prince of Hesse ad- 
vanced to the Mincio, which the French abandoned ; but 
ds he went to take Castiglione, Medavi, the French general, 
surprised him, and cut off about two thousand of his men ; 
upon which he was forced to retire to the Adige. The 
French magnified this excessively, hoping with the noise 
they made about it to balance their real loss at Turin, 
The Prince of Vaudemont, upon the news from Turin, 
left the city of Milan, and retired with the small forc« be 
tad to Cremona : the Duke of Savoy and Prince Eugene 
marched with all haste into the Milanese : the city of Mi- 
lan was opened to them ; but the citadel and some strong 
places, that had garrisons iii them, stood out some time ; 
yet place after place capitulated, so that it wa« visible all 
would quickly fall into their hands. 

Such a succession of eminent misfortunes, in one cam- 
paign, and in so many different places, was without ex- 
ample : it made all people conclude, that the time was 
-come, in which the perfidy, the tyranny, and the cruelty of 
that King's long and bloody reign, was now to be repaid 
him, with the same severe measure, with which he had for- 
merly treated others : but the secrets of God are not to be 
too boldly pried into, till he is pleased to display them to 
us more openly. It is certainly a year that deserves to be 
long and much remembered. 

In the end of the campaign, in which Poland had been The King of 
harassed with the continuance of the war, but without any ^«edeH 
great action ; the King of Sweden, seeing that King Angus- to Saxony. ' 
tU5 supported his affairs in Poland, by the supplies both of 
men and money that he drew from his electorate, resolvecj 



136 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

i^*^^- to stop that resource : so he marched through Silesia and 
Lusatia into Saxony. He quickly made himself master of 
an open country, that was looking? for no such invasion, an^ 
was in no sort prepared for it, and had few strong places ia 
it capable of any resistance : the rich town of Leipsic and 
all the rest of the country was, without any opposition, put 
under contribution. All the empire was alarmed at this ; it 
was at first apprehended, that it was set on by the French 
councils, to raise a new war in Germany, and to put the 
north all in a flame. The King of Sweden gave it out, that 
he had no design to give any disturbance to tlie empire : 
that he intended, by this march, only to bring the war of 
Poland to a speedy conclusion ; and it was reasonable to 
believe, that such an unlooked-for incident would soon bring 
that war to a crisis. 
A treaty of This was the state of our affairs abroad, in this glorious 
ciuXd!"*^ and ever-memorable year. At home, another matter of great 
consequence was put in a good and promising method : the 
commissioners of both kingdoms sat close in a treaty till 
about the middle of July ; in conclusion, they prepared a 
complete scheme of an entire union of both nations : some 
particulars being only referred, to be settled by their pair 
liaments respectively. When every thing was agreed to, 
they presented one copy of the treaty to the Queen, and 
each side had a copy, tobe presented to their respective par- 
liament, all the three copies being signed by the commis- 
sioners of both kingdoms : it was resolved to lay the mat- 
ter first before the parliament of Scotland, because it was 
apprehended, that it would meet with the greatest oppo^ 
tion there. 

The union of the two kingdoms was a work of which 
many had quite despaired, in which number I was one ; 
and those who entertained better hopes, thought it must 
have run out into a long negotiation for several years : but, 
beyond all men's expectation, it was begun and finished 
The articles withiu the compass of one. The commissioners brought 
ot the lujioii. up from Scotland for the treaty, were so strangely chosen 
(the far greater number having continued in an opposition 
to the government, ever since the Revolution), that from 
thence many concluded, that it was not sincerely designed 
by the ministry, when they saw such a nomination. This 
was a piece of the Earl of Stair's cunning, >yho did heartily 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 137 

promote the design: he then thought, that if such a number ^'^os. 
of those who were looked on as Jacobites, and were popular 
men on that account, among the disaffected there, could l)e 
so wrought on, as to be engaged in the affair, the work would 
be much the easier, when laid before the parliament of Scot- 
land ; and in this, the event shewed that he took right mea- 
sures. The Lord Somers had the chief hand in projecting 
the scheme of the union, into which all the commissioners of 
the English nation went very easily : the advantages that 
were offered to Scotland, in the whole frame of it, were so 
great and so visible, that nothing but the consideration of 
the safety that was to be procured by it to England, could 
have brought the English to agree to a project, that, in eveiy 
branch of it, was much more favourable to the Scotch nation. 
They were to bear less than the fortieth part of the pub- 
lic taxes : when 4*. in the pound was levied in England, 
which amounted to 2,000,000/., Scotland was only to be 
taxed at 48,000/. which was eight months' assessment : they 
had been accustomed for some years to pay this, and they 
said it was all that the nation could bear. It is held a 
maxim, that in the framing of a government, a proportion 
ought to be observed, between the share in the legislature 
and the burden to be borne ; yet, in return of the fortieth 
part of the burden, they offered the Scotch near the ele- 
venth part of the legislature : for the peers of Scotland 
were to be represented by sixteen peers in the House of 
Lords, and the commons by forty-five members in the 
House of Commons; and these were to be chosen, accord- 
ing to the methods to be settled in the parliament of Scot- 
land: and since Scotland was to pay customs and excises 
on the same foot with England, and was to bear a share in 
paying much of the debt England had contracted during 
the war, 398,000/. was to be raised in England and sent 
into Scotland as an equivalent for that; and that was to be 
applied to the recoining the money, that all might be of 
one denomination and standard, and to paying the public 
debts of Scotland, and repaying to their African Company 
all their losses with interest; upon which that company 
was to be dissolved ; and the overplus of the equivalent 
was to be applied to the encouragement of manufactures. 
Trade was to be free all over the island, and to the plan- 
tations ; private rights were to be preserved ; and the judi- 

VOL. IV. T 



138 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1^0^' catories, and laws of Scotland, were still to be continued : 
but all was put, for the future, under the regulation of the 
of the parliament of Great Britain ; the two nations now 
were to be one kingdom, under the same succession to the 
cro\Mi, and united in one parliament. There was no pro- 
^^sion made in tliis tieaty with relation to religion ; for in 
the acts of parliament, in both kingdoms, that empowered 
the Queen to name commissioners, there was an express 
limitation that they should not treat of those matters. 
Debated This was the substance of the articles of the treaty, 

parfiament which being laid before the parliament of Scotland, met 
of Scotland, with gieat opposition there. It was visible, that the nobi- 
lity of that kingdom suffered a gieat diminution by it : for 
though it was agreed that they should enjoy all the other 
privileges of the peers of England, yet the greatest of them 
all, which was the voting in the House of Lords, was re- 
strained to sixteen, to be elected by the rest at every new 
parliament ; yet there was a greater majority of the nobi- 
lity that concurred in voting for the union, than in the other 
states of that kingdom. The commissioners from the shires 
and boroughs were almost equally divided, though it was 
evident they were to be the chief gainers by it ; among 
these the union was agreed to by a very small majo- 
rity. It was the nobility that, in every vote, turned the 
scale for the union: they were severely reflected on by 
those who opposed it : it was said many of them were 
bought off to sell their country and their birthright. All 
those who adhered inflexibly to the Jacobite interest, op- 
posed every step that was made with great vehemence ; for 
they saw that the union struck at the root of all their views 
and designs for a new revolution : yet these could not have 
raised or maintained so great an opposition as was now 
made, if the presbyterians had not been possessed with a jea- 
lousy, that the consequence of this union w ould be the change 
of church-government among them, and that they would 
be swallowed up by the church of England. This took such 
root in many, that no assurances, that were offered, could 
remove their fears. It was infused in them chiefly by the 
old Dutchess of Hamilton, who had great credit with them : 
and it was suggested, that she, and her son, had particular 
vie^ys, as hoping, that if Scotland should continue a sepa- 
rated kingdom, tlic crown might come into their family. 



v-^/^ 



OP QUEEN ANNE. 139 

they being the next in blood, after King James's posteiity. ^^oe. 
The infusion of such apprehensions had a great effect on 
the main body of that party, who could scarce be brought to 
hearken to, but never to accept of, the offers that were made 
for securing their presbyterian government. A great part 
of the gentry of that kingdom, who had been oft in Eng- 
land, and had observed the protection that all men had 
from a House of Commons, and the security that it pro- 
cured against partial judges and a violent ministry, entered 
into the design with great zeal. The opening a free trade, 
not only with England, but with the plantations, and the 
protection of the fleet of England, drew in those who un- 
derstood &ese matters, and saw there was no other way in 
view to make the nation rich and considerable. Those who 
had engaged far into the design of Darien, and were great 
losers by it, saw now an honourable way to be reimbursed, 
which made them wish well to tlie union, and promote it : 
but that which advanced the design most effectually, and 
without which it could not have succeeded, was, that a con- 
siderable number of noblemen and gentlemen, w ho were in 
no engagements with the court (on the contrary, they had 
been disobliged and turned out of great posts, and some 
very lately) declared for it : these kept themselves very 
close and united, and seemed to have no other interest but 
that of tlieir country, and were for that reason called the 
squadron. The chief of these were the jVIarquis of Twee- 
dale, the Earls of Rothes, Roxburgh, Hadington, and 
Marchmont ; they were in great credit, because they had no 
visible bias on their minds ; ill usage had provoked them 
rather to oppose the ministry, than to concur in any thing 
where the chief honour would be carried away by others. 
When they were spoke to by the ministry, they answered 
coldly, and with great reserves ; so it was expected they 
would have concurred in the opposition, and they being 
between twenty and thirty in numljer, if they had set them- 
selves against the union, the design must have miscarried : 
but they continued still silent, till the first division of the 
House obliged them to declare, and then they not only 
joined in it, but promoted it effectually, and witli zeal. 
There were great and long debates, managed on the side of 
the union, by the Earls of Seafield and Stair for the minis- 
try, and for the squadron by the Earls of Roxburgh and 



^^..-^ 



140 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

i^'o^' Marchmont; and against it by the Dukes of Hamilton and 
Athol, and the Marquis of Annandale. The Duke of Atbol 
was believed to be in a foreign correspondence, and was 
much set on violent methods. Duke Hamilton managed 
the debate with great vehemence, but was against all des- 
perate motions. He had much to lose, and was resolved 
not to venture all with those who suggested the necessity 
of running, in the old Scotch way, to extremities. The 
topics from which the arguments against the union were 
drawn, were the antiquity and dignity of their kingdom, 
which was oflfered to be given up and sold : they were de- 
parting from an independent state, and going to sink into a 
a dependence on England ; what conditions soever might 
be now speciously oft'ered, as a security to them, they could 
not expect that they should be adhered to, or religiously 
maintained in a parliament, where sixteen peers and forty- 
five commoners, could not hold the balance, against above 
an hundred peers and five hundred and thirteen commoners. 
Scotland would be no more considered as formerly by fo- 
reign princes and states. Their peers would be precarious 
and elective : they magnified their crown, with the other 
regalia so much, that since the nation seemed resolved 
never to suffer them to be carried away, it was provided, in 
a new clause added to the articles, that these should still 
remain within the kingdom. They insisted most vehe- 
mently on the danger that the constitution of their church 
must be in, when all should be under the power of a British 
parliament : this was pressed with fury by some, who were 
known to be the most violent enemies to presbytery of any 
in that nation : but it was done on design to inflame that 
body of men by those apprehensions, and so to engage 
them to persist in their opposition. To allay that heat, 
after the general vote was carried for the union, before they 
entered on the consideration of the particular articles, an 
act Avas prepared for securing the presbyterian govern- 
ment ; by which it Avas declared to be the only government 
of that church, unalterable in all succeeding times, and the 
maintaining it was declared to be a fundamental and es- 
sential article and condition of the union; and this act was 
to be made a part of the act for the union, which, in the 
consequence of that, was to be ratified by another act of 
parliament in England : thus those, who were the greatest 



V-^v^ 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 141 

enemies to presbytery of any in the nation, raised the cla- ^'^^6- 
monr of the danger that form of government would be in, 
if the union went on to such a height, that by their means 
this act was carried, as far as any human law could go, for 
their security : for by this, they had not only all the secu- 
rity that their own parliament could give them, but they 
were to have the faith and authority of the parliament of 
England, it being, in the stipulation, made an essential 
condition of the union. The carrying this matter so far, 
was done in hopes that the parliament of England would 
never be brought to pass it. This act was passed, and it 
gave an entire satisfaction to those who were disposed to 
receive any ; but nothing could satisfy men who made use 
of this oidy to inflame others. Those who opposed the 
union, finding the majority was against them, studied to 
raise a storm without doors, to frighten them. A set of ad- 
dresses against the union were sent round all the counties, 
in which those who opposed it had any interest. There 
came up many of these in the name of counties and bo- 
roughs, and at last from parishes : this made some noise 
abroad, but was very little considered there, when it was 
known by whose arts and practices they were procured. 
When this appeared to have little eflfect, pains were taken 
to animate the rabble to violent attempts, both at Edin- 
burgh and at Glasgow. Sir Patrick Johnston, lord provost 
of Edinburgh, had been one of the commissioners, and had 
concurred heartily in the design : a great multitude gathered 
about his house, and were forcing the doors on design, as 
was believed, to murder him; but guards came and dis- 
persed them. Upon this attempt, the privy-council set out 
a proclamation against all such riots, and gave orders for 
quartering the guards within the town : but to shew that this 
was not intended to overawe the parliament, the whole 
matter was laid before them, and the proceedings of the 
privy-council were approved. No other violent attempt 
was made after this, but the body of the people shewed so 
much sullenness, that probably had any person of authority 
once kindled the fire, they seemed to be of such combus- 
tible matter, that the union might have cast that nation 
into great convulsions. These things made great impres- 
sions on the Duke of Queensberry, and on some about him : 
he despaired of succeeding, and he apprehended his per- 



142 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

^^'^^j- son might be in clanger. One about Mm wrote to my Lord 
^^^ Treasurer, representing the ill temper the nation was gene- 
rally in, and moved for an adjournment, that so with the 
help of some time, and good management, those difficulties, 
which seemed then insuperable, might be conquered. The 
Lord Treasurer told me his answer was, that a delay was, 
upon tlie matter, laying the whole design aside; orders 
were given, both in England and Ireland, to have troops 
ready upon call ; and if it w as necessary, more forces 
should be ordered from Flanders. The French were in no 
condition to send any assistance to those who might break 
out, so that the circumstances of the time w ere favourable ; 
he desired, therefore, that they would go on, and not be 
alarmed at the foolish behaviour of some, who, whatever 
might be given out in their names, he believed, had more 
wit than to ruin themselves. Every step that was made, 
and every vote that was carried, was w ith the same strength, 
and met with the same opposition : both parties giving 
strict attendance during the whole session, which lasted 
1707. for three months. Many protestations were printed, with 

At last every man's vote. In conclusion, the w hole aaticles of the 
treaty were agreed to with some small variations. The Eail 
of Stair, having maintained the deliate on the last day, in 
which all was concluded, died the next night suddenly, his 
spirits being quite exhausted by the length and vehemence 
of the debate. The act passed, and w as sent up to Lon- 
don in the begiiming of February. 

The Queen laid it before the tw o houses ; the House of 
Commons agreed to it all, without any opposition, so soon, 
that it was thought they interposed not delay and consider- 
ation enough, suitable to the importance of so great a trans- 
action. The debates w^ere longer and more solemn in the 
House of Lords : the Archbishop of Canterbury moved, 
that a bill might be brought in for securing the church of Eng- 
land : by it, all acts passed in favour of our church, w^ere 
declared to be in full force for ever ; and this was made a 
fundamental and essential part of the union. Some excep- 
tions were taken to the words of the bill, as not so strong 
as the act passed in Scotland seemed to be, since the 
government of it was not declared to be unalterable : but 
they were judged more proper, since, where a supreme le- 
gislature is once acknowledged, nothing can be unaltera- 
ble. After tjiis was over, the Lords entered upon the con- 



agreed to. 



^^^.-^ 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 143 

sideration of the articles, as they were amended in Scot- i^o?. 
land: it was pretended, that here a new constitution was 
made, the consequence of which, they said, was the alter- 
ing all the laws of England. All the judges were of opi- 
nion, that there was no weight in this : great exceptions 
were taken to the small proportion Scotland was rated at, 
in the laying on of taxes ; and their election of peers, to 
every new parliament, was said to be contrary to the na- 
ture of peerage. To all the objections that were offered, 
this general answer was made, that so great a thing as the 
uniting the whole island into one government, could not be 
compassed, but with some inconveniences : but if the ad- 
vantage of safety and union was greater than those inconve- 
niences, then a lesser evil must be submitted to. An elective 
peer was indeed a great prejudice to the peers of Scotland; 
but since they had submitted to it, there was no just occa- 
sion given to the peers of England to complain of it. But 
the debate held longest upon the matters relating to the 
government of the church : it was said, here was a real 
danger the church ran into, when so many votes of persons 
tied to presbytery, were admitted to a share in the legisla- 
ture. All the rigour with which the episcopal clergy had 
been treated in Scotland, was set forth, to shew with how 
implacable a temper they were set against the church of 
England : yet, in return to all that, it was now demanded, 
from the men of this church, to enact, that the Scotch form 
should continue unalterable, and to admit those to vote 
among us, who were such declared enemies to our consti- 
tution. Here was a plausible subject for popular elo- 
quence, and a great deal of it was brought out upon this 
occasion, by Hooper, Beveridge, and some other bishops, 
and by the Earls of Rochester and Nottingham. But to 
all this it was answered, that the chief dangers the church 
was in, were from France and from popery : so that what- 
soever secured us from these, delivered us from ourjustest 
fears. Scotland lay on the weakest side of England, 
where it could not be defended but by an army : the col- 
lieries on the Tyne lay exposed for several miles, and 
could not be preserved, but at a great charge, and with a 
great force. If a war should fall out between the two na- 
tions, and if Scotland should be conquered, yet, even in 
that case, it must be united to England, or kept imder by 



144 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1707. an army. The danger of keeping up a standing force, in 
the hands of any prince, and to be modelled by him (who 
might engage the Scotch to join with that army and turn 
upon England), was visible : and any union, after such a 
conquest, would look like a force, and so could not be 
lasting ; whereas all was now voluntary. As for church 
matters, there had been such violence used by all sides, in 
their turns, that none of them could reproach the others 
much, without having it returned. upon them too justly. A 
softer management would lay those heats, and bring men 
to a better temper. The cantons of Swisserland, though 
very zealous in their different religions, yet were united in 
one general body : the diet of Germany was composed of 
men of three different religions : so that several constitu- 
tions of churches might be put under one legislature ; and 
if there was a danger of either side, it was much more like- 
ly that five hundred and thirteen would be too hard for for- 
ty-five, than that forty-five would master five hundred and 
thirteen ; especially w hen the crown was on their side : and 
there were twenty-six bishops in the House of Lords, to 
outweigh the sixteen votes from Scotland. It was indeed 
said, that all in England were not zealous for the church ; 
to which it was answered, that by the same reason it might 
be concluded, that all those of Scotland were not zealous 
for their way, especially when the favour of the court lay 
in the English scale. The matter was argued, for the 
union, by the Bishops of Oxford, Norwich, and myself, by 
the Lord Treasurer, the Earls of Sunderland and Wharton, 
and the Lords Townshend and Hallifax ; but above all, by 
the Lord Somers. Every division of the House was made 
with so great an inequality, that they were but twenty 
against fifty that were for the union. When all was agreed 
to, in both houses, a bill was ordered to be brought in to 
enact it ; which was prepared by Harcourt with so parti- 
cular a contTivance, that it cut ofi' all debates. The pre- 
amble was a recital of the articles, as they were passed in 
Scotland, together with the acts made in both parliaments, 
for the security of their several churches ; and in conclu- 
sion, there came one enacting clause, ratifying all. This 
put those upon great difliculties, who had resolved to ob- 
ject to several articles, and to insist on demanding some 
alterations in them ; for they could not come at any de- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 145 

bate about them ; they could not object to the recital, it ^''^^• 
being merely matter of fact; and they had not strength ^ 
enough to oppose the general enacting clause, nor was it 
easy to come at particulars, and to otfer provisos relating 
to them. The matter was carried on with such zeal, that 
it passed through the House of Commons, before those, 
who intended to oppose it, had recovered themselves out 
of the surprise, under which the form it was drawn in had 
put them. It did not stick long in the House of Lords, 
for all the articles had been copiously debated there for se- 
reral days before the bill was sent up to them : and thus 
this great design, so long wished and laboured for in vain, 
was begun, and happily ended, within the compass of nine 
months. The union was to commence on the 1st of May, 
and till that time, the two kingdoms were still distinct, and 
their two parliaments continued still to sit. 

In Scotland, they proceeded to dispose of the sum pro- The eqniva- 
vided to be the equivalent : in this, great partialities ap- ed" of,'*^^*' 
peared, which were much complained of; but there was 
not strength to oppose them. The ministiy, and those who 
depended on them, moved for very extravagant allowances 
to those who had been employed in this last, and in the 
former treaty ; and they made large allotments of some 
public debts, that were complained of as unreasonable and 
unjust ; by which, a great part of the sum was diverted 
from answering the end for which it was given. This was 
much opposed by the squadron, but as the ministers pro- 
moted it, and those Avho were to get by it, made all the in- 
terest they could to obtain it (some few of them only ex- 
cepted, who, as became generous patriots, shewed more 
regard to the public than to their private ends), so those, 
who had opposed the union, were not ill pleased to see this 
sum so misapplied ; hoping by that means, that the aver- 
sion, which they endeavoured to infuse into the nation 
against the union, w ould be much increased ; therefore, they 
let every thing go as the ministers proposed, to the great 
grief of those who wished w ell to the public. It w as re- 
solved, that the parliament of England should sit out its 
period, which, by the law for triennial parliaments, ran yet 
a year further; it was thought necessary, to have another 
session continued of the same men who had made this 
union, since they would more readily consolidate and 

VOL. IV. u 




HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
strengthen their own work. Upon this ground, it seemed 
most proper, that the members to represent Scotland, 
should be named by the parliament there. Those who had 
opposed the union, carried their aversion to the squadron 
so far, that they concurred with the ministry in a nomina- 
tion, in which very few of them were included, not above 
three of the peers, and fifteen commoners ; so that great 
and just exceptions lay against many who were nominated 
to represent that kingdom : all this was very acceptable to 
those who had opposed the union. The customs of Scot- 
land were then in a farm, and the farmers were the crea- 
tures of the ministry, some of whom, as was believed, 
were sharers with them: it was visible, that since there 
was to be a free trade opened, between Scotland and Eng- 
land, after the 1st of May, and since the duties of Scot- 
land, laid on trade, were much lower than in England, that 
there would be a great importation into Scotland, on the 
prospect of the advantage, that might be made by sending 
it into England. Upon such an emergency, it was reason- 
able to break the farm, as had been ordinarily done upon 
less reason, and to take the customs into a new manage- 
ment, that so the gain, to be made in the inten^al, might go 
to the public, and not be left in private hands : but the lease 
was continued in favour of the farmers. They were men 
of no interest of their ovm, so it w as not doubted, but that 
there was a secret practice in the case. Upon the view of 
the gain, to be made by such an importation, it was under- 
stood, that orders were sent to Holland, and other places, 
to buy up wine, brandy, and other merchandise. And 
another notorious fraud was designed by some in England, 
who, because of the great drawback that was allowed for 
tobacco and other plantation commodities, when exported, 
were sending great quantities to Scotland, on design to 
bring them back after the first of May, that so they might 
sell them free of that duty. So a bill was ofi'ered to the 
House of Commons for preventing this. While this was 
going on, Harley proposed the joining another clause, to 
this efiect : that all goods, that were carried to Scotland 
after the first of February (unless it were by the natural- 
born subjects of that kingdom, inhabiting in it), in case 
they were imported into England after the 1st of May, 
should be liable to the English duties; and of tliis the 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 147 

proof was to lie on the importer. This angered all the i^o/. 
Scotch, who raised a high clamour upon it, and said the '^^^^ 
union was broke by it ; and that such a proceeding would 
have very ill effects in Scotland. But the House of Com- 
mons were so alarmed with the news of a vast importation, 
which was aggravated far beyond the truth, and by which 
they concluded the trade of England would greatly suffer, 
at least for a year or two, that they passed the bill and 
sent it to the Lords, where it was rejected ; for it appeared 
plainly to them, that this was an infraction of some of the 
articles of the treaty. It was suggested, that a recess for 
some days was necessary, that so the Commons might have 
an opportunity to prepare a bill, prohibiting all goods from 
being brought to England, that had been sent out, only in 
order that the merchants might have the drawback allowed. 
With this view, the parliament was prorogued for a few 
days ; but, at their next meeting, the Commons were more 
inflamed than before : so they prepared a new bill, to the 
same effect, only in some clauses it was more severe than 
the former had been : but the Lords did not agiee to it, and 
so it fell. 

Thus far I have carried on the recital of this great trans- 
action, rather in such a general view as may transmit it 
right to posterity, than in so copious a narration, as an af- 
fair of such consequence might seem to deserve : it is very 
probable, that a particular journal of the debates in the par- 
liament of Scotland, which were long and fierce, may at 
some time or other be made public : but I hope this may 
suffice for a history. I cannot, upon such a signal occa- Reflections 
sion, restrain myself from making some reflections on the °"* eumon. 
directions of Providence in this matter. It is certain the 
design on Darien, the great charge it put the nation to, and 
the total miscarriage of that project, made the trading part 
of that kingdom see the impossibility of undertaking any 
great design in trade ; and that made them the more readily 
concur in carrying on the union. The mser men of that 
nation had observed long, that Scotland lay at the mercy 
of the ministry, and that every new set of ministers made 
use of their power to enrich themselves and their creatures 
at the cost of the public ; that the judges, being made by 
them, were in such a depeudance, that since there are no 
juries allowed in Scotland in civil matters, the whole pro- 



\^»v-^ 



148 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1707. perty of the kingdom was in their hands, and by their means 
in the hands of the ministers : they had also observed, how 
ineffectual it had been to complain of them at court : it put 
those, who ventured on it, to a vast charge, to no other 
purpose, but to expose them the more to the fury of the 
ministry. The poor noblemen, and the poor boroughs, 
made a great majority in the parliament, and were easily 
to be purchased by the court: so they saw no hopes of a 
remedy to such a mischief, but by an incorporating union 
tnth England. These thoughts were much quickened by 
the prospect of recovering what they had lost in that ill- 
concerted undertaking of Darien ; and this wa^ so univer- 
sal and so operative, that the design on Darien, wrhich the 
Jacobites had set on foot, and prosecuted with so much 
fury, and with bad intentions, did now engage many to pro- 
mote the union, who, without that consideration, would 
have been at least neutral, if not backw^ard in it. The 
court w^as engaged to promote the union, on account of the 
act of securitj% passed in the year 1704, which was imputed 
chiefly to the Lord Treasurer : threatenings of impeaching 
him for advising it, had been often let fall, and upon that, his 
enemies had set their chief hopes of pulling him down : for 
though no proof could be brought of his counsel in it, yet 
it was not doubted, but that his advice had determined the 
Queen to pass it. An impeachment was a word of an odious 
sound, which would engage a party against him, and dis- 
order a session of parliament; and the least ill effect it 
might have, w ould be to oblige liim to withdraw from busi- 
ness, which was chiefly aimed at. The Queen was very 
sensible, that his managing the great trust he w as in, in the 
manner he did, made all the rest of her government both 
safe and easy to her ; so she spared no pains to bring this 
about, and it was believed she was at no small cost to com- 
pass it, for those of Scotland had learned from England, 
to set a price on their votes, and they expected to be well 
paid for them : the Lord Treasurer did also bestir himself 
in this matter, v^ith an activity and zeal that seemed not to 
be in his nature : and indeed, all the application, with 
which the court set on this aflair, was necessary to master 
the opposition and difficulties that sprang up in the pro- 
gress of it. That which completed all was, the low estate 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 149 

to which the affairs of France were reduced: they could 1^07. 
neither spare men nor money to support their party, which ""^"^ 
otherwise they would undoubtedly have done : they had, 
in imitation of the Exchequer bills here in England, given 
out Mint bills to a great value ; some said two hundred 
millions of livres : these were ordered to be taken by the 
subjects in all payments, as money to the full value, but 
were not to be received in payment of the King's taxes. 
This put them under a great discredit, and the fund created 
for repaying them, not being thought a good one, they had 
sunk 70 per cent. This created an inexpressible disorder 
in all payments, and in the whole commerce of France: all 
the methods that were proposed for raising their credit, had 
proved inelOtectual ; for they remained, after all, at the dis- 
count of 58 per cent. A court in this distress, was not in a 
condition to spare much, to support such an inconsiderable 
interest, as they esteemed their party in Scotland : so they 
had not the assistance which they promised themselves 
from thence. The conjuncture of all these things meeting 
together, which brought this great work to a happy conclu- 
sion, was so remarkable, that I hope my laying it all in one 
view, will be thought no impertinent digression. 

This was the chief business of the session of parliament; The supplies 
and it was brought about, here in England, both sooner Tranied. 
and with less difficulty than was expected. The grant of 
the supplies went on quicker than w as usual. There was 
only one particular to which great objections were made : 
upon the great and early success of the former campaign, it 
was thought necessary to follow that with other projects, 
that drew on a great expense, beyond what had been es- 
timated and laid before the parliament. An embarkation, 
first designed against France, and afterwards sent to l*ortu- 
gal, and the extraordinary supplies that the Duke of Savoy's 
afiairs called for, amounted to about 800,000/. more than 
had been provided for by parliament. Some complained 
of this, and said, that if a ministry could thus run the nation 
into a great charge, and expect that the paiiiaraent mu^t 
pay the reckoning, this might have very ill consequences. 
But to this it was answered, that a ministry deserved public 
theunks, that had followed oiur advantages with such vigour : 
if any thing was raised without necessity, or ill applied, 
under the pretence of serving the public, it was reasonable 



150 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

*7or. to inquire into it, and to let it fall heavy on those who were 
^"^^ in fault : but if no other exception lay to it, than because 
the matter could not be foreseen, nor communicated to the 
parliament before those accidents happened that occa- 
sioned the expense, it was a very unjust discouragement, if 
ministers were to be quarrelled with for their care and zeal : 
so it was carried by a great majority to discharge this debt. 
All the other supplies, and among them the equivalent for 
Scotland, were given and lodged on good funds : so that 
no session of parliament had ever raised so much, and se- 
cured it so well, as this had done. The session came to a 
happy conclusion, and the parliament to an end. But the 
Queen, by virtue of a clause in the act of union, revived it 
by proclamation. Upon this, many of the Scotch lords 
came up, and were very well received ; two of them, Mon- 
trose and Roxburgh, were made Dukes in Scotland ; some 
of them were made privy-counsellors in England ; and a 
commission for a new council was sent to Scotland. There 
appeared soon two different parties among the Scotch: 
some of them moved, that there should neither be a distinct 
government, nor a privy-council continued there, but that 
all should be brought under one administration, as the se- 
veral counties in England were ; they said, the sooner all 
were consolidated, in all respects, into one body, the pos- 
sibility of separating and disuniting them would be the 
sooner extinguished : this was pressed with the most ear- 
nestness by those who were weary of the present ministry, 
and longed to see their power at an end : but the ministry, 
who had a mind to keep up their authority, said, there was 
a necessity of preserving a shew of greatness, and a form 
of government in those parts, both for subduing the Jaco- 
bites, and that the nation might not be disgusted, by too 
sudden an alteration of out\vard appearances. The court 
resolved to maintain the ministry there till the next session 
of parliament, in which new measures might be taken. 
Thus our affairs were happily settled at home ; and the 1st 
of May was celebrated ^vith a decent solemnity, for then 
the union took place. 
Proceedings The couvocatiou sat this winter ; and the same temper that 
tion*^""^"' '^ had for some years possessed the lower house did still pre- 
vail among them. When the deljates concerning the union 
were before the parliament, some in the lower house spoke 



■^^N-^ 



OF QUEEN ANNE. l51 

very tragically on that subject : a committee was named to i707. 
consider of the present danger of the church, though, but a 
little while before, they had concurred mth the bishops in a 
very respectful address to the Queen, in which it was ac- 
knowledged, that the church was, under her Majesty's ad- 
ministration, in a safe and flourishing condition : this was 
carried by the private management of some aspiring men 
amongst them, who hoped by a piece of skill to shew what 
they could do, that it might recommend them to farther 
preferment : they were much cried out on as betrayers of 
their party for carrying that address ; so to recover their 
credit, and because their hopes from the court were not so 
promising, they resolved now to act another part. It was 
given out, that they intended to make an application to the 
House of Commons against the union : to prevent that, the 
Queen wrote to the Archbishop, ordering him to prorogue 
them for three weeks : by this means that design was de- 
feated ; for, before the end of the three weeks, the union had 
passed both houses. But, when one factious design failed, 
they found out another : they ordered a representation to 
be made to the bishops, which set forth, that ever since the 
submission of the clergy in Henry the Eighth's time, which 
was for a course of an hundred and seventy-three years, 
no such prorogation had ever been ordered, during the sit- 
ting of parliament; and they besought the bishops, that 
from the conscientious regard which they doubted not they 
had for the welfare of this church, they would use their ut- 
most endeavours, that they might still enjoy those usages, 
of which they were possessed, and which they had never 
misemployed ; witli this they brought up a schedule, con- 
taining, as they said, all the dates of the prorogations, both 
of parliament and convocation, thereby to make good their 
assertion ; and, to cover this seeming complaint of the 
Queen's proceedings, they passed a vote, that they did not 
intend to enter into any debate concerning the validity of 
the late prorogation, to which they had humbly submitted. 
It was found to be a strange and a bold assertion, that this 
prorogation was without a precedent : their charge, in the 
preserving their usages, on the consciences of the bishops, 
insinuated that this was a breach made on them : the bi- 
shops saw this was plainly an attempt on the Queen's su- 
premacy ; so they ordered it to be laid before her Majesty'; 



152 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

^7^^^- and they ordered also a search to be made into the records : 
for though it was an undoubted maxim, that nothing but a 
positive law could limit the prerogative, which a non-usage 
could not do ; yet they ordered the schedule oiFered by the 
lower house to be compared Avith the records : they found 
that seven or eight prorogations had been ordered during 
the sitting of parliament, and there were about thirty or 
forty more, by which it appeared, that the convocation sat 
sometimes before, and sometimes after a session of parlia- 
ment, and sat sometimes even when the parliament was 
dissolved. Upon all this, the Queen %vrote another more 
severe letter to the Archbishop, complaining of the clergy 
for not only continuing their illegal practices, but reflecting 
on her late order, as without a precedent, and contrary to 
antient usages ; which as it was untrue in fact, so it was 
an invasion of her supremacy : she had shewed much ten- 
derness to the clergy, but if any thing of this nature should 
be attempted for the future, she would use means, war- 
ranted by law, for punishing offenders, how unwilling so- 
ever she might be to proceed to such measures. When 
the day came, on which this was to be communicated to 
the lower house, the prolocutor had gone out of town, with- 
out so much as asking the Archbishop's leave, so a very 
small number of the clergy appeared: upon this signal con- 
tempt, the Archbishop pronounced him contumacious, and 
referred the further censuring him to the day he set for their 
next meeting : the prolocutor's party pressed him to stand 
it out, and to make no submission ; but he had sounder ad- 
vice given him by some who understood the law better ; so 
he made a full submission, with which the Archbishop was 
satisfied : yet a party continued, with great impatience, to 
assert that their schedule was true, and that the Queen was 
misinfoi-med, though the Lord Chancellor, made now a peer 
of England, and the Lord Chief Justice Holt had, upon 
perusal of the records, affirmed to the Queen, that their 
assertion was false, and that there were many precedents 
for such prorogations. 
AflfaKs in And now I must look abroad into foreign affairs. The 
French were losing place after place in Lombardy : Cre- 
mona, Mantua, and the citadel of Milan were the only 
places that were left in their hands : it was not possible to 
maintain these long without a greater forcc; nor was it eaay 
6 



OF QUEEI^ ANNE. 153 

to convey that to them. On the other hand, the reducing ~ 1705. 
those fortresses was like to be a work of time, which would ^^''^ 
fatigue the troops, and would bring a great charge with it : 
so a capitulation was proposed for delivering up those 
places, and for allowng the French troops a free march to 
Dauphiny. As soon as this was sent to Vienna, it was 
agreed to, without communicating it to the allies, which 
gave a just cause of oflence: it was said in excuse, that 
every general had a power to agree to a capitulation ; so 
the Emperor, in this case, was not bound to stay for the 
consent of the allies. This was true, if the capitulation 
had been for one single place, but this was of the nature of 
a treaty, being of a greater extent. By this the French 
«aved ten or twelve thousand men, who must all have 
been, in a little time, made prisoners of war : they were 
veteran troops, and were sent into Spain, of which we 
quickly felt the ill effects. 

The design was formed for the following campaign after 
this maimer : Uic Duke of Savoy undertook to march an 
army into France, and to act there as should be concerted 
by the allies. Some proposed the marching through Daur- 
phiny to the river of the Rhone, and so up to Lyons : but 
an attempt upon Toulon was thought to be the most ira- 
portcUit thing that could be designed ; so that was settled 
on. Marshal Tesse was sent to secure the passes, and to 
cover France on that side. This winter the Prince of 
Baden died, little esteemed, and little lamented : the Mar- 
quis of Bareith had the command of the army on the Upper 
Rhine, from whom less was expected : he was so ill sup- 
ported, that he could do nothing. The court of Vieima was 
so set on the reduction of Hungary, that they thought of 
nothing else : the Hungarians were very niuncrous, but they 
wanted both officers and discipline. Ragotski had pos- 
sessed himself of almost all Transylvania, and the Hun- 
garians were so alienated from the Emperor, that they were 
consulting about choosing a new king. 

The eyes of all Europe were upon the King of Sweden, And in Po- 
who, having possessed himself of Saxony, made King Au- 
gustus soon feel, that now, that his hereditary dominions 
were in his enemy's hands, he could no longer maintain the 
war in Poland : so a treaty was set on foot with such se- 
crecy, that it was concluded before it was apprehended to 

VOL. IV. X 



v-%-^ 



;lt>4 HISTORY OP THE REIGN 

1707. be in agitation. King Augustus was only waiting for a fit 
opportunity, to disengage himself frotn his Polanders, and 
from the Muscovites : an incident happened tliat had almost 
embroiled all again. The Polanders and Muscovites at- 
tacked a body of Swedes, at a great disadvantage, being 
much superior to them in number; so the SAvedes were 
almost cut to pieces. King Augustus had no share in this, 
and did all that he durst venture on to avoid it. He paid 
dear for it, hard conditions were put on him, to which the 
necessity of his affairs forced him to submit. He made all 
the haste he safely could to get out of Poland : he resigned 
back their crown to them, and was contented with the empty 
name of king, though that seemed rather to be a reproach 
than any accession of honour to his electoral dignity ; he 
thought otherwise, and stipulated that it should be con- 
tinued to him. He was at mercy, for he had neither forces 
nor treasure. It was thought the King of Sweden treated 
him with too much rigour, when he had so entirely mas- 
tered him. The other was as little pitied as he deserved to 
be, for by many wTong practices he had drawn all his mis- 
fortunes on himself. The King of Sweden, being in the 
heart of Germany, in so formidable a posture, gave great 
apprehensions to the allies. The French made strong ap- 
plications to him ; but the courts of Prussia and Hanover 
were in such a concert with that King, that they gave the 
rest of the allies great assurances, that he would do nothing 
to disturb the peace of the empire, nor to weaken the al- 
liance. The court of France pressed him to offer his me- 
diation for a general peace ; all the answer he gave was, 
that if the allies made the like application to him, he would 
interpose, and do all good offices in a treaty : so he refused 
to enter into any separate measures with France ; yet the 
court of Vienna was under a great apprehension of his 
seeking matter for a quarrel with them. The Czar at this 
time overrim Poland, so that King Stanislaus was forced 
to fly into Saxony, to the King of Sweden, for protection* 
Both he and his Queen staid there all the winter, and a great 
part of this summer. The Czar pressed the Polanders to . 
proceed to the election of another kingybut could not carry 
tliem to that ; so it was generally believed, that they were 
resolved to come to a treaty with King Stanislaus, and to 
soUlc the quiet of that kingdom, exhausted by a long and 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 155 

destructive war. The Czar tried, if it were possible, to ^^^or. 
come to a peace with the King of Sweden, and made great '^ 
offers in order to it; but that King was implacable, and 
seemed resolved to pull him down as he had done King 
Augustus. That King's designs were impenetrable, he The charac- 
advised mth few, and kept himself on great reserves \\ith ^[ ° ^f ** 
all foreign ministers, whom he would not suffer to come Sweden. 
near him, except when they had a ^particular message to 
deliver. Our court was advised, by the Elector of Ha- 
nover, to send the Duke of Marlborough to him. It was 
thought this would please him much, if it had no other ef- 
fect ; so he went thither, but could gain no gTOund on him. 
He affected a neglect of his person, both in clothes, lodg- 
ing, and diet : all was simple, even to meanness ; nay, he 
did not so much as allow a decent cleanliness. He ap- 
peared to have a real sense of religion, and a zeal for it, 
but it was not much enlightened. He seemed to have no 
notion of public liberty, but thought princes ought to keep 
their promises religiously, and to observe their treaties 
punctually. He rendered himself very acceptable to his 
army, by coming so near their way of living, and by his 
readiness to expose his own person, and to reward services 
done him. He had little tenderness in his nature, and was 
a fierce enemy, too rough and too savage. He looked on 
foreign ministers as spies by their character, and treated 
them accordingly ; and he used his own ministers rather as 
instruments to execute his orders, than as counsellors. 

The court of France finding they could not prevail on Proposi- 
him, made a public application to the Pope for his medi- peac. 
ating a peace. They offered the dominions in Italy to 
King Charles, to the states a barrier in the Netherlands, 
and a compensation to the Duke of Savoy for the waste 
made in his country; provided that, on those conditions. 
King Philip should keep Spain and the West Indies. It 
was thought the court of Vienna wished this project might 
be entertained ; but the other allies were so disgusted at it, 
that they made no steps toward it. The court of Vienna 
did what they could to confound the designs of this cam- 
paign ; for they ordered a detachment of twelve thousand 
men to march from the army in Lombardy to the kingdom 
of Naples. The court of England, the states, and the 
Duke of Savoy, studied to divert this, with the warmest 



17 or. 



of AhudivM. 



156 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

instaiices possible, but in vain : though it was represented 
to that court that if the Duke ol' Savoy could enter into 
Provence, with a great army, that would cut oU" all sup- 
plies and communication with France : so that success, in 
this great design, would make Naples and Sicily fall into 
their hiuids of course; but the imperial court was inflexi- 
ble : they pretended they had given their party in Naples 
such assurances of an invasion, that if they failed in it, 
tliey exposed them all to be destroyed, and thereby they 
might provoke the whole country to become their most in- 
veterate enemies : thus they took up a resolution without 
consulting their allies, and then pretended that it was fixed 
and could not be altered. 

The battle The Campaign was opened very fatally in Spain. King 
Charles pretended there was an army coming into Cata- 
lonia from Roussillon ; and that it was necessary for him 
to march into that country. The dividing a force, when 
the whole together was not equal to the enemy's, has often 
proved fatal : he ought to have made his army as strong 
as possibly he could, and to have marched with it to Ma- 
drid ; for the rest of Spain would have fallen into his 
hands upon the success of that expedition; but he per- 
sisted in his first resolution, and marched away with a 
part of the anny, leaving about sixteen thousand men under 
the Earl of Gall way's command. They had eaten up all 
their stores in Valencia, and could subsist no longer there, 
so they were forced to break into Castille : the Duke of 
Berwick came against them with an army not much supe- 
rior to theirs : but the court of France had sent the Duke 
of Orleans into Spain ^vith some of the best troops that 
they had brought from Italy; and these joined the Duke of 
Berwick, a day before the two armies engaged : some de- 
serters came over, and brought the Earl of Gall way the 
news of the conjunction ; but they were not believed, and 
were looked on as spies sent to frighten them. A council 
of war had resolved to venture on a battle, v.hich the state 
of their affairs seemed to make necessary : they could not 
subsist where they were, nor be subsisted if they retired 
back into Valencia ; so, on the 14th of April, the tvvo armies 
engaged in the plain of Almanza. The English and Dutch 
beat the enemy, and broke through twice ; but the Portu- 
guese gave way : upon that the enemy, who were almost 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 157 

double in number, both horse and foot, flanked them, and t^or. 
a total rout followed, in which about ten thousand were '"^■'^ 
killed or taken prisoners. The Earl of Gallway was 
trv\4ce wounded ; once so near the eye, that for some time 
it put him out of a capacity of giving orders ; but at last 
he, with some other officers, made the best retreat they 
could. Our fleet came happily on that coast, on the day 
that the battle was fought ; so he was supplied from thence, 
and he put garrisons into Denia and Alicant, and retired to 
tiie Ebro with about three thousand horse and almost as 
many foot. The Duke of Orleans pursued the victory; 
Valencia submitted, and so did Saragossa; so that the 
principality of Catalonia was all that remained in King 
Charles's obedience. The King of Portugal died this win- 
ter, but that made no great change in aff'airs there : the 
young King agreed to every thing that was proposed to 
him by the allies ; yet the Portuguese were under a great 
consternation, their best troops being either cut oft', or at 
that time in Catalonia. 

Marshal Villars was sent to command in Alsace. He 
understood that the lines of Stolhoven were ill kept, and 
weakly manned ; so he passed the Rhine, and, without any 
loss and very little opposition, he broke through, and 
seized on the artillery, and on such magazines as were lain 
in there. Upon this shameful disgrace, the Germans retired 
to Hailbron. The circle of Suabia was now open and put 
under contribution; and Villars designed to penetrate as 
far as to Bavaria. The blame of this miscarriage was laid 
chiefly on the imperial court, who neither sent their quota 
thither, nor took care to settle a proper general for the de- 
fence of the empire. In Flanders, the French army, com- 
manded by the Duke of Vendome, came and took post at 
Gemblours, in a safe- camp: the Duke of Marlborough lay 
at Meldert in a more open one : both armies were about 
one hundred thousand strong ; but the French m ere rather 
superior to that number. 

In the month of June, the design upon Toulon began to 
appear. The Queen and the states sent a strong fleet 
thither, commanded by Sir Cloudesly Shovel : who, from 
mean beginnings, had risen up to the supreme command; 
and had given many proofs of great courage, conduct, and 
^eal, in the whole course of his life. Prince Eugene had 



^— v-^ 



158 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1707. the command of the imperial army that was to second the 
Duke of Savoy in this undertaking, upon the success of 
Avhich the final conclusion of the war depended. The army 
was not so strong as it was intended it should have been. 
The detachment of twelve thousand men was ordered to 
march to Naples ; and no applications could prevail at the 
court of Vienna to obtain a delay in that expedition : there 
were also eight or ten thousand recruits that were promised 
to be sent to reinforce Prince Eugene, which were stopped in 
Germany ; for the Emperor was under such apprehensions 
of a rupture with Sweden, that he pretended it was abso- 
lutely necessary for his otvti safety to keep up a good force 
at home. Prince Eugene had also orders not to expose 
his troops too much ; by this means they were the less ser- 
viceable : notwithstanding these disappointments, the Duke 
of Savoy, after he had for some weeks covered his true 
design, by a feint upon Dauphiny, by which he drew most 
of the French troops to that side ; as soon as he heard that 
tlie confederate fleet was come upon the coast, he made a 
very quick march through ways that were thought imprac- 
ticable, on to the river Var, where the French had cast up 
such works, that it was reckoned these must have stopped his 
passing the river : and they would have done it effectually, 
if some ships had not been sent in from the fleet, into the 
mouth of the river, to attack these where there was no de- 
fence ; because no attack from that side was apprehended: 
by this means they were forced to abandon their works, and 
so the passage over the river was free : upon this that Duke 
entered Provence, and made all the haste he could towards 
Toulon. The artillery and ammunition were on board the 
fleet, and were to be landed near the place, so the march of 
the army was as little encumbered as was possible ; yet it 
was impossible to advance with much haste in an enemy's 
country, where the provisions were either destroyed or car- 
ried into fortified places, which though they might have 
easily been taken, yet no time was to be lost in executing 
the great design: so this retarded the march for some days; 
yet, in conclusion, they came before the place, and were 
quickly masters of some of the eminences that commanded 
it. At their first coming, they might have possessed them- 
selves of another called St. Anne's Hill, if Prince Eugene 
had executed the Duke of Sftvoy's orders : he did it not. 



OP QUEE?J ANNE. ^'5^ 

\(4iJch raised a high discontent ; but he excused himself, *''0''-. 
by shewing the orders he liad received not to expose the ^"^ 
Emperor's troops. Some days were lost by the roughness 
of the sea, which hindered the ships from landing the ar- 
tillery and ammunition. In the meanwhile, the troops of 
France were ordered to march from all parts to Toulon. 
The garrison within was very strong : the forces that w ere 
on their march to Spain, to prosecute the victory of Al- 
manza, were countermanded; and so great apartof Villars s 
army was called away, that he could not make any further 
progress in Germany : so that a great force was, from all 
hands, marching to raise this siege ; and it was declared, 
to the court of France, that the Duke of Burgundy would 
go and lead on the army. The Duke of Savoy lost no time, 
but continued cannonading the place, while the fleet came 
op to bombard it : they attacked the two forts that com- 
manded the entrance into the Mole with such fury, that they 
made themselves masters of them ; but one of them was af- 
terwards blown up. Those within the town were not idle, 
they sunk some ships, in the entrance into the Mole, and 
fired furiously at the fleet, but did them little harm : they 
beat the Duke of Savoy out of one of his most important 
posts, which was long defended by a gallant prince of 
Saxe Gotha ; who, not being supported in time, was cut to 
pieces. This post was afterwards regained, and the fleet 
continued for some days to bombard the place : but in the 
end the Duke of Savoy, whose strength had never been 
above thirty thousand men, seeing so great a force march- 
ing towards him, who might intercept his passage, and so 
destroy his whole army ; and there being no hope of his 
carrjing the place, found it necessary to march home in 
time, which he did with so much order and precaution, 
that he got back into his own country without any loss ; and 
soon after his return, he sat down before Suza, and took it 
in a few weeks. Our fleet did all the execution they could it failed m 
on the town : their bombs set some places on fire, which ijiee^iecu- 
they believed were magazines ; for they contmued bumiug 
for many hours; in conclusion they sailed olf. They left 
behind them a fleet of six and twenty ships in the JMedi- 
terrauean, and the great ships sailed homewards. Thus 
this great design, on which the eyes of all Europe were set, 
iaUed in the execution, chiefly by the Emperor's means. 



160 HISTORY OF THK REIGN 

1707. England and the states peilonned all that was expected 
of them, nor was the Duke of Savoy wanting on his part ; 
though many suspected him as backward, and at least cold 
in the undertaking. It was not yet perfectly understood 
what damage the French sustained. Many of their ships 
were rendered unserviceable, and continue to be so still : 
nor did they set out any fleet all the following winter; 
though the affairs of King Charles in Spain were then so 
low, that if they could have cut off the communication by 
sea, between Italy and Spain, they must soon have been 
masters of all that was left in his hands : so that from their 
fitting out no fleet at Toulon, it was concluded, that they 
could not do it. When the design upon Toulon was broke> 
more troops were sent into Spain. The Earl of Gallway 
did, with incredible diligence and activity, endeavour to 
repair the loss at Almanza, as much as was possible : the 
supplies and stores that he had from our fleet, put him in 
a capacity to make a stand ; he formed a new army, and 
put the strong places in the best posture he could. Lerida 
was the most exposed, and so was the best looked to: Tor- 
tosa, Tarragona, and Gironne, were also well fortified, and 
good garrisons were put in them. The attempt on Toulon> 
as it put a stop to all the motions of the French, so it gave 
him time to put the principality of Catalonia in a good state 
of defence. The Duke of Orleans, being reinforced with 
TLe siege of troops from France, set down before Lerida, in the end of ^ 
Luida. September, with an army of thirty thousand men. The 
place was commanded by a Prince of Hesse, who held out 
above forty days. After some time he was forced to aban- 
don the to^\Ti, and to retire into the castle : the army suf- 
tered much in this long siege. When the besieged saw 
how long they could hold out, they gave the Earl of Gall- 
way notice, upon which he intended to have raised the 
siege ; and if the King of Spain would have consented to' 
his drawing, out of the other garrisons, such a force as 
might have been spared, he undertook to raise it, which 
was believed might have been easily done ; and if he had 
succeeded, it would have given a new turn to all the affairs 
of Spain : but Count Noyelles, who was well practised in 
the arts of flattery, and knew how much King Charles was 
aJiejiated from the Earl of Gallway, for the honest free- 
dom he had used >^ith him, in laying before him some- 




OF QUEEN ANNE, 
errors in his conduct, set himself to oppose this, appre- 
hending that success in it, would have raised the Earl of 
Gallway's reputation again, which had suffered a great 
diminution by the action of Almanza : he said this would 
expose the little army they had left them to too great a 
liazard ; for if the design miscarried, it might occasion a 
revolt of the whole principality. Thus the humours of 
princes are often more regarded than their interest; the 
design of relieving Lerida was laid aside. The French 
army was diminished a fourth part, and the long siege had 
so fatigued them, that it was visible the raising it w ould 
have been no difficult performance ; but the thoughts of that 
being given over, Lerida capitulated in the beginning of 
November. The Spaniards made some feeble attempts on 
the side of Portugal, with success, for little resistance was 
made ; the Portuguese excusing themselves by their feeble- 
ness, since their best troops were in Catalonia. 

King Charles, finding his affairs in so ill a condition, ^'^''<^f/*'"' 
w rote to the Emperor, and to the other allies, to send him ' 
supplies with all possible haste : Stanhope was sent over 
to press the Queen and the states to dispatch these the 
sooner. At the end of the campaign in Italy, seven thou- 
sand of the imperial troops were prepared to be sent over 
to Barcelona : and these w ere carried in the w inter by the 
confederate fleet, without any disturbance given them by 
the French. Recruits and supplies of all sorts were sent 
over from England, and from the states, to Portugal. But 
while the house of Austria was struggling with great dif- 
ficulties, two pieces of pomp and magnificence consumed 
a great part of their treasure : an embassy w as sent from 
Lisbon to demand the Emperor's sister for that King, which 
was done with an unusual and extravagant expense : a 
wif€ was to be sought for King Charles among the pro- 
testant courts, for there was not a suitable match in the 
popish courts : he had seen the Princess of Anspach, and 
was much taken with her ; so that great applications were 
made to persuade her to change her religion, but she could 
not be prevailed on to buy a crown at so dear a rate : and 
soon after she was married to the Prince Electoral of 
Brunswick, which gave a glorious character of her to this 
nation ; and her pious firmness is like to be rewarded, even 
in this life, with a much better crown than that which she 

VOL. IV. Y 



1^'^ HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

^^ rejected. The Princess of Wolfcmbuttcl was not; so firm ; 
so she was brought to Vienna, and some time after was 
married by proxy to King Charles, and was sent to Italy 
in her way to Spain. The solemnity with which these mat- 
ters were managed, in all this distress of their affairs, con- 
sumed a vust deal of treasure ; for such was the pride of 
those courts on such occasions, that, rather than fail in a 
point of splendour, they would let their most important af- 
fairs go to wreck. That Princess was landed at Barce- 
lona : and the Queen of Portugal, (he same year, came to 
Holland, to be carried to Lisbon by a squadron of the Eng- 
lish fleet. 
The con- But while matters were in a doubtful state in Spain, the 
nTpIc"' expedition to Naples had all the success that was expect- 
ed : the detachment from Lombardy marched through the 
ecclesiastical state, and struck no small terror into the 
court of Rome, as they passed near it : it Avas apprehend- 
ed some resistance Vvould have been made in Naples, by 
those who governed there under King Philip ; but the in- 
bred hatred the Neapolitans bore the French, together with 
the severities of their government, had put that whole king- 
dom into such a disposition to revolt, that the small party 
which adhered to King Philip, found it not advisable to 
offer any resistance, so they had only time enough to con- 
vey their treasure and all their richest goods to Cayeta, and 
to retire thither : they reckoned they would either be re- 
lieved from France by sea, or obtain a good capitulation ; 
or if that failed, they had some ships and galleys in which 
they might hope to escape. The imperialists took posses^ 
sion of Naples, where they were received with great re- 
joicings ; their ill conduct quickly moderated that joy, and 
very much disposed the Neapolitans to a second revolt; 
but, upon applications made to the courts of Vienna and 
Barcelona, the excesses of the iniparialists, who carried 
their ravenous disposition >Aith them wheresoever they 
went, were somewhat corrected, so that they became more 
tolerable. As soon as a government could be settled at 
Naples, they undertook the siege of Caj eta, which went on 
at first very slowly : so that those within seemed to appre- 
hend nothing so much as the want of provisions, upon 
which tliey sent the few ships they had to Sicily to bring 
them supplies for all they might want ; when these were 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 163 

sent away, the imperialists, knowing what a rich booty was ^''O'"- 
lodged in the place, pressed it very hard, and, in conclu- ^^"^ 
sion, took it by stonn, and so were masters of all the wealth 
tliat was in it : the garrison retired into the castle, but they 
Avere soon after forced to surrender, and v, ere all made pri- 
soners of war. It was proposed to follow this success 
with an attempt upon Sicily ; but it was not easy to supply 
Aaples with bread ; nor was our licet at liberty to assist 
them ; for they were ordered to lie on the coast of Spain, 
and to wait there for orders : when these arrived, they re- 
quired them to carry the Marquis das Minas and the Earl 
of Gallway, witii the forces of Portugal, to Lisbon, which 
was happily performed : and the Earl of Gallway found the 
character and powers of an ambassador lying for him there. 
The thoughts of attempting Sicily were therefore laid aside 
for this time, though the Sicilians were known to be in a 
very good disposition to entertain it. A small force was 
sent from Xaples, to seize on those places which lay on the 
coast of Tuscany, and belonged to the crown of Spain : 
some of them were soon taken, but Porto Longone and 
Port Hercole made a better resistance. This was the state 
of affairs in Italy and Spain all this year, and till the open- 
ing of the campaign the next year. 

Villars continued in Germany, laying Suabia under An'airs on 
heavy contributions ; and very probably he would have "'*^ i^ ""f. 
penetrated into Bavaria, if the detachments he w as ordered 
to send away had not so weakened his army, that he durst 
not venture further, nor undertake any considerable siege. 
While the empire was thus exposed, all men's eyes turned 
towards the Elector of Brunswick, as the only person that 
could recover their afiairs out of those extieniities into 
w hich they were brought : the Emperor pressed liim to ac- 
cept of the supreme command ; tbis was seconded by all the 
allies, but most earnestly by the Queen and the states: 
the Elector used all the precaution that the embarking in 
such a design required, and he had such assurances of as- 
sistance from the princes and circles, as he thought might 
be depended upon; so he undertook the command. His 
first care was to restore military discipline, which had been 
very little considered or submitted to for some years past ; 
and he established this with such impartial severity, that 
the face of affairs there v» as soon changed : but the army 



164 HISTORY OF THE REION 

17^07. y^as too weak, and the season was too far spent, to enter 
^^ on great designs. One considerable action happened, 
which very much raised the reputation of his conduct : 
Villars had sent a detachment of three thousand horse and 
dragoons, either to extend his contribution, or to seize on 
some important post : against these, the Elector sent out 
another body that fell upon the French, and gave them a 
total defeat, in which two thousand of them were cut off : 
soon after that, Villars retired back to Strasburgh, and the 
camjjaign in those parts ended. 
Tbe King of I will take in here a transaction that lay not far from the 
^Xed scene of action. There was, all this summer, a dispute at 
Prince of Ncufchatel upon the death of the old Dutchess of Nemours^ 
Neufchatei. -^ ^-^qjj^ (hg housc of Longucville ended : she enjoyed this 
principality, which, since it lay as a frontier to Swisser- 
land, was on this occasion much considered. There were 
many pretenders of the French nation ; the chief was the 
Prince of Conti ; all these came to Neufchatei, and made 
their application to the states of that country, and laid their 
several titles before them : the King of France seemed to 
favour the Prince of Conti most; but yet he left it free to 
the states to judge of their pretensions, provided they gave 
judgment in favour of one of his subjects ; adding severe 
threatenings in case they should judge in behalf of any 
other pretender. The King of Prussia, as heir by his 
mother to the house of Chaalons, claimed it as his right, 
which the late King had by a particular agreement made 
over to him; so he sent a minister thither to put in his 
claim : and the Queen, and the states, ordered their minis- 
ters in Swisserland to do their best offices, both for advanc- 
ing his pretensions, and to engage the cantons to maintain 
them ; the King of Sweden wrote also the cantons to the 
same effect. The allies looked on this as a matter of gTcat 
consequence, since it might end in a rupture between the 
protestant cantons and France; for the popish cantons 
were now wholly theirs. After much pleading, and a long 
dispute, the states of the principality gave judgment in fa- 
vour of the King of Prussia ; the French pretenders pro- 
tested against this, and left Neufchatei in a high discon- 
tent: the French ambassador tlireatened that little state 
with an invasion, and all commerce with them was forbid : 
the canton of Bern espoused their concern with a spirit and 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 165 

zeal that was not expected from them : they declared they i^f>7. 
were in comburghership with them ; and, upon that, they '^^'^^ 
sent a body of three thousand men to defend them. The 
French continued to threaten, and Villars had orders to 
march a great part of his army towards them ; but when 
the court of France saw that the cantons of Bern and Zu- 
rick were not frightened w ith those marches, they let the 
whole matter fall very little to their honour : and so the in- 
tercourse bet^ een the French dominions and that state was 
again opened, and the peace of the cantons was secured. 
The King of Prussia engaged his honour that he would 
govern that state with a particular zeal, for advancing both 
religion and learning in it ; and upon these assurances he 
persuaded the bishops of England, and myself in particu- 
lar, to use our best endeavours to promote his pretensions ; 
upon which we \\Tote, in the most effectual manner we 
could, to Monsieur Ostervald, who was the most eminent 
ecclesiastic of that state, and one of the best and most ju- 
dicious divines of the age : he was bringing that church to 
a near agreement with our forms of w orship : the King of 
Prussia was well set in all matters relating to religion ; and 
had made a great step in order to reconcile the Lutherans 
and the Calvinists in his dominions, by requiring them not 
to preach to the people on those points in which they dif- 
fer ; and by obliging them to commimicate together, not- 
withstanding the diversity of their opinions : which is in- 
deed the only wise and honest way to make up that breach. 

The affinity of the matter leads me next to give an ac- T,,g j^j^ ,_f 
count of the difl'erences between the King of Sweden and Sweden 
the court of Vieima : that King, after he had been a very proteVunt 
heavy guest in Saxony, came to understand, that the pro- churches jn 
testants in Silesia had their churches, and the free exercise restorefU.^ 
of their religion, stipulated to them by the peace of Mun- i^em. 
ster, and that the cro^^^l of Sweden was the guarantee for 
observing this : these churches were taken from them ; so 
the King of Sweden was in justice bound to see to the ob- 
serving of that article ; he very readily embraced this op- 
portunity, which had been long neglected, or forgotten by 
his father. When this was first represented to the court of 
Vienna, it was treated there ^\'ith much scorn : and Count 
Zabor, one of the ministers of that court, spoke of the King 
of Sweden in a style, that he thought furnished him with a 



166 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1707. jxist pretension to demand, that he should be sent to him, to 
^^^ be punished as he thought fit : this was soon yielded ; the 
Count was sent to the King, and made such an himible sub- 
mission to him, as was accepted : but the demand for re- 
storing the churches, was a matter of hard digestion to a 
bigoted and haughty court. The King of Sweden had a 
great army at hand, and he threatened an immediate rup- 
ture, if this demand w as not agreed to without delay : in 
this he was so positive, that the imperial court at last yield- 
ed, they being then in no condition to resist a warlike 
Prince, and an army, hardened by an exact discipline, and 
the fatigues of a long war ; so that every thing that was 
demanded, pursuant to that article of the treaty of Munster, 
was agreed to be performed, within a prefixed time : and 
upon that, the King of Sweden marched his army, under 
the most regular discipline, through Silesia, as had been 
agreed, into Poland. The Jesuits made great opposition 
to the performance of what had been stipulated ; but the 
imperial court would not provoke a Prince, who they 
thought was seeking a colour to break with them : so, by 
the day prefixed, all the churches were restored to the pro- 
testants in Silesia. Upon this, he was highly magnified, 
and great endeavours w ere again used, to engage him in the 
alliance ; but he w as so set against the Czar, whom he de- 
signed to dethrone, that nothing could then divert him from 
it : yet he so far entered into the interests of religion, that, 
as he wTote to the King of France, desiring him not to op- 
pose the King of Prussia in his pretensions on Neufchatel, 
he also wrote to the cantons, desiring them to promote and 
support them. The cantons seeing those characters of 
zeal in him, sent a French gentleman of quality to him, 
the Marquis de Rochegude, to let him know^ what regard 
they had to his recommendations, and to desire him to in- 
terpose his good oflices w ith the King of France, for setting 
at liberty about three hundred persons, who w ere condemned 
to the galleys, and treated most cruelly in them, upon no 
other pretence, but because they would not change their 
religion, and had endeavoured to make their escape out of 
France : he received this message with a particular civility, 
and immediately complied with it ; ordering his minister, 
at the court of France, to make it his desire to that King, 
that these confessors might be delivered to him ; but the 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 167 

ministers of France said, that was a point of the King's go- I'^or. 
vemment at home, in which he could not suffer foreign '"^^''^^ 
princes to meddle : he seemed sensible of this neglect, and 
it was hoped, that when his affairs could admit of it, he 
would express a due resentment of it. 

To end all the affairs of Germany for this year, at once ; ^ JJ^**^"" 
I must mention a quarrel, raised in Hamburgh, between burgh. 
some private persons, one of whom was a Lutheran minis- 
ter ; which created a great division in that city. One side 
was protected by the senate, v.hicli gave so gieat a disgaist 
to the other side, that it was like to end in a revolt against 
the magistrates, and a civil war within the to^vn : and it 
being kno\m, that the King of Denmark had, for many 
years, had an eye on that place, the neighbouring princes 
apprehended, that he might take advantage from those com- 
motions, or that the weaker side might choose rather to fall 
under his power, than under the revenges of the adverse 
party. The Kings of Sweden and Prussia, with the house 
of Brunswick, resolved therefore to send troops thither, to 
quiet this distraction, and to chastise the more refractory ; 
while the Emperor's ministers, together with the Queen's, 
endeavoured to accommodate matters, without suffering 
them to run to extremities. 

It remains, that I give an account of the campaign in The eam- 
Flanders : the French kept close within their posts ; though p-hinders. 
the Duke of Marlborough often drew out his troops to see 
if that could provoke them ; but they were resolved not to 
fight on equal terms ; and it was not thought advisable to 
attempt the forcing their posts : they lay, for some months, 
looking on one another ; but both armies had behind them 
such a safe and plentiful conveyance of provisions, that no 
want of any sort could oblige either side to dislodge. The 
Duke of Vendome had orders to send detachments to rein- 
force Marshal Villars, in lieu of those detachments that 
he had been ordered to send to Provence. The Duke of 
Savoy seemed to wonder that the confederates lay so quiet, 
and gave the Duke of Vendome no disturbance ; and that 
they could not, at least, oblige him to keep all his army to- 
gether. At last the Duke of Marlborough decamped, and 
moved towards French Flanders : the French decamped, 
about the same time, but lodged themselves again in such 
a safe camp, that he could not force them into any action -, 



IGR 



1707. 



AlTairs 
sea. 



Proceed- 
ings with 
relation to 
Scotland. 



HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
nor was hi.s army so numerous, as to spare a body to ini- 
flertake a siege, l^y that means to draw them to a battle ; so 
that the campaign Avas carried on there in a very inofFen- 
sive mamier on both sides ; and thus matters stood in the 
continent, every where this season. 

France set out no fleet this year, and yet we never had 
greater losses on that element : the Prince's council was 
very unhappy in the whole conduct of the cruizers and con- 
voys : the merchants made heavy complaints, and not with- 
out reason : convoys were sometimes denied them, and 
when they were granted, they were often delayed beyond 
the time limited for the merchants to get their ships in rea- 
diness ; and the sailing orders were sometimes sent them 
so unhappily (but as many said, so treacherously), that a 
French squadron was then lying in their way to intercept 
them. This was liable to very severe reflections : for many 
of the convoys, as well as the merchant ships were taken ; 
and to complete the misfortunes of our aft'airs at sea this 
year, when Sir Cloudesly Shovel was sailing home with the 
great ships, by an unaccountable carelessness and security, 
he, and two other capital ships, ran foul upon those rocks 
beyond the Land's End, known by the name of the Bishop 
and his Clerks ; and they were in a minute broke to pieces, 
so that not a man of them escaped. It was dark, but there 
was no wind, otherwise the whole fleet had perished with 
them: all the rest tacked in time, and so they were saved. 
Thus one of the greatest seamen of the age was lost by an 
error in his own profession, and a great misreckoning, for 
he had laid by all the day before, and set sail at night, be- 
lieving, that next morning he would have time enough to 
guard against running on those rocks ; but he was swal- 
lowed up within three hours after. 

This w^as the state of our afixiirs abroad, both by sea and 
land. Things went at home in their ordinary channels; 
but the conduct with relation to Scotland, was more unac- 
countable : for, whereas it might have been reasonably ex- 
pected, that the management of tlie newly imited part of 
this island, should have been particularly taken care of, so 
as to give no just distaste to the Scots, nor olfer handles to 
those who were still endeavouring to inflame tliat nation, 
and to increase their aversion to the union ; things were 
on the contrary so ordered, as if the design had been to 



OF QUERN ANNE. 160 

contrive methorls to exasperate the spirits of the people i707. 
there. Though the management of the Scotch revenue was 
to fall into the Lord Treasurer's hands, on the 1st of May, 
no care was taken to have all the commissions ready at the 
day, with new officers to serve in them ; so that the whole 
trade of Scotland was stopped for almost two months for 
want of orders to put it into the new course, in which it 
was to be carried on. Three months passed before the equi- 
valent was sent to Scotland ; and when wines and other 
merchandise were imported into England from thence, 
seizures were every where made, and this was managed 
\vith a particular affectation of roughness. All these things 
heightened the prejudices, with which that nation had been 
possessed against the union : it was also known that many 
messages passed between Scotland and France, and that 
there were many meetings, and much consultations among 
the discontented party there; a great body appeared openly 
for the pretended Prince of Wales, and celebrated his birth- 
day very publicly, both at Edinburgh, and in other places 
of the kingdom : and it was openly talked, that there was 
now an opportunity, that was not to be lost, of invading 
the kingdom, though with a small force ; and that a gene- 
ral concurrence, from the body of that nation, might be de- 
pended on : these things were done in so barefaced a man- 
ner, that no check being given to them, nor inquiry made 
after them by those who were in the government, it gave 
occasion to many melancholy speculations. The manage- 
ment from England looked like a thing concerted to heigh- 
ten that distemper ; and the whole conduct of tlie fleet af- 
forded great cause of jealousy. 

But to open this, as clearly as it has yet appeared to me, a uew paiiy 
I must give an account of a new scene at court. It was ^^ '"'"'^'• 
observed, that Mr. Harley, who had been for some years 
secretary of state, had gained great credit with the Queen, 
and began to set up for himself, and to act no more under 
the direction of the Lord Treasurer : there was one of the 
bedchamber women, who, being nearly related to the 
Dutchess of Marlborough, had been taken care of by her, to- 
gether Avith her whole family (for they were fallen low) in a 
most particular manner. She brought her not only into 
that post, but she had treated her witli such a confidence 
that it had introduced her into a high degTee of favour with 

VOL. IV. z 



170 HISTORY OF THE UlJIGN 

i'^*^''- the Queen ; which, for some years, was considered a* ait 
efiect of the Dutchess of Marlborougli's credit with her ? 
she was also nearly related to Mr. Harley, and they two- 
entered into a close correspondence. She learned the arts 
of a court,, and observed the Queen's temper with so much 
application, that she got far into her heart; and she em- 
ployed all her credit to establish Harley in the supreme 
confidence -v^ith the Queen, and to alienate her affections 
from the Dutchess of Marlborough, who studied no other 
mctliod of preserving her favour, but by pursuing the true 
interest of the Queen, and of the kingdom. It was said, 
that the Prince was brought into the concert, and that he 
was made to apprehend that he had too small a share in 
the government; and that he was shut out from it by the 
great power that the Duke of Marlborough and the Lord 
Treasurer had drawn into their hands : it was said, all de- 
pended on them, that the Queen was only a cypher in 
the government, that she was in the Dutchess of ]\[arlbo- 
rougli's hands, as her affairs were in the Duke of Marlbo- 
rough's. It was likewise talked, among those who made 
their court to the new favourites, that there was not now a 
Jacobite in the nation, that all were for the Queen ; and that, 
without doubt, she would reign out peaceably her whole 
life ; but she needed not concern herself for a German fa- 
mily : these discourses began to break out, and gave sad 
thoughts to those to whom they were brought. This went 
on too long, little regarded ; the Dutchess of Marborough 
seemed secure of her interest in the Queen, and shewed no 
jealousy of a favour, to which herself gave the first rise. 
This was the state of the court at the opening of the session 
of parliament. 
Pr. moiions There were, at that time, thice bishoprics vacant : Tre- 
church. lawny had been removed, the summer before, from Exeter 
to A^'^inchester ; which gave great disgust to many, he being 
considerable for nothing, but his birth and his interest in 
Cornwall. The Lord Treasurer had engaged himself to him, 
and he was sensible that he was much reflected upon for it : 
but he, to soften the censure that was brought on him, had 
promised, that, for the future, prcfennents should be be- 
stowed on men well principled, with relation to the present 
constitution, and on men of merit. The Queen, without 
regarding this, did secretly engage herself to Dr. lilackhall. 



i)F QUEEN ANNE. 
Tor Exeter; and Chester (being at tlie same time void, by 
the death of Dr. Stratford) to Sir William Dawes, for that 
see : these divines were in themselves men of value and 
■worth, but their notions were all on the other side ; they 
had submitted to the government, but they, at least Black- 
hall, seemed to condemn the Revolution, and all that had 
been done pursuant to it. Dawes also was looked on as 
an aspiring man, who would set himself at the head of the 
tor}" party : so this nomination gave a great disgust. To 
qualify this a little, Fatrick, the pious and learned Bishop 
of Ely, dying at this time, the Queen advanced More, from 
Norwich, thither ; and Dr. Trimnell, a worthy person in all 
respects, was named for Norwich : yet this did not quiet the 
^measiness many were under by reason of the other nomi- 
nations, which seemed to flow from the Queen herself, and 
so discovered her inclinations. To prevent the ill eflfects, 
that this might have, in the approaching session, some of 
the eminent members of the House of Commons were 
called to a meeting with the Dukes of Somerset and Devon- 
shire : these Lords assure^l them, in the Queen's name, 
that she was very sensible of the services the whigs did 
her ; and though she had engaged herself so far, with re- 
lation to those two bishoprics, that she could not recall the 
promises she had made, yet, for the future, she was re- 
solved to give them full content. But while this was said 
to some whigs, Harley and his friends, St. John and Har- 
court, took great pains on the leaders of the tories, in par- 
ticular on llanmer, Bromley, and Freeman, to engage 
them in the Queen's interests : assuring them, that her heart 
was with them, that she was weary of the tyranny of the 
whigs, and longed to be delivered from it. But they were 
not wrought on, by that management ; they either mistrust- 
ed it, as done only to ensnare them, or they had other 
^aews, which they did not think fit to own. This double- 
dealing came to be kno\\Ti, and gave occasion to much 
jealousy and distrust. A little before the session was 
opened, an eminent misfortune happened at sea : a convoy, 
of five ships of the line of battle, was sent to Portugal, to 
guard a great fleet of merchant ships; and they were or- 
dered to sail, as if it had been by concert, at a time when 
a squadron from Dunkirk had joined another from Brest, 
and lay in the way, waiting for them. Some advertisments 




^72 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

^^^ were brought to the Admiralty, of this conjunction, but 
they were not believed. When the French set upon them, 
the convoy did their part very gallantly, thou<?h the enemy 
were three to one; one of the ships was blown up, three of 
them were taken, so that only one escaped, much shattered : 
but they had fought so long, that most of the merchantmen 
had time to get away, and sailed on, not being pursued, and 
so got safe lo Lisbon. This coming almost at the same 
time with the misfortune that happened to Shovel, the 
session was begun with a melancholy face ; and a dispute, 
upon their opening, had almost put them into great dis- 
order. 

It was generally thought that though this was a parlia- 
ment that had now sat two years, yet it was a new parlia- 
ment, by reason it had been let fall, and was revived by a 
proclamation, as was formerly told : and the consequence 
of this was, that those who had got places, were to go to a 
new' election. Others maintained, that it could not be a 
new parliament, since it was not summoned by a new writ, 
but by virtue of a clause in an act of parliament. The 
Duke of Marlborough, upon his coming over, prevailed to 
have it yielded to be a new parliament ; but Harley was 
for maintaining it to be an old parliament. The House of 
Commons chose the same speaker over again, and all the 
usual forms, in the first beginning of a new parliament, 
were observed. 
Complaints Thesc wcrc no sooner over, than the complaints of the 
miral^v^'^' Admiralty w ere offered to both houses : great losses were 
made, and all was imputed to the weakness, or to a worse 
disposition, in some, who had great credit with the Prince, 
and were believed to govern that w hole matter : for as they 
w ere entirely possessed of the Prince's confidence, so when 
the Prince's council w as divided in their opinions, the deci- 
sion was left to the Prince, who understood very little of 
those matters, and was always determined by others. By 
this means they were really lord high admiral, without being 
liable to the law for errors and miscaniages. This council 
was not a legal court, warranted by any law, though they 
assumed that to themselves ; being counsellors, they were 
bound to answ er only for their fidelity. The complaints 
were feebly managed, at the bar of the House of Com- 
mons ; for it was soon understood, that not only the Prince, 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 173 

but the Queen likewise concerned herself much in this i^or. 
matter : and both looked on it as a design, levelled at their "•^"•'^ 
authority. Both whigs and tories seemed to be at first 
equally zealous in the matter ; but by reason of the op- 
position of the court, all those, who intended to recom- 
mend themselves to favour, abated of their zeal : some 
were vehement in their endeavours to baffle the com- 
plaints; they had great advantages, from the merchants 
managing the complaints but poorly : some were frighted, 
and others were practised on, and were carried even to 
magnify the conduct of the fleet, and to make excuses for 
all the misfortimes that had happened. That which had 
the chief operation on the whole tory party, was, that it 
was set round among them, that the design of all these 
complaints, was to put the Earl of Orford again at the 
head of the fleet : upon which they all changed their note ; 
and they, in concurrence with those who were in offices, or 
pretended to them, managed the matter so, that it was let 
fall, very little to their honour. Unkind remarks were 
made on some, who had changed their conduct upon their 
being preferred at court ; but the matter was managed with 
more zeal and courage in the House of Lords, both whigs 
and tories concurring in it. 

A committee was appointed to examine the complaints ; EsamiHed 
they called the merchants, who had signed the petition, ^^^^ ^^ 
before them ; and treated them, not mth the scorn that was i^rds. 
very indecently otfered them by some of the House of 
Commons, but with great patience and gentleness : they 
obliged them to prove all their complaints by witnesses 
upon oath. In the prosecution of the inquiry, it appeared 
that many ships of war were not fitted out to be put to sea, 
but lay in port neglected, and in great decay : that convoys 
had been often flatly denied the merchants ; and that when 
they were promised, they were so long delayed, that the 
merchants lost their markets, were put to great charge, and 
when they had perishable goods, sufi"ered great damage in 
them. The cruizers were not ordered to proper stations in 
the Channel ; and when convoys were appointed, and were 
ready to put to sea, they had not their sailing orders sent 
them, till the enemy's ships were laid in their way, prepared 
to fall on them, which had often happened. Many adver- 
tisements, by which those misfortunes might have been pre- 



174 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1707. vented, had been offered to the Admiralty, but had not only 
been neglected by them, but those who offered them had 
been ill treated for doing it. The committee made report 
of all this to the House of Lords ; upon which the Lord 
Treasurer moved, that a copy of the report might be sent 
to the Lord Admiral, which was done, and in a few days an 
answer was sent to the House, excusing, or justifying the 
conduct, in all the branches of it. The chief foundation 
of the answer was, that the great fleets, which were kept in 
the Mediterranean, obliged us to send away so many of our 
ships and seamen thither, that there was not a sufficient 
number left to guard all our trade, while the enemy turned 
all their forces at sea into squadrons for destroying it ; and 
that all the ships that could be spared, from the public 
service abroad, were employed to secure the trade : the 
promise of convoys had been often delayed, by reason of 
cross winds, and other accidents, that had hindered the re- 
turn of our men of war longer than was expected ; they 
being then abroad, convoying other merchant ships : and it 
was said, that there was not a sufiicient number of ships, 
for cruizers and convoys both. The paper ended with 
some severe reflections on the last reign, in which great 
sums were given for the building of ships, and yet the fleet 
was at that time much diminished, and four thousand mer- 
chant ships had been taken during that war : this was be- 
lieved to have been suggested by Mr. Harley, on design to 
mortify King William's ministry. LTpon reading of this an- 
swer, a new and fuller examination of the particulars was 
again resumed, by the same committee ; and all the allega- 
tions in it were exactly considered : it appeared, that tlie 
half of those seamen, that the parliament had pro%ddedfor, 
were not employed in the Mediterranean ; that many ships 
lay idle in port, and were not made use of; and that 
in the last war, in which it appeared there were more sea- 
men, though not more ships, employed in the Mediter- 
ranean, than were now kept there, yet the trade was so 
carefully looked after, by cruizers and convoys, that few 
complaints were then made : and as to the reflections made 
on the last reign, it was found that not half the sum that 
was named, was given for the building of ships ; and that 
instead of the fleets being diminished, during that war, as 
had been aflirmed, it was increased by about forty ships ; 



OF QUEEN AXNE. 175 

nor could any proof be given, that four thousand ships i707. 
were taken during that war : all the seamen who were then '^^^"^ 
taken and exchanged, did not exceed fifteen thousand, and 
in the present war eighteen thousand were already ex- 
changed ; and we had tw o thousand still remaining in our 
enemy's hands : so much had the Prince been imposed on 
in that paper that was sent to the Lords in his name. 

When the examination was ended, and reported to the And laid be- 
House, it was resolved to lay the whole matter before the n"^*^ ^^^. 

' '' tjueen in an 

Queen, in an address ; and then the tories discovered the address. 
design that they drove at ; for they moved in the committee 
that prepared the address, that the blame of all their mis- 
carriages might be laid on the ministry, and on the cabinet 
council. It had been often said, in the House of Lords, 
that it was not intended to make any complaint to the 
Prince himself, and it not being admitted that his council 
was of a legal constitution, the complaining of them would 
be an acknowledging their authority; therefore the blame 
could be laid regularly no where, but on the ministry. 
This was much pressed by the Duke of Buckingham, the 
Earl of Rochester, and the Lord Haversham. But to this 
it was answered, by the Earl of Orford, the Lord Somers, 
and the Lord Hallifax, that the House ought to lay before 
the Queen only that which was made out before them upon 
oath ; and therefore, since in the whole examination, the 
ministry and the cabinet council were not once named, 
they could offer the Queen nothing to their prejudice. 
Some of the things complained of fell on the na^^^-board, 
which was a body acting by a legal authority : the Lords 
ought to lay before the Queen, such miscarriages as were 
proved to them, and leave it to her to find out on whom the 
blame ought to be cast : so far was the ministry from ap- 
pearing to be in fault, that they found several advertise- 
ments were sent by the Secretary of State, to the Admiralty, 
that, as appeared afterwards, were but too well grounded ; 
yet these were neglected by them ; and that which raised 
the clamour the higher, was, that during the winter there 
were no cruizers laying in the Channel ; so that many ships 
which had run through all the dangers at sea, were taken in 
sight of land, for the privateers came boldly up to our ports. 
All this was digested into a full and clear address, laid by 
the House before the Queen : there was a general answer 



176 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1707. made to it, giving assurances that the trade should be care- 
^'^"'^^ fully looked to, but nothing else followed upon it ; and the 
Queen seemed to be highly ofl'ended at the whole proceed- 
ing. At this time, an inquiry likewise into the affairs of 
Spain was begun in both houses. 
Inquiry in- The Earl of Peterborough had received such positive 
to tie affairs Qrdcrs recalling hira, that though he delayed as long as he 
could, yet at last he came home in August : but the Queen, 
before she would admit him into her presence, required of 
him an account of some particulars in his conduct, both 
in military matters, in his negotiations, and in the disposal 
of the money remitted to him. He made such general an- 
swers as gave little satisfaction : but he seemed to reserve 
the matter to a parliamentary examination, which was en- 
tered upon by both houses. All the tories magnified his 
conduct, and studied to detract from the Earl of Gallway ; 
but it was thought, that the ministry were under some re- 
straints, with relation to the Earl of Peterborough, though 
he did not spare them; which gave occasion to many 
to say, they were afraid of him, and durst not provoke 
him. The whigs, on the other hand, made severe remarks 
on his conduct ; the complaints that King Charles made of 
him were read, upon which he brought such a number of 
papers, and so many witnesses to the bar, to justify his 
conduct, that after ten or twelve days spent wholly in read- 
ing papers, and in hearing witnesses, both houses grew 
equally weary of the matter ; so, without coming to any 
conclusion, or to any vote, they let all that related to him 
fall : but that gave them a handle to consider the present 
state of affairs in Spain. It was found, that we had not 
above half the troops there that the parliament had made 
provision for ; and that not above half the officers that be- 
longed to those bodies served there : this gave the House 
of Commons a high distaste, and it was hoped by the tories, 
that they should have carried the House to severe votes 
and warm addresses on that head, which was much labour- 
ed by them, in order to load the ministry. In this, Harley 
and his party were very cold and passive, and it was gene- 
rally believed, that the matter was privately set on by 
them. But the court sent an explanation of the whole 
matter to the House, by which it appeared, that though, by 
death and desertion, the number of the tioops there was 



OP QUEEN ANNE. 177 

tnuch dirainished, yet the whole number provided, or at ^^or. 
least very near it, was sent out of England. The service ^^•'^ 
in Spain was much decried, and there was good reason for 
it; things there could not be furnished but at excessive 
rates, and the soldiers were generally ill used in their quar- 
ters. They were treated very unkindly, not by King 
Charles, but by those about him, and by tlie bigoted 
Spaniards. 

During these debates, severe things were said in general 1708. 
of the conduct of affairs in both houses. It was observed, 
tliat a vast army was well supplied in Flanders, but that 
the interest of the nation required that Spain should be 
more considered. It was moved in both houses, that the 
Emperor should be earnestly applied to, to send Prince 
Eugene into Spain ; complaints were also made of the 
Duke of Marlborough, as continuing the war, though at 
the eud of the campaign of 1706, the French had offered to 
yield up Spain and the West Indies ; but that was a false 
suggestion. All these heats in the House, after they had got 
this vent, w ere allayed : the Queen assured them, all past er- 
rors should be redressed for the future; and, with repeated 
importunities, she pressed the Emperor to send Prince Eu- 
gene to Spain : that court delayed to comply in this particu- 
lar, but sent Count Staremberg thither, w ho had indeed ac- 
quired a very high reputation. The Queen entered also into 
engagements with the Emperor, that she would transport, 
pa\% and furnish all the troops that he could spare for his 
brother's service. These steps cjuieted the discontent the 
House had expressed, upon the ill conduct of affairs in 
Spain ; but upon Stanhope's coming over, he gave a better 
prospect of affairs there ; and he found a readiness to agree 
to all the propositions that he w^as sent over to make. All 
this while an act was preparing, both for a better security 
to our trade by cruizers and convoys, and for the encou- 
raging privateers, particularly in the West Indies, and in 
the South Sea. They were to have all they could take en- 
tirely to themselves ; the same encouragement was also 
given to the captains of the Queen's ships, with this dif- 
ference, that the captains of privateers were to divide 
their capture according to agreements made among them- 
selves ; but they left the distribution of prizes, taken by 
men of war, to the Queen ; who, by proclamation, ordered 

VOL. IV. 2 A 




HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
them to be divided into eight shares, of which the captaiil 
was to have three, unless he had a superior officer over 
him, in which case, the commodore was to have one of the 
three ; the other five parts were to be distributed equally 
among the officers and mariners of the ships, put in five 
different classes : all the clauses that the merchants de- 
sired, to encourage privateers, were readily granted, and it 
was hoped, that a great stock would be raised to carry on 
this private war. This passed without opposition, all con- 
curring in it. 

But as to other matters, the tories discovered much ill 
humom- against the ministry, which broke out on all occa- 
sions : and the jealousies with which the whigs were pos- 
sessed, made them as cold as the others were hot. This 
gave the ministers great uneasiness : they found Mr. Har- 
ley was endeavouring to supplant them at court, and to 
heighten the jealousies of the whigs ; for he set it about 
among the tories, as well as among the whigs, that both the 
Duke of Marlborough and the Lord Treasurer were as 
much inclined to come into measures with the tories, as 
the Queen herself was : this broke out, and was like to 
have had very ill effects ; it had almost lost them the whigs, 
though it did not bring over the tories. 
Discoveries At this time two discoveries were made, very unlucky 
pondence ^ for Mr. Harlcy : Tallard wrote oft to Chamillard, but he sent 
>vitii France, his letters Open to the secretary's office, to be perused and 
sealed up, and so to be conveyed by the way of Holland : 
these were opened upon some suspicion in Holland ; and 
it appeared, that one in the secretary's office put letters in 
them, in wliich, as he ofl'ered his services to the courts of 
France and St. Germains, so he gave an account of all 
tiansactious here : in one of these, he sent a copy of the 
letter that the Queen was to write, in her own hand, to the 
Emperor ; arid he marked what parts of the letter were 
drawn by the Secretary, and what additions were made to 
it by the Lord Treasurer : this was the letter by which the 
Queen pressed the sending Prince Eugene into Spain, and 
this, if not intercepted, would have been at Versailles 
many days before it could reach Vienna. He who sent 
this, wrote, that by this they might see what service he 
could do them, if well encouraged : all this was sent over 
to the Duke of Marlborough, and upon search it was founjl 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 179 

to be WTit by one Gregg, a clerk, whom Harley had not I'^^s. 
only entertained, but had taken into a particular confi- 
dence, without inquiring into the former parts of his life ; 
for he was a vicious and a necessitous person, who had 
been secretary to the Queen's envoy in Denmark, but 
was dismissed by him for tliose, his ill qualities. Harley 
had made use of him to get him intelligence, and he came 
to trust him with the perusal and the sealing up of the let- 
ters which the French prisoners, here in England, sent over 
to France ; and by that means he got into the method of 
sending intelligence thither. He, when seized on, either 
upon remorse or the hopes of pardon, confessed all, and 
signed his confession ; upon that he was tried ; he pleaded 
guilty, and was condemned as a traitor, for corresponding 
with the Queen's enemies. At the same time, Valiere and 
Bara, whom Harley had employed as his spies, to go oft 
over to Calais, under the pretence of bringing him intelli- 
gence, were informed against as spies employed by France, 
to get intelligence from England ; who carried over many 
letters to Calais and Boulogne ; and, as was believed, gave 
such information of our trade and convoys, that by their 
means we had made our great losses at sea. They were 
often complained of upon suspicion, but they were alw ays 
protected by Harley ; yet the presumptions against them 
were so violent, that they were at last seized on and 
brought up prisoners. These accidents might make Har- 
ley more earnest to bring about a change in the conduct of 
affairs, in which he relied on the credit of the new favour- 
ite. The Duke of Marlborough and the Lord Treasurer 
having discovered many of his practices, laid them before 
the Queen ; she would believe nothing that was suggested 
to his prejudice: she denied she had given any authority 
for carrying messages to the tories : but w ould not believe 
that he or his friends had done it ; nor would she enter into 
any examination of his ill conduct, and was uneasy when 
she heard it spoke of. So these lords wrote to the Queen, 
that they could serve her no longer, if he was continued in 
that post ; and on the Sunday following, when they were 
summoned to a cabinet council, they both went to the 
Queen, and told her, they must quit her service, since they 
saw she was resolved not to part with Harley. She seemed 
not much concerned at the Lord Godolphin's offering to 



V-%-w/ 



180 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1708. lay down; and it was believed to be a part of Hai ley's 
new scheme to remove liim : but she was much touched 
with the Duke of Marlborough's oft'ering to quit, and 
studied, with some soft expressions, to divert him from 
that resolution ; but he was firm, and she did not yield to 
them ; so they both went away, to the wonder of the whole 
court. Immediately after, the Queen went to the cabinet 
council, and Harley opened some matters relating to fo- 
reign affairs. The whole board was very uneasy : the 
Duke of Somerset said, he did not see how they could de- 
liberate on such matters, since the Cleneral was not with 
them ; he repeated this with some vehemence, while all the 
rest looked so cold and sullen, that the cabinet covmcil was 
soon at an end; and the Queen saw that the rest of her 
ministers, and the chief ollicers, were resolved to withdraw 
from her service, if she did not recal the two that had left 
it. It was said, that she would have put all to the hazard, 
if Harley himself had not apprehended his danger, and re- 
solved to lay down. The Queen sent the next day for the 
Duke of Marlborough, and, after some expostulations, she 
told him, Harley should immediately leave his post, which 
he did within two days : but the Queen seemed to carry a 
deep resentment of his and the Lord Godolphin's behaviour 
on this occasion ; and though tliey went on with their busi- 
ness, they found tliey had not her confidence. The Dutchess 
of Marlborough did, for some weeks, abstain from going to 
court, but afterwards that breach ^\as made up in appear- 
ance, though it was little more than an appearance. Both 
houses of parliament expressed a great concern at this 
rupture in the court, and apprehended the ill etfects it 
might have. The Commons let the bill of supply lie on 
tlie table, though it was ordered for that day; and the 
Lords ordered a committee to examine Gregg and the other 
} risoners. As Harley laid down, both llarcourt, then 
attorney-general, Mansel, the comptroller of the household, 
and St. John, the secretary of war, went and laid down 
with him. The Queen took much time to consider how 
she should fill some of these places, but Mr. Boyle, uncle 
to the Earl of Burlington, was presently made secretary of 
state. 

Ancxainina- The Lords who wcrc appointed to examine Gregg, could 
not find out much by him,; he had but uewly begmi his de- 



tiou luto 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 181 

signs of betraying secrets ; and he had no associates with i^os. 

coireis- 



him in it : he told them, that all the papers of state lay so thaP^*^ 



carelessly about the otiice, that every one belonging to it, pondeiice. 
even the door-keepers, might have read them all. llar- 
ley's custom was to come to the office late on post nights, 
and after he had given his orders, and MTote his letters, he 
usually went aw ay, and left all to be copied out when he 
was gone : by that means he came to see every thing, in 
particular the Queen's letter to the Emperor. He said, he 
knew the design on Toulon in ilay last, but he did not dis- 
cover it, for he had not entered on his ill practices till Oc- 
tober : this was all he could say. By the examination of 
Valiere and Bara, and of many others who lived about Do- 
ver, and were employed by them, a discovery was made of a 
constant intercourse they were in with Calais, under Har- 
-iey's jjrotection : they often went over with boats full of 
w ool, and brought back brandy, though both the import and 
export were severely prohibited : they, and those who be- 
longed to the boats carried over by them, were well treated 
on the French side, at the governor's house, or at the com- 
missary's : they were kept there till their letters could be 
sent to Paris, and till returns could be brought back, and 
were all the w hile upon free cost : the order that was con- 
stantly given them was, that if any English or Dutch ship 
came up to them, tliey should cast their letters into the 
sea; but that they should not do it when French ships 
came up to them ; so they were looked on by all on that 
coast as the spies of France. They used to get what in- 
formation they could, both of merchant ships, and of the 
ships of war that lay in the Downs ; and upon that they 
usually went over, and it happened that soon after some of 
those ships were taken. These men, as they were papists, 
so they behaved themselves very insolently, and l)oasted 
much of their power and credit. Complaints had been 
often made of them, but they w ere always protected ; nor 
did it appear tliat they ever brought any information of 
importance to Harley but once, when, according to what 
they swore, they told ^him, that Fourbin was gone to Dun- 
kirk, to lie in w ait for the Russian fleet ; which proved to be 
true : he both w^ent to w atch for them, and he took a great 
part of the fleet. Yet, though tliis was the single piece of in- 
telligence that they ever brought, Harley took so little notice 



182 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

I'OK of it, t!iat he gave no advertisement to the Admiralty, con- 
'^^ corning it. This particular excepted, they only brought 
over common news, and the Paris gazettes. These exa- 
minations lasted for some weeks; when they were ended, 
a full report was made of them to the House of Lords ; and 
they ordered the whole report, Avith all the examinations, to 
be laid before the Queen in an address, in which they re- 
presented to her, the necessity of making Gregg a public 
example ; upon w hich he w as executed : he continued to 
clear all other persons of any accession to his crimes, of 
which he seemed very sensible, and died much better than 
he had lived. 

A very few days after the breach that had happened at 
court, we were alarmed from Holland with the news of a de- 
sign, of which the French made then no secret ; that they 
were sending the pretended Prince of Wales to Scotland, 
with a fleet and an army, to possess himself of that kingdom. 
But before I go further, I will give an account of all that 
related to the aifairs of that part of the island. 
Prooeediiigs The membcrs sent from Scotland to both houses of par- 
U)'sc'o!iauT IJament, were treated with very particular marks of respect 
and esteem: and they were persons of such distinction 
that they very well deserved it. The first thing proposed 
in the House of Commons, with relation to them, was to 
take off the stop that was put on their trade. It was agreed 
unanimously, to pray the Queen, by an address, that she 
w ould give order for it ; some debate arising only whether 
it was a matter of right or of favour : Harley pressed the 
last, to justify those proceedings in which he himself had 
so great a share, as w as formerly set forth, and on which 
others made severe reflections : but since all agreed in the 
conclusion, the dispute concerning the premises was soon 
let fa.ll. Aficr this, a more important matter w as proposed, 
concerning the government of Scotland, whether it should 
continue in a distinct privy-council or not ; all the court 
w as for it : those who governed Scotland, desired to keep 
up their authority there, with the advantage they made by 
it ; and they gave the ministers of England great assur- 
ances, that by their influence elections might be so ma- 
naged as to serve all the ends of the court ; but they said, 
that without due care these might be carried so as to run 
all the contrary way: this was the secret motive, yet this 



OF QUEEN' ANNE. 

could not be owned in a public assembly ; so that which 
was pretended, vff^s, that many great families in Scotland, 
with the greatest part of the highlanders, were so ill af- 
fected that without a watchful eye, ever intent upon thera, 
they could not be kept quiet: it lay at too great a distance 
from London to be governed by orders sent from thence. 
To this it was answered, that by the circuits of the jus- 
ticiary courts, and by justices of peace, that country 
might be well governed, notwithstanding its distance, as 
"Wales and Cornwall were : it w as carried, upon a divisioiv, 
by a great majority, that there should be only one privy- 
council for the whole island. When it was sent up to the 
Lords, it met with a great opposition there. The court 
stood alone ; all the tories, and the much greater part of 
the whigs, were for the bill. The court, seeing the party 
for the bill so strong, was willing to compound the matter; 
and whereas, by the bill, the council of Scotland was not 
to sit after the 1st of May, the court moved to have it 
continued to the 1st of October. It was visible that this 
"was proposed only in order to the managing elections for 
the next parliament ; so the Lords adhered to the day pre- 
fixed in the bill ; but a new debate arose about the power 
given by the bill to the justices of peace, which seemed to 
be an encroachment on thejurisdiction of the Lords' rega- 
lities, and of the hereditary sherifl's and stewards, who had 
the right of trying criminals, in the first instance, for four- 
teen days' time : yet it was ordinary, in the cases of great 
crimes and riots, for the privy-council to take immediate 
cognizance of them, without any regard to the fourteen 
days ; so by this act, the justices of peace were only em- 
powered to do that which the privy-council usually did : 
and, except the occasion was so great as to demand a 
quick dispatch, it was not to be doubted, but that the jus- 
tices of peace would have great regard to all private rights; 
yet since this had the appearance of breaking in upon pri- 
vate rights, this was much insisted on by those who hoped, 
by laying aside these powers given to the justices of the 
peace, to have gained the main point of keeping up a 
privy-council in Scotland ; for all the Scotch ministers 
said, the country would be in great danger if there were 
not a supreme govenmient still kept up in it : but it seemed 
an absurd thing that there should be a difierent admiuio- 




184 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

i^'^s. tration where there was but ouc legislature. While Scot- 
^^ laud had an entire legislature within itself, the nation as- 
sembled in parliaincut could procure the correction of er- 
rors in the administration : whereas now, that it was not a 
tenth part of the legislative body, if it was still to be kept 
under a dilferent administration, that nation could not have 
strength enough to procure a redress of its grievances in 
parliament; so they might come to be subdued and go- 
verned as a province ; and the arbitrary way in which the 
council of Scotland had proceeded ever since King James 
the First's time, but more particularly since the Restoration, 
was fresh in memory, and had been no small motive to 
induce the best men of that nation to promote the union ; 
that they might be delivered from the tyranny of the coun- 
cil : and their hopes would be disappointed if they were 
still kept under that yoke : this point was, in conclusion, 
yielded, and the bill passed, though to the great discon- 
tent of the court: there was a new court of exchequer 
created in Scotland, according to the frame of that court in 
England. Special acts v/ere made for the elections and 
returns of the representatives in both houses of parliament; 
and such was the disposition of the English to oblige them, 
and the behaviour of the Scotch was so good and discreet, 
that every thing that was proposed for the good of their 
eoimtry, was agreed to ; both whigs and tones vied with 
one another, who should shew most care and concern for 
the welfare of that part of Great Britain. 
A descent Ou tlic 20th of February, which w as but a few days after 
um^D s^coi- ^^^^ ^^*' dissolving the council in Scotland, had passed, w^e 
and. understood there was a fleet prepared in Dunkirk, with 

about twelve battalions, and a train of all things necessary 
for a descent in Scotland : and a few days after, we heard 
that the pretended Prince of Wales w as come from Paris, 
with all the British and Irish that were about him, in order 
to his embarkation. The surprise was great, for it was not 
looked for, nor had we a prospect of being able to set out 
in time, a fleet able to deal with theirs, which consisted of 
twenty-six ships, most of them above forty guns : but that 
Providence (which has, on all occasions, directed matters 
so happily for our preservation) did appear very signally in 
this critical conjuncture : our greatest want was of seamen, 
to man the fleet ; for the ships were ready to be put to sea: 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 18t> 

this was supplied by several fleets of merchant ships, that -i708. 
came home at that time with their convoys : the flai^ officers ^"^'^ 
were very acceptable to the seamen, and they bestirred 
themselves so efTectually, that, with the help of an embar- 
go, there was a fleet of above forty ships got ready in a 
fortnight's time, to the surprise of all at home as well as 
abroad : these stood over to Dunkirk; just as they were em- 
barking there. Upon the sight of so great a fleet, Fourbin, 
who commanded the French fleet, sent to Paris for new or- 
ders ; he himself was against venturing out, when they saw 
a superior fleet ready to engage or to pursue them. The 
King of France sent positive orders to prosecute the design : 
so Fourbin (seeing that our fleet, after it had shewed itself 
to them, finding the tides and sea run high, as being near 
the equinox, had sailed back into the Downs) took that oc- A fleet sailed 
casionto go out of Dunkirk on the 8th of March : but con- j^'^.™ ^' 
trary winds kept him on that coast till the 11th, and then 
he set sail with a fair v.ind. Our admiral. Sir George Bing, 
came over again to watch his motions; and as soon as he 
understood that he had sailed, which was not till twenty 
hours after, he followed him. The French designed to have 
landed in the Frith, but they outsailed their point a few 
leagues ; and by the time that they had got back to the norlh 
side of the Frith, Bing came to the south side of it, and 
gave the signal for coming to an anchor ; this was heard by 
Fourbin: he had sent a frigate into the Frith, to give sig- 
nals, which it seems had been agreed on, but no answers 
were made. The design was to land near Edinburgh, where 
they believed the castle was in so bad a condition, and so 
ill provided, that it must have surrendered upon summons ; 
and they reckoned, that upon the reputation of that, the 
Avhole body of the kingdom would have come in to them. 
But when Fourbin understood, on the 13th of March, that 
Bing was so near him, he tacked, and would not stay to 
venture an engagement. Bing pursued him with all the 
sail that he could make, but the French stood out to sea ; 
there was some firing on the ships that sailed the heaviest, 
and the Salisbury, a ship taken from us, and then their 
vice-admiral, was engaged by two English ships, and taken 
without any resistance. There were about five hundred 
landmen on board her, with some officers and persons of 
quality : the chief of these were the Lord Griffin, and the 

VOL. IV. 2 B 



186 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1708. Ef^ii of Midletoun's two sons. Bing (having lost sight of 
the French, considering that the Frith was the station of 
the greatest importance, as well as safety, atid was the 
place where they designed to land) put in there till he could 
hear what course the French steered. The tides ran high, 
and there was a strong gale of wind. Upon the alarm of the 
intended descent, orders were sent to Scotland to draw all 
their forces about Edinburgh. The troops that remained 
in England were ordered to march to Scotland ; and the 
troops in Ireland were ordered to march northward, to be 
ready when called for : there were also twelve battalions 
sent from Ostend under a good convoy, and they lay at the 
mouth of the Tyne till further orders : thus all preparations 
were made to dissipate that small force ; but it appeared 
that the French relied chiefly on the assistance that they 
expected would have come in to them upon their landing : 
Reports of this they seemed so well assured that the King of France 
^iTFrencii ^^^^ instructions to his ministers in all the courts that ad- 
mitted of them, to be published every where, that the pre- 
tended Prince being invited by his subjects, chiefly those 
of Scotland, to take possession of the throne of his an- 
cestors, the King had sent him over at their desire, with a 
fleet and army to assist him : that he was resolved to par- 
don all those who should come in to him, and he would 
trouble none upon the account of religion. Upon his being 
re-established, the King would give peace to the rest of 
Europe. AMien these ministers received these directions, 
they had likewise advice sent them, which they published 
both at Rome, Venice, and in Swisserland, that the French 
had, before this expedition was undertaken, sent over some 
ships with arms and ammunition to Scotland : and that 
there was already an army on foot there that had pro- 
claimed this pretended Prince, king. It was somewhat 
extraordinary to see such eminent falsehoods published all 
Europe over: they also afiirmed, that hostages were sent 
from Scotland to Paris, to secure the observing the engage- 
ments they had entered into; though all this was fiction 
and contrivance. 

The states were struck with great apprehensions ; so 
were all the allies ; for tliough they were so long accus- 
tomed to the cunning practices of the court of France, yet 
this was an original : and therefore it Avas generally con- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 187 

eluded, that so small an army, and so weak a fleet, would i^*^^- 
not have been sent but upon great assurances of assistance, '"""^'^^ 
not only from Scotland, but from England : and, upon this 
occasion, severe reflections were made, both on the con- 
duct of the Admiralty, and on that tract of correspondence 
lately discovered, that was managed under Harley's pro- 
tection ; and on the great breach that was so near the dis- 
jointing all our affairs but a few days before. These things, 
when put together, filled men's minds with thoughts of no 
easy digestion. 

The parliament was sitting, and the Queen, in a speech The pariia- 
to both houses, communicated to them the advertisements fi,.u"iy by ^ 
she had received : both houses made addresses to her, "^e Queen. 
giving her full assurance o-f their adhering steadfastly to her, 
and to the protestant succession; and mixed with these 
broad' intimations of their apprehensions of treachery at 
home. They passed also two bills ; the one that the abju- 
ration might be tendered to all persons, and that such as 
refused it should be in the condition of convict recusants : 
by the other, they suspended the habeas corpus act till 
October, with relation to persons taken up by the govern- 
ment upon suspicion ; and the House of Commons, by a 
vote, engaged to make good to the Queen all the extraordi- 
nary charge this expedition might put her to. 

A fortnight Avent over before we had any news of the '^^^ French 
French fleet. Three of their ships landed near the mouth a:;ain''iirto 
of Spey, only to refresh themselves, for the ships being so Dunkirk. 
filled with landmen, there was a great want of water. At 
last all their ships got safe into Dunkirk : the landmen 
either died at sea, or were so ill that all the hospitals in 
Dunkirk were filled with them. It was reckoned, that they 
lost above four thousand men in this unaccountable expe- 
dition : for they were above a month tossed in a very tem- 
pestuous sea. Many suspected persons were taken up in 
Scotland, and some few in England ; but further disco- 
veries of their correspondents were not then made: If they 
had landed, it might have had an ill effect on our affairs, 
chiefly with relation to all paper credit : and if by this the 
remittances to Piedmont, Catalonia, and Portugal had been 
stopped, in so critical a season, that might have had fatal 
consequences abroad : for if we had been put into such a 
disorder at home, that foreign princes could no more reckon 



1708. 



188 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

on our assistance, they might have been disposed to hearken 
to the propositions that the Kmg of France would then 
have probably made to them. So that the total defeating 
of this design, without its having the least ill effect on our 
affairs, or our losing one single man in the little engage- 
ment we had m ith the enemy, is always to be reckoned as 
one of those happy providences for which we have much 
to answer. 

The Queen seemed much alarmed with this matter, and 
saw with what falsehoods she had been abused, by those 
who pretended to assure her there was not now a Jacobite 
in the nation : one variation in her style was now observed ; 
she had never in any speech, mentioned the Revolution or 
those who had been concerned in it : and many of those, 
who made a considerable figure about her, studied, though 
against all sense and reason, to distinguish her title from 
the Revolution ; it was plainly founded on it, and on nothing 
else. In the speeches she now made, she named the Revo- 
lution twice ; and said she would look on those concerned 
in it as the surest to her interests : she also fixed a new de- 
signation on the pretended Prince of Wales, and called 
him the Pretender ; and he was so called in a new set of 
addresses, which, upon this occasion, were made to the 
Queen : and I intend to follow the precedent, as often as I 
may have occasion hereafter to mention him. The session 
of parliament was closed in March, soon after defeating 
this design of a descent : it was dissolved in April by pro- 
clamation, and the writs were issued out for the elections 
of a new parliament, which raised that ferment over the 
nation that was usual on such occasions. The just and 
visible dangers to which the attempt of the invasion had 
exposed the nation, produced very good cli'ects : for the 
elections did, for the most part, fall on men well affected 
to the government, and zealously set against the Pretender. 
The designs As soou as the state of affairs at home was well settled, 
paign aTe"* ^^^^ Dukc of Marlborough went over to Holland, and there 
concerted. Prince Eugene met him, being sent by the Emperor to con- 
cert with him and the states the operations of the cam- 
paign; from the Hague they both went to Hanover, to 
settle all matters relating to the empire, and to engage the 
Elector to return to command the army on the Upper 
Rhine. Every thing was fixed ; Prince Eugene went back 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 189 

to Vienna, and was obliged to return by the beginning of i^os. 
June; for the campaign was then to be opened every where. ^^'^ 

The court of France was much mortified by the disap- Tiie princes 
pointmeut they had met with in their designs against us ; °^ P^^n^ 

* •'.. , sent to the 

but to put more lite in their tioops, they resolved to send army in 
the Duke of Burgundy with the Duke of Berry to be at the ^^^^^'^- . 
head of their army in Flanders: the Pretender went with ., 

them, without any other character than that of the Cheva- 
lier de St. George. The Elector of Bavaria, with the Duke 
of Berwick, were sent to command in Alsace, and Mar- 
shal Villars was sent to head the forces in Dauphiny. The 
credit, with relation to money, was still very low in France ; 
for, after many methods taken for raising the credit of the 
Mint bills, they were still at a discount of forty per cent. 
No fleets came this year from the West Indies, so that they 
could not be supplied from thence. 

The Duke of Orleans was sent to command in Spain ; The Duke 
and, according to the vanity of that nation, it was given "en^'to ""* 
out that they were to have mighty armies in many different Spain. 
places, and to put an end to the war there. Great rains 
fell all the winter in all the parts of Spain ; so that the cam- 
paign could not be so soon opened as it was at first in- '- 
tended. The bills that the Duke of Orleans brought with 
him to Spain were protested, at which he was so much dis- 
pleased, that he desired to be recalled : this was remedied 
in some degree, though far short of what was promised to 
him. The troops of Portugal, that lay at Barcelona ever 
since the battle of Almanza, were brought about by a squa- 
dron of our ships, to the defence of their own country : 
Sir John Leak came also over thither from England Avith 
recruits, and otlier supplies, that the Queen was to furnish 
that crown Avith : and when all was landed, he sailed into 
the Mediterranean to bring over troops from Italy, for the 
strengthening of King Charles, whose affairs were in great 
disorder. 

After all the boasting of the Spaniards, their army, on. jortosa be- 
thc side of Portugal, was so weak that they could not at- ^'^^s^'^ ^i<i 
tempt any thing ; so this was a very harmless campaign on ^ 
both sides, the Portuguese not being much stronger. The 
Duke of Orleans sat down before Tortosa in June, and 
though Leak dissipated a fleet of tartanes, sent from France 
to supply his army, and took about fifty of them, which 



190 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1708. ^vas a very seasonable relief to those in Barcelona, upon 
'"^'^^^ which it was thought the siege of Tortosa would be raised, 
yet it was carried on till the last of June, and then the 
garrison capitulated. 
Soppiies Leak sailed to Italy, and brought from thence both the 

Haiyto new Queen of Spain and eight thousand men with him; 
^'"- but, by reason of the slowness of the court of Vienna, 
these came too late to raise the siege of Tortosa ; the 
snow lay so long on the Alps, that the Duke of Savoy did 
not begin the campaign till July, then he came into Savoy, 
of which he possessed himself without any opposition : 
the whole country was under a consternation as far as 
Lyons. 

On the Upper Rhine, the two Electors continued looking 
on one another, without venturing on any action ; but the 
great scene was laid in Flanders : the French princes came 
to Mons, and there they opened the campaign, and ad- 
vanced to Soignies, with PiU army of an hundred thousand 
men : the Duke of Marlborough lay between Enghien and 
Hall with his army, which was about eighty thousand. 
Ghent and The French had their usual practices on foot in several 
^°en^b the ^^^^^^ i" thosc parts, A conspiracy to deliver Antwerp to 
Freaich. them was discovered and prevented : the truth was, the 
Dutch were severe masters and the Flandrians could not 
bear it ; though the French had laid heavier taxes on them, 
yet they used them better in all other respects : their bigotry 
being wrought on by their priests, disposed them to change 
masters, so these practices succeeded better in Ghent and 
Bruges. The Duke of Marlborough resolved not to weaken 
his army by many garrisons ; so he put none at all in Bru- 
ges, and a very weak one in the citadel of Ghent, reckon- 
ing that there was no danger as long as he lay between those 
places and the French army. The two armies lay about a 
month looking on one another, shifting their camps a little, 
but keeping still in safe ground, so that there was no action 
all the while; but, near the end of June, some bodies 
drawn out of the garrisons about Ypres, came and pos- 
sessed themselves of Bruges without any opposition : and 
the garrison in Ghent was too weak to make any resistance, 
so they caj)itulated and marched out : upon this, the whole 
French army marched towards those places, hoping to have 
carried Oudcnarde in their way. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 191 

The Duke of Marlborough followed so quick, that they i^os. 
drew off" from Oudenarde as he advanced: in one day, ^""^''^ 

The battle 

which was the last of June, he made a march of five of Onde- 
leagues, passed the Scheld without any opposition, came °"^^ 
up to the French army, and engaged them in the afternoon. 
They had the advantage both of numbers and of ground, 
yet our men beat them from every post, and, in an action 
that lasted six hours, we had such an entire advantage, that 
nothing but the darkness of the night, and the weariness 
of our men, saved the French army from being totally 
ruined. There were about five thousand killed, and about 
eight thousand made prisoners (of whom one thousand 
were officers) and about six thousand more deserted ; so 
that the French lost at least twenty thousand men, and retired 
in great haste, and in greater confusion, to Ghent. On the 
confederates' side, there were about one thousand killed, 
and two thousand w ounded ; but our army was so wearied, 
with a long march and a long action, that they were not in 
a condition to pursue with that haste that was to be desired; 
otherwise great advantages might have been made of this 
victory. The French posted themselves on the great canal 
that runs from Ghent to Bruges : Prince Eugene's army of 
about thirty thousand men, was now very near the great 
army, and joined it in a few days after this action : but he 
himself was come up before them^ and had a noble share 
in the victory ; which, from the neighbourhood of that 
place, came to be called the battle of Oudenarde. 

The French had recovered themselves^out of their first 
consternation, during that time, which was necessary to 
give our army some rest and refreshment : and they were so 
well posted, that it was not thought fit to attack them. 
Great detachments were sent, as far as to Arras, to put all 
the French countries under contribution; which struck 
such a terror every where, that it went as far as to Paris. 
Our army could not block up the enemy's on all sides, the 
communication with Dunkirk by Newport was still open, 
and the French army was supplied from thence : they made 
an invasion into the Dutch Flanders : they had no great 
cannon, so they could take no place, but they destroyed the 
country with their usual barbarity. 

In conclusion, the Duke of Marlborough, in concert Lisle be- 
with Prince Eugene and the states, resolved to besiege "^^^ ' 



i§^ HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1708. Lisle, the capital tovm of the French Flanders : it was a 
^j^^^^ great, a rich, and a well fortified place, with a very strong 
citadel : it had been the first conquest the French King had 
made, and it was become, next to Paris, the chief town in 
his dominions. Marshal Bouflers threw himself into it, 
with some of the best of the French troops : the garrison 
was at least twelve thousand strong ; some called it four- 
teen thousand. Prince Eugene undertook the conduct of 
the siege, with about thirty thousand men, and the Duke of 
Marlborough, with the rest of the army, lay on the Scheld 
at Pont-Esperies, to keep the communication open with 
Brussels. Some time was lost before the great artillery 
could be brought up : it lay at Sass van Ghent, to have 
been sent up the Lys, but now it was to be carried about by 
Antwerp to Brussels, and from thence land by carriages to 
the camp, which was a long and a slow work : in that some 
weeks were lost, so that it was near the end of August, be- 
fore the siege was begun. The engineers promised the 
states, to take the place within a fortnight after thelfenches 
were open; but the sequel shewed that they reckoned 
wrong. There were some disputes among them ; errors 
were committed by those who were in greatest credit, 
who thought the way of sap the shortest, as well as surest 
method : yet after some time lost in pursuing this way, they 
returned to the ordinary method. Bouflers made a brave and 
along defence : the Duke of Burgundy came with his whole 
army so near ours, that it seemed he designed to venture 
another battle, rather than lose so important a place : and 
the Duke of Marlborough was, for some days, in a pos- 
ture to receive him : but when he saw that his whole inten- 
tion in coming so near him was only to oblige him to be 
ready for an action, without coming to any, and so to draw 
ofi" a great part of those bodies that carried on the siege, 
leaving only as many as were necessary to maintain the 
ground they had gained, he drew a line before his army, 
and thought only of carrying on the siege ; for while he 
looked for an engagement, no progress was made in that. 
TLe French After somc days, the French drew off, and fell to making 
&iia1ion"Ti,e lincs all aloug the Scheld, but chiefly about Oudenarde, 
Scheld. that they might cut off the communication between Bnls- ' 
sels and our camp, and so separate our army from all in- 
tercourse with Holland. The lines were about seventy 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 193 

miles long, and in some places near Oudenarde, they ^^^^• 
looked liker the ramparts of a fortified place, than ordi- 
nary lines ; on these they laid cannon, and posted the great- 
est part of their army upon them, so that they did effectu- 
ally stop all communication by the Scheld. Upon which 
the states ordered all that was necessary, both for the 
army and for the siege, to be sent to Ostend : and if the 
French had begun their designs with the intercepting this 
way of conveyance, the siege must have been raised, for 
want of ammunition to carry it on. 

About this time, six thousand men were embarked at 
Portsmouth, in order to be sent over to Portugal : but they 
were ordered to lie for some on the coast of France, all 
along from Boulogne to Dieppe, in order to force a diver- 
sion, we hoping, that this would oblige the French to draw 
some of their tioops out of Flanders for the defence of 
their coast. This had no great effect, and the appearance 
that the French made, gave our men such apprehensions of 
their strength, that though they once begun to land their 
men, yet they soon returned back to their ships: but as 
their behaviour was not a little censured, so the state of 
the war in Flanders made! it necessary to have a greater 
force at Ostend. They were, upon this, ordered to come A new snp- 
and land there : Earl, who commanded them, came out and ^^l^° ^ 
took a post at LeflSngen, that lay on the canal, which went 
from Newport to Bruges, to secure the passage of a great 
convoy of eight hundred waggons, that were to be carried 
from Ostend to the army : if that had been intercepted, 
the siege must have been raised : for the Duke of Marlbo- 
rough had sent some ammunition from his army, to carry 
on the siege, and he could spare no more. He began to 
despair of the undertaking, and so prepared his friends to 
look for the raising the siege, being in great apprehensions 
concerning this convoy ; upon which, the whole success 
of this enterprise depended : he sent Webb, with a body of 
six thousand. men, to secure the convoy. 

The French, who understood well of what consequence a defeat 
this convoy was, sent a body of twenty thousand men, with french 
forty pieces of cannon to intercept it : AVebb, seeing the when they 
inequality between his strength and the enemy's, put his ^^one. 
men into the best disposition he could. There lay cop- 
pices on both sides of the place, where he posted himself; 

VOL. IV. 2 c 



194 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1708. he lined these well, and stood still for some hours, while 
^^^"'^ the enemy cannonaded him, he having no cannon to return 
upon them : his men lay flat on the ground till that was 
over. But when the French advanced, our men fired upon 
them, both in front and from the coppices, with that fury, 
and with such success, that they began to run ; and though 
their oflOicers did all that was possible to make them stand, 
they could not prevail : so, after they had lost about six 
thousand men, they marched back to Bruges : Webb durst 
not leave the advantageous ground he was in, to pursue 
them, being so much inferior in number. So unequal an 
action, and so shameful a flight, with so great loss, was 
looked on as the most extraordinary thing that had hap- 
pened during the whole war : and it encouraged the one 
side as much as it dispirited the other. Many reproaches 
passed on this occasion, between the French and the Spa- 
niards; the latter, who had sufiered the most, blaming the 
former for abandoning them : this, which is the ordinary 
consequence of all great misfortunes, was not soon quieted. 
The COB- The convoy arriving safe in the camp, put new life in 
Oatend our army : some other convoys came afterwards, and were 
came safe to brought safe: for the Duke of Marlborough moved, with 
his whole army, to secure their motions, nor did the enemy 
think fit to give them any disturbance for some time. By 
the means of these supplies, the siege was carried on so 
eff"ectually, that by the end of October the town capitu- 
lated : Marshal Bouflers retiring into the citadel, with six 
thousand men. The French saw of what importance the 
communication by Osteud was to our army, which was 
chiefly maintained by the body that was posted at Leffin- 
gen ; so they attacked that with a very great force : the 
LefiSjigen place was weak of itself, but all about was put under water, 
French.^ * SO it might have made a longer resistance : it was too easily 
yielded up by those within it, who were made prisoners of 
war. Thus the communication with Ostend was cut off, 
and upon that the French flattered themselves with the 
hopes of starving our army ; having thus separated it from 
all communication Avith Holland : insomuch that it was re- 
ported, the Duke of Vendome talked of having our whole 
forces delivered into his hands, as prisoners of war, for 
want of bread, and other necessaries. It is true, the Duke 
of Marlborough sent out great bodies both into the French 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 195 

Flanders, and into the Artois, who brought in great stores ^^^8. 
of provisions : but that could not last long. '"-^-^ 

The French anny lay all along the Scheld, but had sent 
a great detachment to cover the Artois : all this while there 
was a great misunderstanding between the Duke of Bur- Misnnder- 
gundy and the Duke of Vendome; the latter took so f^"'^'"?^*- 

, ' tween the 

much upon him, that the other officers complained of his Dukes of 
neglecting them : so they made their court to the Duke of f^'jsjndj 
Burgundy, and laid the blame of all his miscarriages on dome. 
Vendome. He kept close to the orders he had from Ver- 
sailles, where the accounts be gave, and the advices he of- 
fered, were more considered tlian those that were sent by 
the Duke of Burgundy : this was very uneasy to him, who 
was impatient of contradiction, and longed to be in action, 
though he did not shew the forwardness in exposing his 
own person that was expected : he seemed very devout, 
even to bigotry ; but by the accounts we had from France, 
it did appear, that his conduct during the campaign, gave 
no great hopes or prospect from him, when all things 
should come into his hands : Chamillard was offen sent 
from court to soften him, and to reconcile him to the Duke 
of Vendome, but with no effect. 

The Elector of Bavaria had been sent to command on the Affairs on 
Upper Rhine : the true reason was believed, that he might ^^^^' 
not pretend to continue in the chief command in Flanders : 
he was put in hopes of being furnished with an army so 
strong, as to be able to break through into Bavaria. The 
Elector of Hanover did again undertake the command of 
the army of the empire : both armies were weak ; but they 
were so equally weak, that they were not able to undertake 
any thing on either side : so after some months, in which 
there was no considerable action ; the forces on both sides 
went into vrinter quarters. Then the court of France, be- jhe Eleetor 
lieving that the Elector of Bavaria was so much beloved in «>f Bavam 
Brussels, that he had a great party in the town, ready to tack Brus* 
declare for him, ordered an army of fourteen thousand men, ^^^^^ 
with a good train of artillery, to be brought together, and 
with that body he was sent to attack Brussels ; in which, 
there was a garrison of six thousand men. He lay before 
the towTi five days ; in two of these he attacked it with great 
fury : he was once master of the counterscarp, but he was 



196 HISTORY OF THE RETGN 

1708. soQii beaten out of it; and though he repeated his attacks 
very often, he was repulsed in them all. 
of'M^r'ibo- ^^^^ Duke of Marlborough hearing of this, made a sud- 
roiigh pass- dcn motiou towards the Scheld : but to deceive the enemy, 
Scheid and ^^ "^^^ given out, that he designed to march directly towards 
the lines. Ghent, and this was believed by his whole army, and it 
was probably carried to the enemy ; for they seemed to have 
no notice nor apprehension of his design on the Scheld: he 
advanced towards it in the night, and marched with the foot 
very quick, leaving the horse to come up with the artillery : 
the lines were so strong, that it was expected, that in the 
breaking through them, there must have been a very hot 
action : some of the general officers told me, that they reck- 
oned it would have cost them at least ten thousand men ; 
but to their great surprise, as soon as they passed the river, 
the French ran away, without otTering to make the least re- 
sistance ; and they had drawn off their cannon the day be- 
fore. Our men were very weary with the night's march, so 
they could not pursue ; for the horse were not come up, 
nor did the garrison of Oudenarde sally out ; yet they took 
a thousand prisoners. Whether the notice of the feint, that 
the Duke of Marlborough gave out of his design on Ghent, 
occasioned the French drawing off their cannon, and their 
being so secure, that they seemed to have no apprehen- 
sions of his true designs, was not yet certainly known : but 
the abandoning those lines, on which they had been work- 
ing for many weeks, was a surprise to all the world : their 
councils seemed to be weak, and the execution of them was 
worse : so that they, who were so long the terror, were now 
become the scorn of the world. 
TBe Elector The main body of their army retired to Valenciennes, 
drew off' great detachments were sent to Ghent and Bruges: as 
from Bros- soon as the Elector of Bavaria had the news of this un- 
looked-for reverse of their affairs, he drew off from Brus- 
sels with such precipitation, that he left his heavy cannon 
and baggage, with his wounded men, behind him : so this 
design, in which three thousand men were lost, came soon 
to an end. Those who thought of presages, looked on 
our passing the lines on the same day, in which the parlia- 
ment of England was opened, as a happy one. Prince Eu- 
gene had marched, with the greatest part of the force that 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 197 

lay before Lisle, (leaving only Avhat was necessary to keep i708. 
the town, and to carry on the sap against the citadel,) to have ''^''^ 
a share in the action that was expected in forcing the lines : 
but he came quickly back when he saw there was no need 
of him, and that the communication with Brussels was 
opened. 

The siege of the citadel w as carried on in a slow but The citadel 
sure method : and when the besiegers had lodged them- jfj^^^^ *^" 
selves in the second counterscarp, and had raised all their 
batteries, so that they were ready to attack the place, in a 
formidable manner ; Marshal Bouflers thought fit to pre- 
vent that, by a capitulation. It was now near the end of 
November ; so he had the better terms granted him : for it 
was resolved, as late as it was in the year, to reduce 
Ghent and Bruges, before this long campaign should be 
concluded : he marched out with five thousand men, so that 
the siege had cost those within as many lives as it did the 
besiegers, which were near eight thousand. 

This was a great conquest : the noblest, the richest, and Refleetion» 
the strongest town in those provinces, was thus reduced : on^Jt^******^ 
and the most regular citadel in Europe, fortified and fur- 
nished at a vast expense, was taken without firing one 
cannon against it. The garrison was obliged to restore to 
the inhabitants all that had been carried into the citadel, 
and to make good all the damages that had been done 
the town, by the demolishing of houses, while they were 
preparing themselves for the siege : all the several methods 
the French had used to give a diversion, had proved 
inefiectual : but that, in which the observers of Providence 
rejoiced most, was the signal character of a particular bless- 
ing on this siege : it was all the whole time a rainy season, 
all Europe over, and in all the neighbouring places ; yet 
during the siege of the town, it was dry and fair about it : 
and on those days of capitulation, in which time was allow- 
ed for the garrison to march into the citadel, it rained ; but 
as soon as these were elapsed, so that they were at liberty 
to besiege the citadel, fair weather returned, and continued 
till it was taken. 

From Lisle the army marched to invest Ghent, though Ghent aad 
it was late in the year ; for it was not done before Decern- ta^"^' "' 
ber. The French boasted much of their strength, and they 
had, by some new works, made a shew of designing an 



198 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1706. Obstinate resistance. They stood it out, till the trenches 
^^^^ were far advanced, and the batteries were finished, so that 
the whole train of artillery was mounted : when all was 
ready to fire on the town, the Governor, to save both that 
and his garrison, thought fit to capitulate : he had an honour- 
able capitulation, and a general amnesty was granted to 
the town, with a new confirmation of all their privileges. 
The burghers did not deserve so good usage ; but it was 
thought fit, to try how far gentle treatment could prevail 
on them, and overcome their perverseness : and indeed it 
may be thought, that they had suffered so much by their 
treachery, that they were sufficiently punished for it : Ghent 
was delivered to the Duke of Marlborough on the last of 
December, N. S. so gloriously was both the year and the 
campaign finished at once: for the garrison, that lay at 
Bruges, and in the forts about it, withdrew without staying 
for a summons. These being evacuated, the army was 
sent into winter quarters. 
A rery hard It had uot been possible to have kept them in the field 
winter. much longer ; for within two or three days after, there was 
a great fall of snow, and that was followed by a most vio- 
lent frost, which continued the longest of any in the me- 
mory of man ; and though there were short intervals of a 
few days of thaw, we had four returns of an extreme frost, 
the whole lasting about three months. Many died in seve- 
ral parts, by the extremity of the cold ; it was scarcely pos- 
sible to keep the soldiers alive, even in their quarters : so 
that they must have perished, if they had not broke up the 
campaign before this hard season. This coming on so quick, 
after all that was to be done abroad was effectuated, gave 
new occasions to those, who made their remarks on Pro- 
vidence, to observe the very great blessings of this con- 
juncture, wherein every thing that was designed, was hap- 
pily ended just at the critical time, that it was become ne- 
cessary to conclude the campaign : and indeed the concur- 
rence of those happy events, that had followed us all this 
year, from the Pretender's first setting out from Dunkirk, to 
the conclusion of it, was so signal, that it made great im- 
pressions on many of the chief officers, which some owned 
to myself; though they were the persons, from whom I ex- 
pected it least. 
The campaign in Spain was more equally balanced : 



DF QUEEN ANNE. 199 

the Duke of Orleans took Tortosa ; Denia was also forced i^os. 
to capitnlate, and the garrison were made prisoners of war. sa^^dMUaad 
But these losses by land were well made up by the sue- Minorca re- 
cesses of our fleet : Sardinia was reduced, after a very 
feeble Eind short struggle : the plenty of the island made 
the conquest the more considerable at that time, for in 
Catalonia they were much straitened for want of provi- 
sions, which were now supplied from Sardinia. Towards 
the end of the campaign, the fleet, with a thousand land- 
men on board, came before Minorca, and in a few days 
made themselves masters of that island, and of those forts 
that commanded Port Mahon, the only valuable thing in 
that island : all was carried after a very faint resistance, 
the garrisons shewing either great cowardice, or great incli- 
nations to King Charles. By this, our fleet had got a safe 
port to lie in and to refit, and to retire into on all occa- 
sions ; for till then we had no place nearer than Lisbon : 
this was such an advantage to us, as made a great impres- 
sion on all the princes and states in Italy. 

At this time the Pope began to threaten the Emperor The Pop* 
with ecclesiastical censures, and a war, for possessing him- ^^ g^pg^^ 
self of Commachio, and for taking quarters in the papal with ceu- 
territories : he levied troops, and went often to review them, '^^^^ *°^ * 
not without the affectation of shewing himself a general, as 
if he had been again to draw the sword, as St. Peter did : 
he opened Sixtus the Fifth's treasure, and took out of it 
five hundred thousand crowns for this service : many were 
afraid that this war should have brought the Emperor's af- 
fairs into a new entanglement; for the court of France laid 
hold of this rupture, and to inflame it, sent Marshal Tesse 
to Rome, to encourage the Pope with great assurances of 
support. He was also ordered to try, if the Great Duke, 
and the republics of Venice and Genoa, could be engaged 
in an alliance against the imperialists. 

The Emperor bore all the Pope's threats mth great pa- The Dake 
tience, till the Duke of Savoy ended the campaign : that Jo^^kE^^ies 
Duke, at the first opening of it, marched into Savoy, from and Fenes- 
whence it was thought his designs were upon Dauphiny. ^"^ '*• 
Villars was sent against him, to defend that frontier; 
though he did all he could to decline that command : he 
drew all his forces together to cover Dauphiny, and by 
these motions, the passage into the Alps was now open : 



200 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1708. so the Duke of Savoy secured that, and then marched back 
^^""^ to besiege first Exilles, and then Fenestrella, two places 
strong by their situation, from whence excursions could 
have been made into Piedmont ; so that in case of any mis- 
fortune in that Duke's affairs, they would have been very 
uneasy neighbours to him : he took them both. The great- 
est difficulty in those sieges was from the impvacticable- 
ness of the ground, which drew them out into such a length, 
that the snow began to fall by the time both were taken. 
By this means the Alps were cleared, and Dauphiny was 
now open to him : he was also master of the valley of Pra- 
gelas, and all things were ready for a greater progress in 
another campaign. 

The Emperor's troops, that were commanded by him, 
were, at the end of the season, ordered to march into the 
Pope's territories ; and were joined by some more troops, 
drawn out of the Milanese and the Mantuan. The Pope's 
troops began the war in a very barbarous manner; for 
while they were in a sort of cessation, they surprised a 
body of the imperialists, and -v^lthout mercy put them all to 
the sword : but as the imperial army advanced, the Papa- 
lins, or, as the Italians in derision called them, the Papa- 
gallians, fled every where before them, even when they were 
three to one. As they came on, the Pope's territories and 
places were ail cast open to them : Bologna, the most im- 
portant, and the richest of them all, capitulated ; and re- 
ceived them without the least resistance. The people of 
Rome were uneasy at the Pope's proceedings, and at the 
apprehensions of a new sack from a German army : they 
shewed this so openly, that tumults there were much dread- 
ed, and many cardinals declared openly against this war. 
The Emperor sent a minister to Rome, to see if matters 
could be accommodated : but the terms proposed seemed 
to be of hard digestion, for the Pope was required to ac- 
knowledge King Charles, and in every particular to comply 
with the Emperor's demands. 

The Pope is The Pope was amazed at his ill success, and at those high 

obliged to ^ ' f cc • 

snbinit to terms ; but there was no remedy left : the ill state of affairs 

the Em- jn France was now so visible, that no regard was had to 

the great promises which Marshal Tesse was making, nor 

was there any hopes of drawing the princes and states of 

Italy into an alliance for his defence. In conclusion, the 



OF QUEI^N A.NNE. 201 

Pope, after he had delayed yielding to the Emperor's de- ^''^s- 
mands long enough to give the imperialists time tc eat up '' ^ 
his country, at last submitted to every thing ; yet he delayed 
acknowledging King Charles for some months, though he 
then promised to do it; upon which the Emperor drew his 
troops out of his territories. The Pope turned over the ^^""^ ac- 
manner of acknowledging King Charles to a congregation kZI ^ ^^ 
of cardinals ; but they had no mind to take the load of this ^I'^rles. 
upon themselves, which would draw an exclusion upon them 
from France, in every conclave ; they left it to the Pope, 
and he affected delays ; so that it was not done till the end 
of the following year. 

The affairs in Hungary continued in the same ill state in a Hairs in 
which they had been for some years : the Emperor did not ^°sa>T- 
grant the demands of the diet, that he had called ; nor did 
he redress their grievances, and he had not a force strong 
enough to reduce the malccontents : so that his council 
could not fall on methods, either to satisfy or to subdue 
them. 

Poland conti)uied still to be a scene of war and misery ; And in Po- 
to their other calamities, they had the addition of a plague, 
which laid some of their great towns waste. TJie party, 
formed against Stanislaus, continued still to oppose him, 
though they had no king to head them : tiie Jling of Swe- 
den's warlike humour, possessed him to s^ch a (degree, that 
he resolved to march into Muscovy. The Czar tried how 
fax submissions and intercessions could soften him, but he 
was inflexible ; he marched through the Ukrain, but made 
no great progress : the whole Muscovite force fell on one 
of his generals, that had about him only apart of his army, 
?ind gave him a total defeat, most of his horse.being cutoff. 
After that, we were for many months without any certain 
news from those parts : both sides pretended they had great 
advantages ; and as Stanislaus's interests carried him to set 
out and magnify the Swedish success, so the party that ap- 
posed him, studied as much to raise the credit of the Mus- 
covites : so that it was not yet easy to know what to bejieve 
further, than that there had been no decisive action through- 
out the whole year; nor was there any during the following 
winter. 

Our affairs at sea were less unfortunate this year, than Affairs at 
they had been formerly : the merchants were better served *^*' 
VOL. IV. 2d 



202 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1708. \yH\i convoys, and we made no considerable losses*. A 
.squadron that was sent to the Bay of Mexico, met with the 
galleons, and engaged them : if all their captains had done 
their duty, they had been all taken : some few fought well. 
The admiral of the galleons, which carried a great treasure, 
was sunk ; the vice-admiral was taken, and the rear-admiral 
run himself ashore near Carthagena, the rest got away. The 
enemy lost a great deal by this action, though we did not 
gain so much as we might have done, if all our captains had 
been brave and diligent. Another squadron carried over 
the Queen of Portugal, which was performed with great 
magnificence ; she had a quick and easy passage. This 
did in some measure compensate to that crown for our fail- 
ing them, in not sending over the supplies that we had sti- 
pulated ; it was a particular happiness, that the Spaniards 
were so weak, as not to be able to take advantage of the 
naked and unguarded state, in which the Portuguese were 
at this time. 

GeoTges I^ ^'^^ ^"^ of Octobcr, Gcorgo, Prince of Denmark, died, 

death. ill the fifty-sixth year of his age, after he had been twenty- 
five years and some months married to the Queen : he was 
asthmatical, which grew on him with his years ; for some 
time he was considered as a dying man, but the last year of 
his life, he seemed to be recovered to abetter state of health. 
The Queen had been, during the whole course of her mar- 
riage, an extraordinary tender and aft'ectionate wife ; and in 
all his illness, which lasted some years, she would never 
leave his bed ; but sat up, sometimes half the night in the 
bed by him, with such care and concern, that she was 
looked on very deservedly as a pattern in this respect. 

And charac rj^jg Princc had shewed himself brave in war, both in 
Denmark and in Ireland. His temper was mild and gentle : 
he had made a good progress in mathematics. He had 
travelled through France, Italy, and Germany, and knew 
much more than he could well express ; for he spoke ac- 
quired languages ill and ungracefully. He was free from 
all vice: he meddled little in business, even after the 
Queen's accession to the crown : he was so gained to the 
tories, by the act which they carried in his favour, that he 
was much in their interest : he was unhappily prevailed 
with to take on him the post of high-admiral, of which he 
understood little, but was fatally led by those who had 



ter. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 203 

credit with him, who had not all of them his good qualities, itos. 
but had both an ill-temper and bad principles ; his being ^-^<^^ 
bred to the sea, gained him some credit in those matters. 
In the conduct of our affairs, as great errors were com- 
mitted, so great misfortunes had followed on them ; all 
these were imputed to the Prince's easiness, and to his 
favourite's ill management and bad designs : this drew a 
very heavy load on the Prince, and made his death to be 
the less lamented. The Queen was not only decently, but 
deeply aifected with it. 

The Earl of Pembroke was now advanced to the post a new mi- 
of high-admiral; which he entered on with great unea-"'^"' 
siness, and a just apprehension of the difficulty of main- 
taining it well in a time of war. He was, at that time, 
both lord president of the council, and lord lieutenant of 
Ireland. The Earl of Wharton had the government of 
Ireland, and the Lord Somers w as made lord president of 
the council. The great capacity, and inflexible integrity 
of this Lord, w ould have made his promotion to this post 
very acceptable to the whigs, at any juncture, but it was 
most particularly so at this time ; for it was expected that 
propositions for a general peace would be quickly made, 
and so they reckoned that the management of that, upon 
which not only the safety of the nation, but of all Europe 
depended, was in sure hands, when he was set at the head 
of the councils, upon whom neither ill practices, nor false 
colours, were like to make any impression ; thus the minds 
of all those who were truly zealous for the present con- 
stitution, w ere much quieted by this promotion ; though 
their jealousies had a deep root, and w ere not easily re- 
moved. 

The parliament was opened in the middle of November, A new par 
with great advantage ; for the present ministry w^as now op™ne°d. 
wholly such, that it gave an entire content to all who wished 
well to our afi'airs : and the great successes abroad silenced 
those who were otherwise disposed to find fault and to 
complain. The Queen did not think it decent for her to 
come to parliament during tliis w hole session ; so it was 
managed by a commission representing her person. Sir 
Richard Onslow was chosen speaker, without the least op- 
position : he was a worthy man, entirely zealous for the 
government ; he was very acceptable to the whigs, and the 



^^/^ 



204 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

iro8.^ tories felt that they had so little strength in this parliament, 
that they resolved to lie silent, and to wait for such ad- 
vanta»]!:e?! as the circumstances of affairs mi^ht give them. 
In the House of Commons, the supplies that were de- 
nianded were granted very unanimously, not only for main- 
taining the force then on foot, but for an augmentation of 
ten thousand more : this was thought necessary to press 
the war With more force, as the surest way to bring on a 
speedy peace. The states agreed to the like augmentation 
on their side. The French, according to their usual va- 
nity, gaive out that they had great designs in view for the 
next campaign: and it was contideutly spread about by 
the Jacobites, that a new invasion was designed, both on 
Scotland and on Ireland. At the end of the campaign. 
Prince Eugene went to the court of Vienna, which obliged 
the Duke of Marlborough to stay on the other side till he 
returned. Things went on in both houses according to the 
directions given at court ; for the court being now joined 
with the whigs, they had a clear majority in every thing. 
All elections were judged in favour of whigs and courtiers, 
but with so much partiality, that those who had formerly 
made loud complaints of the injustice of the tories in de- 
termining elections, when they were a majority, were not 
so iViuch as oiit of countenance when they were reproached 
for the saLme thitig. They pretended they were in a state 
of wa^T vvJth the tories, so that it was reasonable to retaliate 
this to them, on the account of their former proceedings ; 
btit this did not satisfy just and upright men, who would 
not do to others that which they complained of, when it 
was done to them or to their friends. The House of Com- 
mons voted a supply of 7,000,000/. for the service of the 
ensuing year; the land-tax, and the duty on malt, were 
readily agreed to ; but it took some time to tind funds for 
the rest, (hat they had voted. 
Debates A petition of a new natme was brought before the 

tbe"eiecti"oL ^^^rds, with relation to the election of the peers from Scot- 
of tiicpe(rs land. There was a return made in due form; but a petition 
was laid before the House in the name of four lords, who 
pretended that they ought to have been returned. The 
Duke of Queensbcrry had been created a Duke of Great 
Btitain, by the title of Duke of Dover, yet he thought he 
hftd §till a right to Vote as a peer of Scotland : he had likc- 



1709. 



of Scotland. 



OP QUEEN ANNE. 205 

wise a proxy, so that two votes depended on this point — ^"'^^• 
whether the Scotch peerage did sink into the peerage of 
Great Britain. Some lords, who were prisoners in the 
castle of Edinburgh on suspicion as favouring the Pre- 
tender, had sent for the sheriff of Lothian to the castle, and 
had taken the oaths before Mm ; and upon that were reck- 
oned to be qualified to vote or make a proxy : now it was 
pretended, that the castle of Edinburgh was a constabula- 
tory, and was out of the sheriff's jurisdiction; and that, 
therefore, he could not legally tender them the oaths. 
Some proxies were signed, without subscribing witnesses, 
a form necessary by their law" : other exceptions were also 
taken from some rules of the law of Scotland, which had 
riot been observed. The clerks being also complained of, 
they were sent for, and were ordered to bring up with them 
afll instruments or documents relating to the election ; 
when they came up, and every thing was laid before the 
House of Lords, the whole matter was long and well de- 
bated. 

As to the Duke of Queensberry's voting among the Scotch a Scotch 
lords, it was said, that if a peer of Scotland, being made peer created 

r ^ ' ~ a peer oi 

a peer of Great Britain, did still retain his interest in elect- Great Bri- 
ing the sixteen from Scotland, this would create a great I""" ^"'''' ^** 

° 7 o have no 

inequality among peers ; some having a vote by represen- vote there. 
tatiou, as well as in person : the precedent was mischiev- 
ous, since by the creating some of the chief families in 
Scotland peers of Great Britain, they would be able to 
carty the Avhole election of the sixteen as they pleased. It 
was objected, that by a clause in the act passed since the 
union, the peers of England, who were likewise peers of 
Scotland, had a right to vote in the election of Scotland, still 
reserved to them, so there seemed to be a parity in this case 
"^th that : but it was answered, that a peer of England and 
a peer of Scotland held their dignity under two different 
crowns, and by different great seals : but Great Britain in- 
cluding Scotland as well as England, the Scotch peerage 
must now merge in that of Great Britain : besides that, there 
were but five who were peers of both kingdoms before the 
union ; so that, as it might be reasonable to make pro\dsion 
for them, so was it of no great consequence : but if this 
precedent were allowed, it might go much further, and 
have very ill consequences. Upen a division of the 



206 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1709. House, the matter was determined against the Duke of 

'^ Queensbeny. 

oti.er ex- A great deal Avas said both at the bar by lawyers, and 

ceptions •ill! -ixT /'•T- 

veiedeier- 1" "le debate m the House, upon the pomt of jurisdiction, 
mined. j^nd of the exemption of a coustabulatory : it was said, that 
the Sheriffs' Court ought to be, as all courts were, open and 
free ; and so could not be held within a castle or prison : 
but no express decision had ever been made in this matter. 
The prisoners had taken the oaths, which was the chief in- 
tent of the law, in the best manner they could ; so that it 
seemed not reasonable to cut them off from the main privi- 
lege of peerage, that was reserved to them, because they 
could not go abroad to the Sheriffs' Court : after a Ibng 
debate it was carried, that the oaths were duly tendered to 
tiiem. Some other exceptions were proved and admitted, 
the returns of some, certifying that they had taken the oaths, 
were not sealed, and some had signed these without sub- 
scribing witnesses : other exceptions were offered from pro- 
visions the law of Scotland had made, with relation to bonds 
and other deeds, which had not been observed in making 
of proxies : but the House of Lords did not think these were 
of that importance as to vacate the proxies on that account. 
So, after a full hearing, and a debate that lasted many 
days, there was but one of the peers that was returned, who 
was foimd not duly elected, and only one of the petitioning 
lords was brought into the house ; the Marquis of Annandale 
was received, and the Marquis of Lothian was set aside. 
A taction The Scotch members in both houses were divided into 
srots" ^^^ factions : the Duke of Queensberry had his party still de- 
pending on him ; he was in such credit with the Lord Trea- 
surer and the Queen, that all the posts in Scotland were 
given to persons recommended by him: the chief ministers 
at court seemed to have laid it down for a maxim, not to 
be departed from, to look carefully into elections in Scot- 
land ; that the members returned from thence might be in 
an entire dependence on them, and be either whigs or tories, 
as they should shift sides. The Duke of Queensberry was 
made third secretary of state; he had no foreign province 
assigned him, but Scotland was left to his management : 
the Dukes of Hamilton, Montrose, and Roxburgh, had set 
themselves in an opposition to his power, and had car- 
ried many elections against him : the Lord Somers an^ 



OP OUEEN ANNE. 207 

Suliderland supported them, but could not prevail with the ^''o^- 
Lord Treasurer to bring them into an equal share of the ad- 
ministration ; this had almost occasioned a breach, for the 
whigs, though they went on in conjunction with the Lord 
Treasurer, yet continued still to be jealous of him. 

Another act was brought in and passed in this session An act con- 
with relation to Scotland, which gave occasion to great "j'als'^f 
and long debates ; what gave rise to it was this — upon the treasons in 
attempt made by the Pretender, many of the nobility and ^'^"*'^"'^- 
gentry of Scotland, who had all along attended to that in- 
terest, were secured ; and after the fleet was got back to 
Dunkirk, and tiie danger was over, they were ordered to be 
brought up prisoners to London ; when they came, there 
was no evidence at all against them, so they were dismiss- 
ed, and sent back to Scotland. No exceptions could be 
taken to the securing them, while there was danger ; but 
since nothing besides presumptions lay against them, the 
bringing them up to London at such a charge, and under 
such a disgrace, was much censured, as an unreasonable 
and an unjust severity ; and was made use of, to give that 
nation a further aversion to the union. That whole matter 
was managed by the Scotch lords then in the ministry, by 
which they both revenged themselves on some of their ene- 
mies, and made a shew of zeal for the government ; though 
such as did not believe them sincere in these professions, 
thought it was done on design to exasperate the Scots the 
more, and so to dispose them to wish for another invasion. 
The whig ministry in England disowned all these proceed- 
ings, and used the Scots prisoners so well, that they went 
down much inclined to concur with them: but the Lord 
Godolphin fatally adhered to the Scotch ministers, and 
supported them, by which the advantage that might have 
been made from these severe proceedings was lost. But the 
chief occasion given to the act concerning treasons in Scot- 
land, was from a trial of some gentlemen of that kingdom, 
who had left their houses, when the Pretender was on the 
sea, and had gone about armed, and in so secret and sus- 
picious a manner that it gave great cause of jealousy ; there 
was no clear evidence to convict them, but there were very 
strong, if not violent presumptions against them : some forms 
in the trial had not been observed, which the criminal court 
judged were necessary, and not to be dispensed witli ; but 



208 HISTORY OF THE ^EIGN 

1709. the Queen's advocate. Sir James Stuart, was of another 
'"''^^^ mind : the court thought it was necessary by their laws, 
that the names of the witnesses should have been signified 
to the prisoners fifteen days before their tiial; but the 
Queen's advocate had not complied with this, as to the 
chief witnesses ; so the court could not hear their evidence : 
he did not upon that move for a delay, so the trial went 
on, and the gentlemen were acquitted. Severe expostula- 
tions passed between the Queen's advocate and the court : 
they complained of one another to the Queen, and both 
sides justified their complaints in print. Upon this it ap- 
peared, that the laws in Scotland, concerning trials in cases 
of treason, were not fixed nor certain: so a bill was brought 
into the House of Commons to settle that matter ; but it 
was so much opposed by the Scotch members that it was 
dropped in the committee : it was taken up and managed 
with more zeal by the Lords. 
The heads It cousistcd of tluce licads — all crimes, which were high 
of the act. treason by the law of England (and these only) were to be 
high treason in Scotland ; the manner of proceeding settled 
in England was to be observed in Scotland ; and the pains 
and forfeitures were to be the same in both nations. The 
Scotcli lords opposed every branch of this act; they moved, 
that all things that uere high treason by the law of Eng- 
land, might be enumerated in the act, for the information 
of the Scotch nation ; otherwise they must study the book 
of statutes to know when they were safe, and when they 
were guilty. To this it was answered, that direction would 
be gi^ en to the judges, to publish an abstract of the law of 
high treason, which would be a suflicient information to 
the people of Scotland in this matter: that nation would 
by this means be in a much safer condition than they were 
now; for the laws they had, were conceived in such gene- 
ral words, that the judges might put such constructions on 
them, as should serve the ends of a bad court ; but they 
would by this act be restrained in this matter for the future. 
iiie f.inns The sccoud head in this bill occasioned a much longer 
of proceed- debate : it changed the whole method of proceedings in 

iDg m Scot- ' ® y . , 

land. Scotland : the former way there was, the Queen s advocate 

signed a citation of the persons, setting forth the special 
matter of high treason, of which they were accused ; this 
was to be delivered to them, togctlier wilJi the nanicis of 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 

the witnesses, fifteen days before the trial. When the jury i^og. 
was empannelled, no peremptory challenges were allowed ; '^ '^ 
reasons were to be offered with every challenge, and if the 
court admitted them, they were to be proved immediately. 
Then the matter of the charge, which is there called the re- 
levancy of the libel, was to be argued by lawyers, whether 
the matter, suppose it should be proved, did amount to high 
treason or not ; this was to be determined by a sentence of 
the court, called the interloquitur : and the proof of the fact 
was not till then to be made : of that the jury had the cog- 
nizance. Antiently the verdict went with the majority, the 
number being fifteen ; but by a late act, the verdict was to 
be given, upon the agreement of two third parts of the jury: 
in the sentence, the law did not limit the judges to a cer- 
tain form, but they could aggravate the punishment, or mo- 
derate it, according to the circumstances of the case. All 
this method was to be set aside : a grand jury was to find 
the bill, the judges were only to regulate proceedings, and 
to declare what the law was ; and the whole matter of the 
indictment was to be left entirely to the jury, ^^ ho were to 
be twelve, and all to agree in their verdict. 

In one particular, the forms in Scotland were much pre- 
ferable to those in England : the depositions of the wit' 
nesses were taken indeed by word of mouth, but were ^Tit 
out, and after that were signed by the witnesses : they were 
sent in to the jury; and these were made a part of tire re- 
cord. This was very slow and tedious, but the jury, by 
this means, was more certainly possessed of the evidence ; 
and the matter was more clearly delivered down to pos- 
terity ; whereas, the records in England are very defective, 
and give no light to a liistorian that peruses them, ^s I 
found when I wrote the History of the Reformation. 

The Scotch opposed this alteration of their way of pro* 
ceeding : they said, that neither the judges, the advocates, 
nor the clerks, would know how to manage a trial of trea- 
son : they insisted most on the having the names of the 
witnesses to be given to the persons some days before 
their trial. It seemed reasonable, that a man should know 
who was to be brought to witness against him, that so he 
might examine his life, and see what credit ought to be 
given to him : on the other hand it was said, this would 
open a door to much practice, either upon the witnesses to ' 

VOL. n . 2 E 



209 



210 

1709. 



Of tlie for- 
fei lures in 
cases of 
treason. 



HISTORY OF THE REICiN 
corrupt them, or in suborning other witnesses to defame 
them. To this it was answered, that a .^ilty man knew 
what could bcl>rought against him, and without such notice 
would take all tiie methods possible to defend himself: 
but provision ought to be made for innocent men, whose 
chief guilt might be a good estate, upon which a favourite 
might have an eye ; and therefore such persons ought to 
be taken care of. This was afterwards so much softened, 
that it was only desired, that the names of the witnesses, 
that had given evidence to the grand jury, should, upon their 
finding the bill, be signified to the prisoner five days before 
his tiial. Upon a division of the House on this question, 
the votes were equal ; so by the rule of the House, that in 
such a case the negative prevails, it was lost. Upon the 
third head of the bill, the debates grew still warmer : in 
Scotland many families were settled by long entails and 
perpetuities ; so it was said, that since, by one of the arti- 
cles of the union, all private rights were still preserved, no 
breach could be made on these settlements. I carried this 
farther : I thought it was neither just nor reasonable to set 
the children on begging, for their father's faults : the Ro- 
mans, during their liberty, never thought of carrying punish- 
ments so far: it was an invention, under the tyranny of tlie 
emperors, who had a particular revenue called the fisc ; and 
all forfeitures were claimed by them, from whence they 
were called confiscations : it was never the practice of free 
governments : Bologna flourished beyond any town in tlie 
Pope's dominions, because they made it an article of their 
capitulation with the Pope, that no confiscation should 
follow on any crime whatsoever. In Holland, the confi."*- 
cation was redeemable by so very small a sum as an hun- 
dred guilders. Many instances could be brought of pro- 
secutions only to obtain the confiscation: but none of tlie 
Lords seconded me in this : it was acknowledged, that this 
was just and reasonable, and fit to be passed in good 
times ; but since we were now^ exposed to so much danger 
from aljroad, it did not seem advisable to abate the severity 
of the law ; but clauses were agreed to, by which, upon 
marriages, settlements might be made in Scotland, as was 
practised in England ; lor no esteite is forfeited for the 
crime of him who is only tenant for life. By this act also, 
tortures were condemned ; and the Queen was empowered 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 2ll 

to grant commissions of oyer and terminer, as in England, ^'^^^• 
for trying treasons : the Scots insisted on this, that the 
justiciary, or the criminal court, being preserved by an arti- 
cle of the union, this broke in upon that. It was answered, 
the criminal court was still to sit, in the times regulated : 
but these commissions were granted upon special occa- 
sions. In the intervals between the terms, it might be 
necessary, upon some emergency, not to delay trials too 
long : but to give some content, it was provided by a 
clause, that a judge of the criminal court should be always 
one of the quorum in these commissions : so the bill passed 
in the House of Lords, notwithstanding the opposition of all 
the Scotch lords, Avith whom many of the tories concurred ; 
they being disposed to oppose the court in every thing, and 
to make treason as little to be dreaded as possible. 

The bill met with the same opposition in the House of A"'*''''^- 
Commons : yet it passed with two amendments : by one, act. 
the names of the witnesses, that had appeared before the 
grand jury, were ordered to be sent to the prisoner ten days 
before his trial : the other was, that no estate in land was 
to be forfeited upon a judgment of high treason: this 
came up fully to the motion I had made. Both these 
amendments were looked on as such popular things, that it 
was not probable that the House of Commons would recede 
from them : upon that the whigs in the House of Lords did 
not think fit to oppose them, or to lose the bill : so it was 
moved to agree to these amendments, with this proviso, 
that they should not take place till after the death of the 
Pretender. It was said, that since he assumed the title of 
King of Great Britain, and had so lately attempted to in- 
vade us, it was not reasonable to lessen the punishment 
and the dread of treason as long as he lived. Others ob- 
jected to this, that there would be still a pretender after 
him, since so many persons stood in the lineal descent be- 
fore the house of Hanover ; so that this proviso seemed to 
be, upon the matter, the rejecting the amendment: but it 
was observ^ed, that to pretend to the right of succeeding 
was a different thing from assuming the title, and attempt- 
ing an invasion. The amendment was received by the 
House of Lords with this proviso : those who were against 
the whole bill did not agree to it. The House of Commons 
consented to the proviso which the Lords had added to 



212 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

^''09. tlicir amendment, with a farther addition, that it should not 
'^^'^ take place till three years after the house of Hanover 
should succeed to the crown. 
It passed This met with great opposition : it was considered as a 
Lous^M. distinguishing character of those who were for or against the 
present constitution and the succession ; the Scots still op- 
posing it on the account of their formal law s. Both parties 
mustered up their sti*ength, and many who had gone into 
the country, w^ere brought up on this occasion : so that the 
bill, with all the amendments and provisos, was carried by 
a small majority; the Lords agreeing to this new amend- 
ment. The Scotch members in both houses seemed to 
apprehend, that the bill would be very odious in their 
country ; so, to maintain their interest at home, they, who 
were divided in every thing else, did agree in opposing this 
bill. 
An act of The court apprehended, from the heat w ith which the de- 
grace, bates were managed, and the ditiiculty in carrying the bill 
through both houses, that ill-disposed men would endea- 
vour to possess people with apprehensions of bad designs 
and severities that w ould be set on foot ; so they resolved 
to have an act of grace immediately upon it : it w as the 
first the Queen had sent, though she had then reigned above 
seven years : the ministers, for their ow n sake, took care 
that it should be very full ; it was indeed fuller than any 
former act of grace, all treasons committed before the sign- 
ing the act, which was the 19th of April, were pardoned, 
those only excepted that were done upon the sea : by this, 
those who had embarked with the Pretender were still at 
mercy. This act, according to form, was read once in both 
houses, and w ith the usual compliments of thanks, and with 
that the session ended. 
An cniar<:e- Other thiugs of great importance passed during this ses- 
meniofihe giQ^ ^he Housc of Commous voted an enlargement of 
the Bank, almost to three millions, upon which the books 
w ere opened to receive new subscriptions ; and, to the ad- 
miration of all Europe, as well as of ourselves at home, 
the whole sum was subscribed in a few hours' time : this 
shewed both the wealth of the nation, and the confidence 
that all people had in the government. By this subscrip- 
tion, and by a further prolongation of the general mort- 
gage of tlie revenue, they created good funds for answer- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 21. '^ 

ing all the money that they liad voted in the beginning of ^'^(>^- 
the session. ''-^^w 

Our trade was now very high, and was carried on every ^rp^t rici.os 
where with advantage, but no where more than at Lisbon : '" ° "S • 
for the Portuguese were so happy in their dominions in 
America, that they discovered vast quantities of gold in 
their mines, and we were assured, that they had brought 
home to Portugal the former year about four millions ster- 
ling, of which they at that time stood in great need, for 
they had a very bad harvest : but gold answers all things 
they were supplied from England Avith corn, and we had in 
return a large share of their gold. 

An act passed in this session that was much desired, and ^" ^(-^^"r a 
had been often attempted, but had been laid aside in so luiaiization 
many former parliaments, that there was scarce any hopes "' ^ p^"' 
left to encourage a new attempt ; it was for naturalizing all 
foreign protestants, upon their taking the oaths to the go- 
vernment, and their receiving tlie sacrament in any protest- 
ant church. Those who were against the act soon per- 
ceived, that they could have no strength if they should set 
themselves directly to oppose it ; so they studied to limit 
strangers in the receiving the sacrament to the way of 
the church of England. This probably would not have 
hindered many, who were otherwise disposed to come 
among us : for the much greater part of the French came 
into the way of our church. But it was thought best to 
cast the door as wide open as possible, for encouraging of 
strangers : and, therefore, since, upon their first coming over, 
some might choose the way to which they had been accus- 
tomed beyond sea, it seemed the more inviting method to 
admit of all who were in any protestant communion : this 
was carried in the House of Commons with a great majo- 
rity ; but all those who appeared for this large and com- 
prehensive way, were reproached for their coldness and in- 
diflierence in the concerns of the church : and in that I had 
a large share, as I spoke copiously for it when it was 
brought up to the Lords : the Bishop of Chester spoke as 
zealously against it, for he seemed resolved to distinguish 
himself as a zealot for that which was called high church. 
The bill passed with very little opposition. 

There was all this winter great talk of peace, which the An address 
miseries and necessity of France seemed to drive them^£J"^^" 



214 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1709, {(y- []y[^ £favc occasion to a motion concerted among the 

treaty of wliigs, mid opened by the Lord Hallifax, that an address. 

peuce should be made to the Queen, to conclude no peace with 

slioulu be iiT 

upt^ped. France tdl they should disown the Pretender, and send hira 
out of that kingdom, and till the protestant succession 
should be universally owned, and that a guarantee should 
be settled among the allies for securing it. None durst 
venture to oppose this, so it was easily agreed to and sent 
down to the House of Commons for their concurrence. 
They presently agreed to it, but added to it a matter of 
great importance, that the demolishing of Dunkirk should 
be likewise insisted on before any peace were concluded : 
so both houses carried this address to the Queen, who re- 
ceived and answered it very favourably. This was highly 
acceptable to the whole nation, and to all our allies. These 
were the most considerable transactions of this session of 
parliament, which was concluded on the 21st of April. 
Theconvo- The couvocatiou was summoned, chosen, and returned 
pu^TffTv a ^^ t^® parliament w^as : but it w as too evident tliat the same 
prorogation, iU temper that had appeared in former convocations did 
still prevail, though not with such a majority : when the day 
came in which it was to be opened, a \\Tit was sent from 
the Queen to the Archbishop, ordering him to prorogue the 
convocation for some months ; and, at the end of these, 
there came another writ ordering a further prorogation : so 
the convocation was not opened during this session of par- 
liament : by this, a present stop was put to the factious tem- 
per of those who studied to recommend themselves by em-r 
broiling the church. 
A faction It did not cure them ; for they continued still, by Kbels 
cieru'v of and false stories, to animate their party : and so catching a 
ireiaad. thing is this turbulent spirit, when once it prevails among 
clergymen, that the same ill temper began to ferment and 
spread itself among the clergy of Ireland : none of those 
disj)utes had ever been thought of in that church formerly, 
as they had no records nor minutes of former convocations. 
The faction here in England found out proper iiistruments 
to set the same humour on foot during the Earl of Ro- 
chester's government, and, as was said, by his directions ; 
and it being once set a-going, it went on by reason of the 
indolence of the succeeding governors : so the clergy were 
making the same bold claim there that had raised such di»- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 215 

putes among us ; and upon that, the party here publishetl ^''^'^ 
those pretensions of theirs with their usual confidence, as 
founded on a clear possession and prescription ; and drew 
an argument from that to justify and support their own pre- 
tensions, though those in Ireland never dreamed of them till 
they had the pattern and encouragement from hence. This An in lem- 
was received by the party with great triumph ; into such in- our clergy 
direct practices do men's ill designs and animosities engage stmkeptnp< 
them : but though this whole matter was well detected and 
made appear, to their shame who had built so much upon 
it ; yet parties are never out of countenance, but when one 
artifice fails, they will lay out for another. The secret en- 
couragement with which they did most effectually animate 
their party, was, that the Queen's heart w as w ith them : and, 
that though the war, and the other circumstances of her 
affairs, obliged her at present to favour the moderate party, 
yet, as soon as a peace brought on a better settlement, they 
promised themselves all favour at her hands. It was not 
certain that they had then any ground for this, or that she 
herself, or any l)y her order, gave them these hopes; but 
this is certain, that many things might have been done to 
extinguish those hopes w hich were not done ; so that they 
seemed to be left to please themselves with those expecta- 
tions, w hich still kept life in their party ; and, indeed, it 
was but too visible, that the much greater part of the clergy 
were in a very ill temper, and under very bad influences ; 
enemies to the toleration and soured against the dissenters. 

I now" must relate the negotiations that the French set Nec^otia- 
on foot for a peace. Soon after the battle of Ramillies, """^ ^"^ 

peace. 

the Elector of Bavaria gave out hopes of a peace, and that 
the King of France would come to a treaty of partition ; 
that Spain and the AVest Indies should go to King Charles, 
if the dominions of Italy w ere given to King Philip, They 
hoped that England and the states would agree to this, as 
less concerned in Italy ; but they knew the court of Vienna 
would never hearken to it, for they valued the dominions in 
Italy, with the islands near them, much more than all the rest 
of the Spanish monarchy. But at the same time that Louis 
the Fourteenth was tempting us w ith the hopes of Spain 
and the West Indies, by a letter to the Pope, that King of- 
fered the dominions in Italy to King Charles. The parlia- 
ment had always declared the ground of the w ar to be, the 



21() HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

i709. restoring the \vhole Spanish monarchy to the house of Au8- 

'^''^ tria, (which indeed the states had never done,) so the Duke 

of Marlborough could not hearken to this : he convinced 

the states of the treacherous designs of the court of France 

in this offer, and it was not entertained. 

The court of Vienna was so alarmed at the inclinations 
some had expressed towards the entertaining this project, 
tliat this was believed to be the secret motive of the treaty 
the succeeding winter, for evacuating the Milanese, and of 
their persisting so obstinately, the summer after, in their 
designs upon Naples ; for by this means they became mas- 
ters of both. The French, being now reduced to great ex- 
tremities by their constant ill success, and by the miseries 
of their people, resolved to try the states again ; and when 
the Duke of Marlborough came over to England, Mr. 
Rouille was sent to Holland, with general offers of peace, 
desiring them to propose what it was they insisted on : and 
he offered them as good a barrier for themselves as they 
could ask. The states, contrary to their expectation, re- 
solved to adhere firmly to their confederates, and to enter 
into no separate treaty, but in conjunction with their allies : 
so, upon the Duke of Marlborough's return, they, with their 
allies, began to prepare preliminaries, to be first agreed to 
before a general treaty should be opened : they had been 
so well acquainted with the pei-fidious methods of the French 
court, when a treaty was once opened, to divide the allies, 
and to create jealousies among them, and had felt so sen- 
sibly the ill effects of this, both at Nimeguen and Ryswick, 
that they resolved to use all necessary precautions for the 
future ; so preliminaries were prepared, and the Duke of 
Marlborough came over hither, to concert them with the 
ministry at home. 

In this second absence of his, Mr. de Torcy, the secre- 
tary of state for foreign aft'airs, was sent to the Hague, the 
better to dispose the states to peace, by the influence of so 
great a minister ; no methods were left untried, both with 
the states in general, and with every man they spoke with 
in particular, to beget in them a full assurance of the King's 
sincere intentions for peace: but they knew the artifices of 
that court too well to be soon deceived ; so they made no 
advances till the Duke of Marlborough came back, who 
carried over the Lord Viscount Townshend, to be conjunct 



OF Qt'EEN ANNE. 217 

plenipotentiary with himself, reckoning the load too great i^og. 
to bear it ts holly on himself. The choice was well made ; ^"^'^ 
for as Lord Townshend had gieat parts, had improved 
these by travelling, and was by much the most shining per- 
son of all our 5"oung nobility, and had, on many occasions, 
distinguished himself veiy eminently ; so he was a man of 
great integrity, and of good principles in all respects, free 
from all ^^ce, and of an engaging conversation. 

The foundation of the whole treaty was, the restoring of TiiepTeHmi- 
the whole Spanish monarchy to King Charles, within two a"eed on 
months : Torcy said, the time was too short, and that per- 
haps it was not in the King of France's power to bring that 
about ; for the Spaniards seemed resolved to stick to King 
Philip. It was, upon this, insisted on, that the King of 
France should be obliged to concur with the allies, to force 
it by all proper methods : but this was not farther explained, 
for all the allies were well assured, that if it was sincerely 
intended by France, there would be no great difficulty in 
bringing it about. This, therefore, being laid do^^Tl as the 
basis of the treaty, the other preliminaries related to the 
restoring all the places in the Netherlands, except Cara- 
bray and St. Omer ; the demolishing or restoring of Dun- 
kirk ; the restoring of Strasburgh, Brisack, and Hunin- 
gen to the empire ; Newfoundland to England ; and Savoy 
to that Duke, besides his continuing possessed of all he 
then had in his hands ; the acknowledging the King of Prus- 
sia's royal dignity ; and the electorate in the house of Bruns- 
wick ; the sending the Pretender out of France, and the 
owning the succession to the crown of England, as it was 
settled by law. As all the great interests were provided 
for by these preliminaries ; so all other matters were re- 
served to be considered, when the treaty of peace should 
be opened : a cessation of all hostilities was to begin within 
two months, and to continue till all was concluded by a 
complete treaty, and ratified ; pro\^ded the Spanish mo- 
narchy was then entirely restored. The French plenipo- 
tentiaries seemed to be confounded at these demands. Tor- 
cy excepted to the leaving Exilles and Fenestrella in the 
Duke of Savoy's hands ; for he said, he had no instructions 
relating to them : but in conclusion, they seemed to sub- 
mit to them, and Torcy, at parting, desired the ratifications 
might be returned with all possible haste, and promised 

VOL. IV. 2 F 



21B HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

^"^^^^ that the King of France's final answer should be sent by 
the 4th of June ; but spoke of their affairs as a man in des- 
pair: he said, he did not know but he might find King 
Philip at Paris before he got thither, and said all that was 
possible, to assure them of the sincerity of the King of 
France, and to divert them from the thoughts of opening 
the campaign ; but, at the same time. King Philip was get- 
ting his son, the Prince of Asturias, to be acknowledged by 
all the towns and bodies of Spain, as the heir of that mo- 
narchy. 
Jt' Fvln"4 l^pon this outward appearance of agreeing to their preli- 
rcfuses to minarics, all people looked upon the peace to be as good 
raiity them, ^^g made ; and ratifications came from all the courts of the 
allies, but the King of France refused to agree to them : 
he pretended some exceptions to the articles relating to 
the Emperor, and the Duke of Savoy ; but insisted chiefly 
on that, of not beginning the suspension of arms till the 
Spanish monarchy should be all restored : he said, that was 
not in liis power to execute ; he ordered his minister after- 
wards to yield up all but this last ; and by a third person, 
one Pettecum, it was offered to put some more toAvns into 
the hands of the allies, to be kept by them till Spain was 
restored. It appeared by this, that the French had no 
other design in all this negotiation, but to try if they could 
beget an ill understanding among the allies, or, by the 
seaming great concessions for the security of the states, 
provoke the people of Holland against their magistrates, if 
they should carry on the war when they seemed to be safe; 
and they reckoned, if a suspension of arms could be once 
obtained, upon any other terms than the restoring of Spain, 
then France would get out of the war, and the allies must 
try how they could conquer Spain. France had so perfi- 
diously broke all their treaties during this King's reign, that 
it was a piece of inexcusable folly to expect any other 
from them. In the peace of the Pyrenees, where the inter- 
est of France was not so deeply engaged, to preserve Por- 
tugal from falling under the yoke of Castille, as it was now 
to preserve Spain in the hands of a grandson; after the 
King had sworn to give no assistance to Portugal, yet, un- 
der the pretence of breaking some bodies, he suffered them 
to be entertained by the Portuguese ambassador, and sent 
Schombcrg to command that army; pretending he could 



^-^.-w/ 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 219 

not hinder one, that was a German by birth, to go and ^ 'ob- 
serve where he pleased : under these pretences, he had 
broke his faith, where the consideration was not so strong 
as in the present case. Thus it was visible, no faith that 
King could give, was to be relied on, and that unless Spain 
was restored, all would prove a fatal delusion : besides, it 
came afterwards to be kno^vTi, that the places in Brabant 
and Hainault, commanded by the Elector of Bavaria, would 
not have been evacuated by him, imless he had orders for 
it from the King of Spain, under whom he governed in 
them ; and that was not to be expected : so the easiness 
with which the French ministers yielded to the prelimina- 
ries, was now understood to be an artifice, to slacken the 
zeal of the confederates in advancing the campaign, as the 
least effect it would have : but in that their hopes failed 
them, for there was no time lost in preparing to take the 
field. 

I do not mix, with the relation that I have given upon 
good authority, the uncertain reports we had of distractions 
in the court of France, where it was said, that the Duke of 
Burgundy pressed the making a peace, as necessary to pre- 
vent the ruin of France, while the Dauphin pressed more 
vehemently the continuance of the war, and the supporting 
of the King of Spain : it v, as said, that Madame Maintenon, 
appeared less at court : Chamillard, who had most of her 
favour, was dismissed : but it is not certain, what influence 
that had on the public councils ; and the conduct of this 
whole negotiation shewed plainly, that there was nothing 
designed in it, but to divide, or to deceive the confederates ; 
and, if possible, to gain a separate peace for France ; and 
then to let the allies conquer Spain as they could. But 
the allies kept firm to one another; and the treachery of the 
French appeared so visible, even to the people in Holland, 
that all the hopes they had of inflaming them against their 
magistrates likewise failed. The people in France were 
much \vrought on by this pretended indignity offered to 
their monarch, to oblige him to force his gTandson to aban- 
don Spain ; and even here in England, there wanted not 
many, who said it was a cruel hardship put on the French 
King, to force him into such an unnatural war : but if he 
was guilty of the injustice of putting him in possession of 
that kingdom, it was but a reasonable piece of justice 



1709. 



Tiic war 
went on, 



220 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

to undo what he himself had done ; and it was so visible that 
King Philip was maintained on that throne by the coun- 
cils and assistance of France, that no doubt was made, but 
that, if the King of France had really designed it, he could 
easily have obliged him to relinquish all pretensions to that 
crown. 

Thus the negotiations came soon to an end, without 
producing any ill effect among the allies ; and all the mi- 
nisters at the Hague made great acknowledgments to the 
pensioner Heinsius, and to the states, for the candour and 
firmness they had expressed on that occasion. The mise- 
ries of France were represented, from all parts, as ex- 
tremely great : the prospect both for corn and wine w as so 
low, that they saw no hope nor relief. They sent to all 
places for corn to preserve their people; many of the 
ships that brought it to them, were taken by our men of 
w ar ; but this did not touch the heart of their King, who 
seemed to have hardened himself against the sense of the 
miseries of his people. Villars was sent to command the 
armies in Flanders, of whom the King of France said, that 
he was never beaten ; Harcourt w as sent to command on 
the Rhine, and the Duke of Berwick in Dauphiny. This 
summer passed over without any considerable action in 

In Portugal, Spain. There was an engagement on the frontier of Por- 
tugal, in which the Portuguese behaved themselves very 
ill, and were beaten ; but the Spaniards did not pursue the 
advantage they had by this action : for they, apprehending 
that our fleet might have a design upon some part of their 
southern coast, were forced to draw their troops from the 
frontiers of Portugal, to defend their owii coast, though we 
gave them no disturbance on that side. 

In Spain, fjjg King of France, to carry on the shew of a design 
for peace, withdrew his troops out of Spain, but at the 
same time took care to encourage the Spanish grandees to 
support his grandson : and since it \\ as visible, that either 
the Spaniards or the allies were to be deceived by him, 
it was much more reasonable to belicA c that the allies, and 
not the Spaniards, were to feel the eifects of <his fraudu- 
lent way of proceeding. The French general, Besons, who 
commanded in Arragon, had indeed orders not to venture 
on a battle, for that would have been too gross a thing to 
be in any wise palliated ; but he continued all this summer 




OF QUEEN ANNE. 

commanding their armies. Nothing of any importance 
passed on the side of Dauphiny : the Emperor continued 
still to refuse complying with the Duke of Savoy's de- pWny, 
mands ; so he would not make the campaign in person, and 
his troops kept on the defensive. On the other hand, the 
French, as they saw they were to be feebly attacked, were 
too weak to do any thing more than cover their own coun- 
try. Little was expected on the Rhine; the Germans were inGermanr, 
so weak, so ill furnished, and so ill paid, that it was not 
easy for the court of Vienna to prevail on the Elector 
of Brunswick to undertake the command of that army ; yet 
he came at last : and upon his coming, the French, w ho 
had passed the Rhine, thought it was safest for them to re- 
pass that river, and to keep within their lines. The Elector 
sent Count Mercy, with a considerable body, to pass the 
Rhine near Basil, and on design to break into Franche 
Compte ; but a detached body of the French lying in their 
way, there followed a very sharp engagement ; two thou- 
sand men were reckoned to be killed on each side ; but 
though the loss of men was reckoned equal, yet the design 
miscarried, and the Germans were forced to repass the 
Rhine. The rest of the campaign went over there without 
any action. 

The chief scene was in Flanders ; where the Duke of ^""^ '" 
Marlborough, trusting little to the shews of peace, had 
every thing in readiness to open the campaign, as soon as 
he saw what might be expected from the court of France. 
The army was formed near Lisle, and the French lay near 
Doway ; the tiain of artillery w as, by a feint, brought up 
the Lys to Courtray ; so it was believed the design was 
upon Ypres, and there being no apprehension of any at- 
tempt on Tournay, no particular care was taken of it ; but 
it was on the sudden invested, and the train was sent back 
to Ghent, and brought up the Scheld to Tournay. The 
siege was carried on regularly : no disturbance was given Toumay is 
to the works by sallies, so the town capitulated within a taken^ *" 
month, the garrison being allowed to retire into the citadel, 
which was counted one of the strongest in Europe, not 
only fortified with the utmost exactness, but all the ground 
was wrought into mines ; so that the resistance of the gar- 
rison was not so much apprehended, as the mischief they 
might do by blowing up their mines. A capitulation was 



222 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1709. proposed, for delivering it up on the 5th of September, if 
^'^^'^ it should not be relieved sooner, and that all hostilities 
should cease till then. This was offered by the garrison, 
and agreed to by the Duke of Marlborough ; but the King 
of France would not consent to it, unless there were a ge- 
neral suspension, by the whole army, of all hostilities ; and 
that being rejected, the siege went on. Many men were 
lost in it, but the proceeding by sap prevented much mis- 
chief; in the end no relief came, and the garrison capitu- 
lated in the beginning of September, but could obtain no 
better conditions than to be made prisoners of war. 

After this siege was over, Mons was invested, and the 
troops marched thither as soon as they had levelled their 
trenches about Toumay ; but the court of France resolved 
to venture a battle, rather than to look on, and see so im- 
portant a place taken from them. Bouflers was sent from 
court to join with Villars in the execution of this design. 
They possessed themselves of a wood, and entrenched 
themselves so strongly, that in some places there were 
three entrenchments cast up, one within another. The 
Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene saw plainly it 
was not possible to carry on the siege of Mons, while the 
French army lay so near it ; so it was necessary to dis- 
lodge them. The attempt was bold, and they saw the exe- 
Tiiebaitie of cutiou would be difficult, and cost them many men. This 
Biarignies. ^yg^g ^j^g sharpest action in the whole war, and lasted the 
longest. The French were posted so advantageously, that 
our men were oft repulsed ; and indeed the French main- 
tained their ground better, and shewed more courage, than 
appeared in the whole course of the war ; yet, in conclu- 
sion, they were driven from all their posts, and the action 
ended in a complete victory. The number of slain was 
almost equal on both sides, about twelve thousand of a 
side. We took five hundred officers prisoners, besides 
many cannon, standards, and ensigns. Villars was dis- 
abled by some wounds he received, so Bouflers made the 
retreat in good order. The military men have always 
talked of this as the sharpest action in the whole war, not 
without reflecting on the generals for beginning so despe- 
rate an attack. The French thought it a sort of a victory, 
that they had animated their men to fight so well behind 
cntrcnchmcnts,^ and to repulse our men so often, and with 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 223 

SO great loss. They retired to Valenciennes, and secured i"*^^- 
themselves by casting up strong lines, while they left our 
army to carry on the siege of Mons, without giving them 
the least disturbance. As soon as the train of artillery was Mons b«- 

1 ■, ■• • • 1 -ii J sieged aacl 

brought from Brussels, the siege was carried on with great taken. 
vigour, though the season was both cold and rainy. The 
outworks were carried with little resistance, and Mons 
capitulated about the end of October ; with that the cam- 
paign ended, both armies retiring into winter quarters. 

The most important thing that relates to Italy, was, that Affj»^" '» 
the Pope delayed acknowledging King Charles, by several 
pretended difficulties ; his design being to stay and see the 
issue of the campaign ; but when he was threatened, to- 
wards the end of it, that if it was not done, the imperial 
army should come and take up their winter quarters in the 
ecclesiastical state, he submitted, and acknowledged him. 
He sent also his nephew, Albano, first to Vienna, and then 
to Poland ; he furnished him with a magnificent retinue, 
and seemed to hope, that by the services he should do to 
the papal interests there, he should be pressed to make 
him a cardinal, notwithstanding the bull against nepotism. 

In Catalonia, Stahremberg, after he received reinibrce- ^""''^^ '" 

" Spam. 

ments from Italy, advanced towards the Segra, and ha\-ing 
for some days amused the enemy, he passed the river : 
the Spaniards designed to give him battle; but Besons, 
who commanded the French troops, refused to engage : 
this provoked the Spaniards so much, that King Philip 
thought it was necessary to leave Madrid, and go to the 
army: Besons produced his orders from the King of France 
to avoid all engagements, with which he seemed much mor- 
tified. Stahremberg advanced and took Balaguer, and made 
the garrison prisoners of war ; and with that the campaign 
on that side was at an end. 

This summer brought a catastrophe on the affairs of the Ttie Kb^ of 
King of Sweden. He resolved to invade Musco\y, and ^rf!at. 
engaged himself so far into the Ukrain, that there was no 
possibility of his retreating, or of having reinforcements 
brought him : he engaged a great body of Cossacks to 
join him, who were easily drawTi to revolt from the Czar : 
he met with great misfortunes in the end of the former 
year, but nothing could divert him from his designs against 
Muscovy : he passed the Nieper, and besieged Pultowa : 



224 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1709. the Czar marched to raise the siege, with an army in num- 
^^^^ ber much superior to the Swedes ; but the King of Sweden 
resolved to venture on a battle, in which he received such 
a total defeat, that he lost his camp, his artillery, and bag- 
gage. A great part of his army got off; but being closely 
pursued by the Muscovites, and having neither bread nor 
ammunition, they were all made prisoners of war. 
The King The King himself, with a small number about him, passed 
Tnrke"^!* thc Nicpcr, and got into the Turkish dominions, and settled 
at Bender, a to^vn in Moldavia. Upon this great reverse 
of his affairs. King Augustus pretended, that the resig- 
nation of the cro\vn of Poland was extorted from him by 
force, and that it was not in his power to resign the crown, 
by which he was tied to the republic of Poland, \^1thout 
their consent ; so he marched into Poland, and Stanislaus 
was not able to make any resistance, but continued under 
the protection of the Swedes, waiting for another reverse of 
fortune. A project was formed to engage the Kings of 
Denmark and Prussia, with King Augustus and the Czar, 
to attack the Swedes in so many different places, that the 
extravagant humour of their King was now like to draw a 
heavy storm upon them ; if England and the states, with 
the court of Vienna, had not crushed all this, and entered 
into a guarantee for preserving the peace of the empire, and 
by consequence of the Swedish dominions in Germany. 
Dantzic was at this time severely visited with a plague, 
which swept away almost one half of their inhabitants, 
though few of the better sort died of the infection : this 
put their neighbours under great apprehensions; they feared 
the spreading of the contagion ; but it pleased God it went 
no farther. This sudden, and, as it seemed, total reverse 
of all the designs of the King of Sweden, who had been 
for many years the terror of all his neighbours, made me 
write to Dr. Robinson, who had lived above thirty years in 
that court, and is now bishop of Bristol, for a particular 
character of that king. I shall set it do^^^l in his own 
words : — 
Fiischarac- Hc is now in the 28th year of iiis age, tall and slender. 
Stoops a little, and in liis walking discovers, though in no 
great degree, the effect of breaking his thigh-bone about 
eight years ago : he is of a very vigorous and healthy con- 
stitution, takes a plcasuie in enduring the greatest fatigues, 



ter. 



\-^^^ 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 225 

and is little curious about his repose : his chief and al- i709. 
most only exercise has been riding, in which he has been 
extremely excessive : he usually eats with a good appetite, 
especially in the morning, which is the best of his three 
meals : he never drinks any thing but small beer, and is not 
much concerned whether it be good or bad : he speaks little, 
is very thoughtful, and is observed to mind nothing so much 
as his own affairs, laying his designs, and contriving the 
ways of acting, without communicating them to any, till 
they are to be put in execution : he holds few or no coun- 
cils of war : and though in civil affairs his ministers have 
leave to explain their thoughts, and are heard very patient- 
ly ; yet he relies more on his own judgment tlian on theirs, 
and frequently falls on such methods as are farthest from 
their thoughts : so that both his ministers and generals 
have hitherto had the glory of obedience, without either the 
praise or blame of having advised prudently or othe^^vise. 
The reason of his reservedness in consulting others, may be 
thus accounted for : he came, at the age of fifteen, to suc- 
ceed in an absolute monarchy, and by the forward zeal ot 
tlie states of the kiagdom, was in a few months declared to 
be of age : there were those about him that magnified his 
understanding as much as his authority, and insinuated that 
he neither needed advice, nor could submit his affairs to the 
deliberation of others, without some diminution of his own 
supreme power. These impressions had not all their effect 
till after the war was begun; in the course of which, he sur- 
mounted so many impossibilities (as those about him thought 
them), that he came to have less value for their judgments, 
and more for his own, and at last to think nothing impossi- 
ble. So it may be truly said, that, under God, as well all his 
glorious successes, as the late fatal reverse of them, have 
been owing solely to his own conduct. As to his piety, it 
cannot be said but that the outward appearances have highly 
recommended it; only it is not very easy to account for the 
excess of his revenge against King Augustus, and some 
other instances ; but he is not suspected of any bodily in- 
dulgences. It is most certain he has all along wished well 
to the allies, and not at all to France, which he never in- 
tended to serve by any steps he has made. We hear the 
Turks use him well, but time must shew what use they will 
make of him, and how he will get back into his o\ni king- 

YOL.JV. 2g 



226 HISTORY OF THE HKIGN 

1709. Jqj^^, If ihjs misCortvine does not. quite ruin him, it may 
""^■^^ temper his fire, aad then he may become one of the greatest 
princes of the age. Thus I leave him and his character. 
Afijiirs in rpj^g j^jj^g of Denmark spent a great part of this sum- 
mer in a very expensive course of travelling through the 
courts of Germany and Italy ; and it was believed he intend- 
ed to go to Rome, where great preparations were making 
for giving him a splendid reception ; for it was given out 
that he intended to change his religion : but whether these 
reports were altogether groundless, or whether their being 
so commonly believed, was like to produce some disorders 
in his own kingdom, is not certainly known ; only thus much 
is certain, that he stopped at Florence, and went no further, 
but returned home : and, upon the King of Sweden's mis- 
fortunes, entered into measures to attack Sweden, with 
King Augustus; who had called a diet in Poland, in which 
he w^as acknowledged their king, and all things were settled 
there according to his wishes. The King of Denmark, 
upon his return home, sent an army over the Sound into 
Schonen ; but his councils were so weak, and so ill con- 
ducted, that he did not send a train of artillery, with other 
necessaries, after them. Some places, that were not te- 
nable, w ere yielded up by the Swedes ; and by the progress 
that he made at first, he seemed to be in a fair way of re- 
covering that province : but the Swedes brought an army 
together, though far inferior to the Danes in number, and 
falling on them, gave them such an entire defeat, that the 
King of Denmark was forced to bring back, as well as he 
could, the broken remnants of his army, by which an end 
was put to that inglorious expedition. 

The Swedish army, that was in Poland, having got into 
Pomerania, the French studied to engage them to fall into 
Saxony, to embroil the afl'airs of Geimany, and by that 
means engage the neighbouring princes to recal the troops 
that were in the Queen's service, and that of the other allies 
in Flanders; but the Queen and the states interposed ef- 
fectually in this matter, and the Swedes were so sensible 
how much they might need their protection, that they ac- 
quiesced in the propositions that were made to them ; so 
the peace of the northern parts of the empire Avas secured. 
A peace was likewise made up between the Grand Seignior 
Rud the Czar. The Kins: of Sweden continued still at Ben- 




OF QUEEN ANNE. 

der ; the war in Hungary v. ent still on. The court of Vienna 
published ample relations of the great successes they had 
there ; but an Hungarian assured me, these were given out 
to make the malecontents seem an inconsiderable and ruin- 
ed party. There were secret negotiations still going on, 
but without eflect. 

Nothing of importance passed on the sea. The French Oar fleet 
put out no fleet, and our convoys were so well ordered, ^^'^ j*^"' 
and so happy, that our merchants made no complaints. 
Towards the end of the year, the Earl of Pembroke found 
the care of the fleet a load too heavy for him to bear, and 
that he could not discharge it as it ought to be done ; so he 
desired leave to lay it down. It was offered to the Earl of 
Orford; but, though he was willing to serve at the head of 
a commission, he refused to accept of it singly; so it was 
put in commission, in which he m as the first. 

I now come to give an account of the session of parlia- A session of 
ment, that came on this winter. All the supplies that were P^r'"™^"'' 
asked for carrying on the war were granted, and put on 
good funds; in this there was a general unanimous concur- 
rence : but the great business of this session, that took up 
most of their time, and that had great effects in conclusion, 
related to Dr. Sacheverel : this being one of the most ex- 
tiaordinary transactions in my time, I will relate it very 
copiously. Dr. Sacheverel was a bold, insolent man, with 
a very small measure of religion, virtue, learning, or good 
sense, but he resolved to force himself into popularity and 
preferment, by the most petulant railings at dissenters and 
low churchmen, in several sermons and libels, wrote with- 
out either chasteness of style, or liveliness of expression : 
all was one unpractised stiain of indecent and scurrilous 
language. When he had pursued this method for several 
years without effect, he was at last brought up by a popu- 
lar election to a church in Southwark, where he began to 
make great reflections on the ministry, representing that the 
church was in danger, being neglected by those who go- 
verned, while they favoured her most inveterate enemies. 
At the assizes in Derby (where he preached before the sacbeverrf s 
judges,) and on the 5th of November, (preaching at St. sermon. 
Paul's, in London,) he gave a full vent to his fury, in the 
most virulent declamation that he could contrive, upon 
these words of St. Paul, " perils from false brethren :" in 



228 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1709. vvhich, after some short reflections upon popery, he let him- 
self loose into such indecencies, that both the man and the 
sermon were universally condemned : he asserted the doc- 
trine of non-resistance in the highest strain possible, and 
said, that to charge the Revolution with resistance, was to 
cast black and odious imputations on it ; pretending, that 
the late King had disowned it, and cited, for the proof of 
that, some words in his declaration, by which he vindicated 
himself from a design of conquest. He poured out much 
scorn and scurrility on the dissenters, and reflected severely 
on the toleration ; and said the church was violently at- 
tacked by her enemies, and loosely defended by her pre- 
tended friends : he animated the people to stand up for the 
defence of the church, for which he said he sounded the 
trumpet, and desired them to put on the whole armour of God. 
The court of aldermen refused to desire him to print his 
sermon; but he did print it, pretending it was upon the de- 
sire of Garrard, then lord mayor, to whom he dedicated 
it, with an inflaming epistle at the head of it. The party 
that opposed the ministry did so magnify the sermon, that, 
as was generally reckoned, about forty thousand of them 
were printed, and dispersed over the nation. The Queen 
seemed highly ofl"ended at it, and the ministry looked on it 
as an attack made on them, that w as not to be despised. 
The Lord Treasurer w as so described, that it was next to 
naming him, so a parliamentary impeachment was resolved 
on: Eyre, then solicitor-general, and others, thought the 
short w ay of burning the sermon, and keeping him in prison 
during the session, was the better method ; but the more 
solemn w^ay was unhappily chosen. 
Many books There had been, ever since the Queen came to the crown. 

wrote . ^ • 

against ihe an opcu Tcvival of the doctrine of passive obedience and 
UuJ^" "* non-resistance, by one Lesley, who was the first man that 
began the war in Ireland ; saying, in a speech solemnly 
made, that King James, by declaring himself a papist, 
could no longer be our king, since he could not be a de- 
fender of our faith, nor the head of our church, dignities 
so inherent in the crown, that he, who was incapable of 
these, could not hold it: a copy of which speech, the pre- 
sent Archbishop of Dublin told me he had, under his own 
hand. As he animated the people with his speech, so some 
actioas follow ed under his conduct, in which several men 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 229 

were killed ; yet this man changed sides quickly, and be- r709. 
came the violentest Jacobite in the nation, and was engaged '^^^^ 
in many plots, and in writing many books against the Revo- 
lution, and the present government. Soon after the Queen 
was on the throne, he, or his son as some said, published 
a series of weekly papers under the title of The Rehearsal, 
jjursuing a thread of arguments in them all, against the law- 
fulness of resistance, in any case whatsoever; deriving go- 
vernment wholly from God, denying all right in the people, 
either to confer or to coerce it : the ministers connived at 
this ; with what intention God knows. 

Whilst their seditious papers had a free course for many ^^^^ 
years, and were much spread and magnified ; one Hoadly, Di. Hoad- 
a pious and judicious divine, being called to preach before j^ dd"enM^ 
the Lord Mayor, chose for his text the first verses of the thereof. 
thirteenth chapter to the Romans, and fairly explained the 
words there, that they were to be understood only against 
resisting good governors, upon the Jewish principles ; but, 
that those words had no relation to bad and cruel go- 
vernors : and he asserted, that it was not only lawful, but a 
duty incumbent on all men to resist such; concluding all 
with a vindication of the Revolution, and the present go- 
vernment. Upon this, a great outcry was raised, as if he 
had preached up rebellion ; several books were wrote 
against him, and he justified himself, with a visible supe- 
riority of argument, to them all ; and did so solidly over- 
throw the conceit of one Filmer, now espoused by Lesley 
(that government was derived by primogeniture from the 
first patriarchs), that for some time he silenced his adver- 
saries : but it was an easier thing to keep up a clamour, 
than to write a solid answer. Sacheverel did, with great 
virulence, reflect on him, and on me, and several other bi- 
shops, carrying his venom as far back as to Archbishop 
Grindal, whom, for his moderation, he called a prefidious 
prelate, and a false son of the church. When it was moved 
to impeach him, the Lord Mayor of London, being a mem- 
ber of the House of Commons, was examined to this point, 
whether the sermon was printed at his desire or order ; 
upon his owning it, he would have been expelled the 
House ; but he denied he had given any such order, though 
Sacheverel affirmed it, and brought witnesses to prove it : 
yet the House would not enter upon that examination; but 



IIIOIII) 



2.30 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1710. it was thought more decent to seem to give credit to their 

^"^^^ own member, though indeed few believed him. 

sacheveici Souic opposition was made to the motion, for impeach- 

ijeached by iug Sachevcrel, but it was carried by a great majority : the 

the House proceedings were slow: so those, who intended to inflame 

of Com- -^ " ' , ' • 1 J • «i 

the city and the nation upon that occasion, had time suin- 
cient given them for laying their designs : they gave it out 
boldly, and in all places, that a design was formed by the 
whigs to pull down the church, and that this prosecution 
was only set on foot to try their stiength ; and that, upon 
their success in it, they would proceed more openly. 
Though this was all falsehood and forgery, yet it was pro- 
pagated with so much application and zeal, and the tools 
employed in it were so well supplied wdth money, (from 
whom was not then known) that it is scarce credible how 
generally it was believed. 

Some things concurred to put the vulgar in ill humour ; 
it was a time of dearth and scarcity, so that the poor w ere 
much pinched : the summer before, ten or twelve thousand 
poor people of the Palatinate, who were reduced to great 
misery, came into England ; they were w^ell received and 
supplied, both by the Queen, and by the voluntary charities 
of good people : this tilled our own poor with great indig- 
nation ; who thought those charities, to which they had a 
better right, were thus intercepted by strangers ; and all 
who were ill affected, studied to heighten these their resent- 
ments. The clergy did generally espouse Sacheverel, as 
their champion, who had stood in the breach ; and so they 
reckoned his cause was their own. 3Iany sermons were 
preached, both in London and in other places, to provoke 
the people, in which they succeeded beyond expectation. 
Some accidents concurred to delay the proceedings; much 
time was spent in preparing the articles of impeachment: 
and the answer was, by many shifts, long delayed : it was 
bold, witliout either submission or common respect; he 
justified every tiling in his sermon, in a very haughty and 
assuming style. In conclusion, the Lords ordered the trial 
to be at the bar of their House ; but (hose who found, thtU 
by gaining more time, the people were still more inflame(i, 
moved that the trial might be public in Westminster Hall ; 
where the whole House of Commons might be present : 
this took so with unthinking people, that it could not be 




OF QUEEN ANNE. 
withstood, though the effects it would have, were well fore- 
seen : the preparing Westminster Hall was a work of some 
weeks. 

At last, on the 27th of February, the trial begun. Sache- And tried in 
verel was lodged in the Temple, and came every day, s^p^HaiJ^ 
"with great solemnity, in a coach to the Hall ; great crowds 
ran about his coach with many shouts, expressing their 
concern for him in a very rude and tumultuous manner. 
The trial lasted three weeks, in which all other business 
was at a stand ; for this took up all men's thoughts : the 
managers for the Commons opened the matter very so- 
lemnly : their performances were much and justly com- 
mended: Jekyll, Eyre, Stanhope, King, but above all Par- 
ker, distinguished themselves in a very particular manner: 
they did copiously justify both the Revolution, and the 
present administration. There was no need of witnesses; 
for the sermon being o\Mied by him, all the evidence was 
brought from it, by laying his words together, and by shew- 
ing his intent and meaning in them, which appeared from 
comparing one place with another. AVhen his counsel. Sir 
Simon Harcourt, Dodd, Phipps, and two otiiers, came to 
plead for him, they very freely acknowledged the lawful- 
ness of resistance in extreme cases, and plainly justified 
the Revolution, and our deliverance by King William : but 
they said, it was not fit, in a sermon, to name such an ex- 
ception ; that the duties of morality ought to be delivered 
in their full extent, without supposing an extraordinary 
case ; and, therefore, Sacheverel had followed precedents 
set by our greatest divines, ever since the Reformation, 
and ever since the Revolution. Upon this they opened a 
great field : they began with the declarations made in King 
Henry the Eighth's time ; they insisted next upon the ho- 
milies, and from thence instanced, in a large series of bi- 
shops and divines, who had preached the duty of sub- 
mission and non-resistance, in very full terms, mthout 
supposing any exception ; some excluding all exceptions 
in as positive a manner as he had done : they explained 
the word revolution as belonging to the new^ settlement 
upon King James's withdrawing ; though, in the common 
acceptation, it was understood of the whole transaction, 
from the landing of the Dutch army, till the settlement 
made by the convention. So they understanding the Re- 



v*«=--.fev 



2.32 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

^^^'^ volution in that sense, there was, indeed, no resistance 
there : if the passage, quoted from the declaration, given 
out by the late King, while he was Prince of Orange, did 
not come up to that for which he quoted it ; he ought not 
to be censured because his quotation did not fully prove 
his point. As for his invective against the dissenters and 
the toleration, they laboured to turn that off, by saying, he 
did not reflect on Avhat was allowed by law, but on the per- 
niission of, or the not punishing, many who published im- 
pious and blasphemous books ; and a collection was made 
of passages in books, full of crude impiety and of bold 
opinions. This gave great offence to many, who thought 
that this was a solemn publishing of so much impiety to the 
nation, by which more mischief w ould be done, than by the 
books themselves : for most of them had been neglected, 
and knowTi only to a small number of those who en- 
couraged them ; and the authors of many of these books 
had been prosecuted and punished for them. As to those 
parts of the sermon that set out the danger the church was 
in, though both houses had, some years ago, voted it a 
great olFence to say it was in danger, they said it might 
have been in none four years ago, when these votes, 
passed, and yet be now in danger: the greatest of all daur 
gers was to be apprehended from the Avrath of God for 
such impieties. They said, the reflections on the admini- 
stration was not meant of those employed immediately by 
the Queen, but of men in inferior posts : if his words 
seemed capable of a bad sense, they were also capable of 
a more innocent one ; and every man was allowed to put 
any construction on his words that they could bear. When 
the counsel had ended their defence, Sacheverel concluded 
it with a speech, which he read with much bold heat ; in 
which, with many solemn asseverations, he justified his in- 
tentions towards the Queen and her government; he spoke 
with respect both of the Revolution and the protestant 
succession ; he insisted most on condemning all resistance, 
under any pretence whatsoever, without mentioning the ex- 
ception of extreme necessity, as his counsel had done : he 
said, it was the doctrine of the church in which he was bred 
up, and added many pathetical expressions, to move the 
audience to compassion. This had a great effect on the 
weaker sort, while it possessed those, who knew the man 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 233 

and his ordinary discourses, ^^ith horror, when they heard i^io. 
him affirm so many falsehoods, with such solemn appeals ^^-^^^ 
to God. It was very plain the speech was made for him 
by others ; for the style w as correct, and far different from 
his own. 

During the trial, the multitudes that followed him, all the ^^I^^^^^^^JJ 
way as he came, and as he went back, shewed a great con- ti„^]^ 
cern for him, pressing about him and striving to kiss his 
hand : money was thrown among them ; and they w ere 
animated to such a pitch of fury, that they went to pull 
down some meeting-houses, which w as executed on five of 
them, as far as burning all the pews in them. This was 
directed by some of better fashion, who followed the mob 
in hackney-coaches, and were seen sending messages to 
them : the w ord, upon which all shouted, w as " the church 
and Sacheverel ;" and such as joined not in the shout were 
insulted and knocked down ; — before my ow n door, one ^vith 
a spade cleft the skull of another, who would not shout as 
they did. There happened to be a meeting-house near me, 
out of which they drew^ every thing that was in it, and 
burned it before the door of the house. They threatened 
to do the like execution on my house ; but the noise of the 
riot coming to court, orders were sent to the guards to go 
about and disperse the multitudes, and secure the public 
peace. As the guards advanced, the people ran away ; 
some few were only taken ; these w ere afterwards prose- 
cuted ; but the party shew ed a violent concern for them ; 
two of them were condemned as guilty of high treason; 
small fines were set on the rest; but no execution fol- 
lowed ; and, after some months, they w ere pardoned : and, 
indeed, this remissness in punishing so great a disorder, 
was looked on as the preparing and encouraging men to 
new tumults. There was a secret management in this 
matter that amazed all people; for though the Queen, 
upon an address made to her by the House of Commons, 
set out a proclamation, in which this riot was, with severe 
words, laid npon papists and non-jurors, who were cer- 
tainly the chief promoters of it ; yet the proceedings after- 
wards did not answer the threatenings of the proclama- 
tion. 

When Sacheverel had ended his defence, the managers contlnna- 
for the Hou§e of Commons replied, and sliewed very ^^1"^"'^*'^ 

VOL. IV. 2h 



235 HIStORY OF THE REIGN 

i^if^' dcntly, that the words of his sermon could not reasonably 
''^"^'^ bear any other sense, but that for which they had charged 
him : this m as an easy performance, and they managed it 
with great Ufe; but the humour of the town was turned 
against them, and all the clergy appeared for Sacheverel. 
Many of the Queen's chaplains stood about him, encourag- 
ing and magnifying him ; and it was given out, that the 
Queen herself favoured him ; though, upon my first coming 
to towTi, which was after the impeachment was brought up 
to the Lords, she said to me, that it was a bad sermon, and 
that he deserved well to be punished for it. All her minis- 
ters, who were in the House of Commons, were named to 
be managers, and they spoke very zealously for public 
SirJoim liberty, justifying the Revolution. Holt, the lord chief 
Holt's death j^g^jcg gf q^q King's Bench, died durinof the trial : he was 

and charac- •> o j 3 

ter. very learned in the law, and had, upon great occasions, 

shewed an intrepid zeal in asserting its authority : for he 

ventured on the indignation of both houses of parliament 

by turns, when he thought the law was with him : he was a 

man of good judgment and great integrity, and set himself 

with great application to the functions of that important 

Parker post. Immediately upon his death, Parker was made lord 

cidefjus- chief justice : this great promotion seemed an evident de- 

tice. monstration of the Queen's approving the prosecution ; for 

none of the managers had treated Sacheverel so severely 

as he had done ; yet secret whispers were very confidently 

set about, that though the Queen's affairs put her on acting 

the part of one that was pleased with this scene, yet she 

disliked it all, and would take the first occasion to shew it. 

Debates in After the trial was ended, the debate was taken up in the 

Uie House of jjouse of Lords : it stuck lonof on the first article: none 

Lords after i i • • ,- 1 

the uiai. j>retended to justify the sermon, or to assert absolute non- 
resistance : all who favoured him went upon this that the 
duty of obedience ought to be delivered in full and general 
words, without putting in exceptions, or supposing odious 
cases ; this had been the method of all our divines. Pains 
were also taken to shew, that his sermon did not reflect on 
the Hevolution : on the other hand, it was said, that since 
tJie Revolution had happened so lately, and was made still 
tlic subject of much controversy, those absolute expression* 
did plainly condemn it. The Revolution was the whole 
progress of the turn, from the Prince of Orange's lauding. 



w.-*./ 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 235 

till the act of eettlement passed. The act of parliament .^J^^-. 
expressed what was meant by the abdication and the va- 
cancy of tlie throne ; that it did not only relate to King 
James's withdrawing himself, but to his ceasing to govern 
according to our constitution and laws, setting up his mere 
vrill and pleasure as the measure of his government ; this 
was made plainer by another clause in the acts then passed, 
which provided, that if any of our princes should be- 
come papists, or marry papists, the subjects were, in those 
cases, declared to be free from their allegiance. Some 
of the bishops spoke in this debate on each side ; Hooper, 
Bishop of Bath and Wells, spoke in excuse of Sache- 
verel: but Talbot, Bishop of Oxford; Wake, Bishop of 
Lincoln ; Trimnel, Bishop of Nor\\ich, and myself, spoke 
on the other side. We shewed the falsehood of an opinion 
too commonly received, that the church of England had 
always condemned resistance, even in the cases of extreme 
tyranny. The books of the Maccabees, bound in our Bibles, 
and approved by our articles, (as containing examples of 
life and instruction of manners, though not as any part of 
the canon of the Scripture) contained a full and clear pre- 
cedent for resisting and shaking off extreme tyranny : the 
Jew s, under that brave family, not only defended themselves 
against Antiochus, but formed themselves into a free and 
new government. Our homilies were only against wilful 
rebellion, such as had been then against our kings, ^vhile 
they were governing by law^ : but at that very time. Queen 
Elizabeth had assisted, first the Scots, and then the French, 
and to the end of her days continued to protect the states, 
who not only resisted, but, as the Maccabees had done, 
shook off the Spanish yoke, and set up a new fonn of go- 
vernment : in all this she was not only justified by the best 
writers of that time, such as Jewel and Bilson, but was 
approved and supported in it : both her parliaments and 
convocations gave her subsidies to carry on those wars. 
The same principles were kept up all King James's reign : 
in the beginning of King Charles's reign, he protected the 
Rochellers, and asked supplies from the parliament, to 
enable him to do it effectually; and ordered a fast and 
prayers to be made for them. It is true, soon after that 
new notions of absolute power, derived from God to kings, 
were taken up ; at the first rise given to these by Manw aring. 



236 HISfORY OP THE REIGN 

1710. theywere condemned by a sentence of the Lords; and though 
^"^^"^ he submitted, and retracted his opinion, yet a severe cen- 
sure passed upon liim : but during the long discontinuance 
of parliaments that followed, thi^ doctrine was more fa- 
voured ; it was generally preached up, and many things 
were done pursuant to it, which put the nation into the 
great convulsions that followed in our civil wars. After 
these were over, it was natural to return to the other ex- 
treme, as courts naturally favour such doctrines. King 
James tiusted too much to it ; yet the very assertors of that 
doctrine were the first who pleaded for resistance, \\\\en 
they thought they needed it. Here was matter for a long 
debate : it was carried by a majority of seventeen, that the 
first article was proved. The party that was for Sacheverel, 
made no opposition to the votes upon the following arti- 
cles ; but contented themselves with protesting against them : 
the Lords went down to the Hall, where the question being put 
upon the whole impeachment, " guilty or not guilty," fifty- 
two voted liim not guilty, and sixty-nine voted him guilty. 

He is ccn- rpjjg j^gxj- (jebate was, w^at censure ouoht to pass upon 

sured very i 

seutiy. him : and here a strange turn appeared ; some seemed to 
apprehend the eftects of a popular fury, if the censure was 
severe ; to otiiers it was said, that the Queen desired it 
might be mild ; so it was proposed to suspend him from 
preaching for one year ; others w ere for six years ; but by 
a vote it was fixed to three years. It was next moA^ed, that 
he should be incapable of all preferment for those three 
years ; upon that, the house w as divided — fifty -nine were 
for the vote, and sixty were against it ; so that being laid 
aside, the sermon was ordered to be burnt, in the presence 
of the Lord Mayor, and the Sheriffs of London, and this 
was done ; only the Lord Mayor, being a member of the 
House of Commons, did not think he w as bound to be pre- 
sent. The Lords also voted, that the decrees of the Univer- 
sity of Oxford, passed in 1G83, in which the absolute au- 
thority of princes, and the unalterableness of the hereditary 
right of succeeding to the croAvn, were asserted in a very 
high strain, should be burnt with Sacheverel's sermon : the 
House of Commons likewise ordered the impious collec- 
tion of blasphemous expressions, that Sacheverel had 
printed as his justification, to be also burnt. 
• When this mild judgiiicnt wus given, those, who had sup- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 237 

ported him during the trial, expressed an inconceivlable i7io. 
gladness, as if they had got a victory; bonfires, illumina- ^"^"^ 
tions, and other marks of joy appeared, not only in London, 
but over the whole kingdom. 

This had yet greater eft'ects : addresses were set on foot. Addresses 
from all the parts of the nation, in which the absolute power ^a^°^ueBt 
of our princes was asserted, and all resistance was con- 
demned, under the designation of antimonarchial and re- 
publican principles ; the Queen's hereditary right was ac- 
knowledged, and yet a zeal for the protestant succession 
was likewise jiretended, to make those addresses pass the 
more easily with unthinking multitudes : most of these con- 
eluded, with an intimation of their hopes, that the Queen 
would dissolve the present parliament, giving assurances, 
that in a new election, they would choose none, but such 
as should be faithful to the crown, and zealous for the 
church : these were at first more coldly received ; for the 
Queen either made no answer at all, or made them in very 
general words. Addresses were brought up on the other 
hand, magnifying the conduct of the parliament, and ex- 
pressing a zeal for maintaining the Revolution and the pro- 
testant succession. 

In the l)eginning of April, the parliament was prorogued ; The Quoen* 
and the Queen, in her speech thereupon, expressed her con- *^^ 
cern, that there was cause given for that, which had taken 
up so much of their time, wishing that all her people would 
be quiet, and mind their own business ; adding, that in all 
times there was too much occasion given to complain of 
impiety, but that she would continue that zeal, which she 
had hitherto expressed, for religion, and for the church : 
this seemed to look a difi'erent way from the whispers that 
had been set about. Soon after that, she made a step that 
revived them again : the Duke of Shrewsbury had gone out 
of England in the end of the former reign, flunking, as he 
gave out, that a wanner climate was necessary for his 
health : he staid several years at Rome, where he became 
acquainted with a Roman lady ; and she, upon liis leaving 
Rome to return to England, went after him to Augsburgh, 
where she overtook him, and declared herself a protestant; 
upon which he married her there, and came with her back 
to England, in the year 1706. Upon his return, the whigs 
lived in civilities with him ; but they thought his leaving 



238 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1710. England, and his living so long out of it, while we were ia 
T^^ so much danger at home, and his strange marriage, gave 
sbrewsbuiy just causc of suspicion. The Duke of Marlborough, and 
dambm"^ the Lord Godolpiiin, lived still in friendships with him, and 
lain. studied to overcome the jealousies that the whigs had of 

him ; for they generally believed, that he had advised the 
late King to the change he made in his ministry, towards 
the end of his reign. He seemed not to be concerned at 
tlie distance in which he was kept from business, but in the 
late trial, he left the whigs in every vote ; and a few days 
after the parliament was prorogued, the Queen, without 
communicating the matter to any of her ministers, took the 
chamberlain's white staff from the Marquis of Kent, (whom, 
in recompense for that, she advanced to be a duke) and 
gave it to the Duke of Shrewsbury. This gave a great 
alarm ; for it was upon that concluded, that a total change 
of the ministry would quickly follow ; the change of prin- 
ciples, that he had discovered in the trial, was imputed to 
a secret management betA^een him and Hailey, with the 
new favourite. The Queen's inclination to her, and her 
alienation from the Dutchess of Marlborough, did increase, 
and broke out in many little things, not worth naming: 
upon that, the Dutchess retired from the court, and ap- 
peared no more at it. The Duke of Shrewsbury gave the 
ministers very positive assurances, that his principles were 
the same they had been during the last reign, and were in 
no respect altered : upon which, he desired to enter into 
confidences with them ; but there was now too much ground 
given for suspicion. 
The Queen During this Adnter, I was encouraged by the Queen to 
<o*with^eat speak more freely to her of her affairs than I had ever 
freedom, ventured to do formerly: I told her what reports were 
secretly spread of her through the nation, as if she fa- 
voured the design of bringing the Pretender to succeed to 
the crown, upon a bargain that she should hold it during 
her life. I was sure these reports were spread about by 
persons who were in the confidence of those that were be- 
lieved to know her mind ; I was well assured that the Jaco- 
bites of Scotland had, upon her coming to the crown, sent 
up one Ogilby, of Boyne, who was in great esteem among 
them, to propose the bargain to her; he, when he went 
back, gave the party full assurances that she accepted of 



^-►y-W 



OP QUEEN ANNE. 239 

!t t this I had from some of the lords of Scotland, who i7io. 
were then in the secret with the professed Jacobites. The 
Earl of Cromarty made a speech in parliament, as was 
formerly mentioned, contradicting this, and alluding to the 
distinction of the Calvinists, made between the secret and 
the revealed will of God ; he assured them, the Queen had 
110 secret will contrary to that which she declared : yet at 
the same time his brother gave the party assurances to the 
contiary. I told the Queen all this ; and said, if she was 
capable of making such a bargain for herself, by which 
her people were to be delivered up and sacrificed after her 
death, as it would darken all the glory of her reign, so it 
must set all her people to consider of the most proper ways 
of securing themselves, by bringing over the protestant suo- 
cessors ; in which, I told her plaiidy, I would concur, if 
she did not take effectual means to extinguish those jea- 
lousies. I told her, her ministers had served her with that 
fidelity, and such success, that her making a change among 
them would amaze all the world. The glory of Queen 
Elizabeth's reign arose from the firmness of her counsels, 
and the continuance of her ministers, as the three last 
reigns, in which the ministry was often changed, had suf- 
fered extremely by it. I also shewed her, that if she suf- 
fered the Pretender's party to prepare the nation for his 
succeeding her, she ought not to imagine, that when they 
thought they had fixed that matter, they would stay for the 
natural end of her life; but that they would find ways to 
shorten it : nor did I think it was to be doubted, but that, 
in 1708, when the Pretender was upon the sea, they had 
laid some assassinates here ; who, upon the news of his 
landing, would have tried to dispatch her. It was certain, 
that their interest led them to it, as it was known that their 
principles did allow of it : this, with a great deal more to 
the same purpose, I laid before the Queen ; she heard me 
patiently ; she was for the most part silent : yet, by what 
she said, she seemed desirous to make me think she agreed 
to what I laid before her ; but I found afterwards it had no 
62*601 upon her : yet I had great quiet in my own mind, 
since I had, \\ith an honest freedom, made the best use I 
could of the access I had to her. 

The Duke of Marlborough went beyond sea in Feb- 
ruary, to prepare all matters for an early campai^, de- 



240 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1710. sibling to open it in April, which was done. The French 
^"^^''^ liad wrought so long upon their lines, that it was thought 
they would have taken as much care in maintaininp^ them; 
but upon the advance of our army they abandoned them; 
and though they seemed resolved to make a stand upon 
the scarp, yet they ran from that likewise ; and this opened 
Doway be- the way all on to Doway : so that was invested. The gar- 
»^e and jjgQjj ^.^g eight thousaud strong, well furnished with every 
thing necessary to make a brave defence : the besieged 
sallied out often, sometimes with advantage, but much 
oftener with loss : it was the middle of May before the 
French could bring their army together. It appeared, that 
they resolved to stand upon the defensive, though they had 
brought up together a vast army of tw o hundred battalions, 
and three hundred squadrons : they lay before Arras, and 
advanced to the plains of Lens ; Villars commanded, and 
made such speeches to his army, that it w as generally be- 
lieved, he w ould ventme on a battle rather than look on 
and see Doway lost. The Duke of Marlborough and 
Prince Eugene posted their army so advantageously, both 
to cover the siege, and to receive the enemy, that he durst 
not attack them ; but after he had looked on a few days, 
in which the two armies were not above a league distant, 
he drew off; so the siege going on, and no relief appear- 
ing, both Doway and the Fort Escarp capitulated on the 
14th of June. 
Tbe History I havc uow Completed my first design in ^vTiting, W'hich 
the peace. " ^^^^^ ^'^ S^^^ ^ liistory of our affairs for fifty years, from the 
29th of May, 1660: so if I confined myself to that, I 
should here give over ; but the w ar seeming now to be 
near an end, and the peace, in which it must end, being 
that which will probably give a new settlement to all Eu- 
rope, as well as to our afi'airs, I resolve to carry on this 
work to the conclusion of the war : and therefore I begin 
with the progress of the negotiations for peace, which 
seemed now to be prosecuted with warmth. 
Negotia- All the foiiner winter an intercourse of letters was kept 

peace. ^ "P betvvecn Pettecum and Torcy, to try if an expedient 
could be found to soften that article, for the reduction of 
Spain to the obedience of King Charles ; which was the 
thirty-seventh article of the preliminaries : it still was kept 
in agitation upon the foot of offering three towns to he 



N.*N-^ 



OP QUEEN ANNE. 2,41 

put into the hands of the allies, to be restored by them when 3 7io. 
the affairs of Spain should be settled ; otherwise to be 
still retained by them : the meaning of which was no other, 
than that France was willing to lose three more towns, in 
case King Philip sliould keep Spain and the West Indies ; 
the places, therefore, ought to have borne some equality to 
that for which they were to be given in pawn ; but the 
answers the French made to every proposition, shewed 
they meant nothing but to amuse and distract the allies. 
The first demand the allies made, was of the places in 
Spain, then in the hands of the Ring of France ; for the 
delivering up these, might have l)een a good step to the 
reduction of the whole ; but this was flatly refused : and, 
that the King of France might put it out of his power to 
treat about it, he ordered his tioops to be drawn out of all 
the strong places in Spain, and soon after out of that king- 
dom, pretending he was thereby evacuating it ; though the 
French forces were kept still in the neighbomiiood : so a 
shew was made of leaving Spain to defend itself ; and 
upon that. King Philip prevailed on the Spaniards to make 
great efforts beyond what was ever expected of them ; this 
was done by the French King to deceive both the allies 
and his own subjects, who were calling loudly for a peace: 
and it like^vise eased him of a great part of the charge that 
Spain had put him to : but while his troops were called 
out of that kingdom, as many deserted, by a visible con-* 
nivauce, as made up several battalions ; and all the Wal- 
loon regiments, as being subjects of Spain, were sent thi- 
ther : so that King Philip was not weakened by the recall- 
ing the French troops ; and by this means the places in 
Spain could not be any more demanded. The next, as 
most important towards the reduction of Spain, was the 
demand that Bayonue and Perpignan might be put into the 
hands of the allies, with Thionville on the side of the em- 
pire. By the two former, all communication between 
France and Spain would be cut ofl", and the allies would be 
enabled to send forces thither, >^ith less expense and 
trouble ; but it was said, these were the keys of France 
which the King could not part with; so it remained to 
treat of to\\Tis on the frontier of the Netherlands ; and even 
there they excepted Doway, AiTas, and Cambray ; so that 
all their offers appeared illusory ; and the intercourse by 
voj^, IV. 2 I 



^«*^^*^ 



242 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1710. letters was lor some time let fall ; but in the end of the 
former year, Torcy wrote to Pettecum, to desire either that 
passes might be granted to some ministers to come to Hol- 
land, to go on with the negotiation, or that Pettcciun might 
be suflfered to go to Paris, to see if an expedient could be 
found : and the states consented to the last. In the mean- 
while. King Philip published a manifesto, protesting against 
all that should be transacted at the Hague to his prejudice; 
declaring his resolution to adhere to his faithful Spaniards : 
he also named plenipotentiaries, to go in his name to the 
treaty, who gave the states notice of their powers and in- 
structions ; and, in a letter to the Duke of JNIarlborough, 
they gave intimations how grateful King Philip would be 
to him, if by his means, these his desires might be complied 
with ; as the like insinuations had been often made by the 
French agents : but no notice was taken of this message 
from King Philip, nor was any answer given to it. Pette- 
cum, after some days' stay at Paris, came back without the 
pretence of oflering any expedient, but brought a paper 
that seemed to set aside the preliminaries : yet it set forth, 
that the King was willing to treat on the foundation of the 
concessions made in them to the allies ; and that the exe- 
cution of all the articles should begin after the ratification. 
This destroyed all that had been hitherto done ; and the dis-, 
tinction the King had formerly made between the spirit and 
the letter of the partition treaty, shewed how little he was 
to be relied on : so the states resolved to insist both on the 
preliminaries and on the execution of them, before a gene- 
ral treaty should be opened. By this message, all thoughts 
of a treaty were at a full stand. In the beginning of Feb- 
ruary, another project was sent, which was an amplification 
of that brought by Pettecum ; only the restoring the two 
Electors was insisted on as a preliminary, as also the re- 
storing the Upper Palatinate to the Elector of Bavaiia ; but 
the allies still insisted on the former preliminaries. The 
court of France, seeing that the states were not to be 
wrought on, to go ofi' from the preliminaries, sent another 
message to them, that the King agreed to all the prelimina- 
ries, except the thirty- seventh ; and if they would consent 
that his ministers should come and confer with them upon 
that article, he did not doubt, but what should be proposed 
from him, would be to their satisfaction. This seemed to 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 243 

give some hopes, so the states resolved to send the pass- i^io. 
ports ; but they foresaw the ill eftects of suffering the French ^'""^'^^ 
ministers to come into their country, who, by their agents, 
were every where stirring up the people against the go- 
vernment, as if they were prolonging the war without ne- 
cessity ; so they appointed Gertruydenburgh to be the place 
to which the French ministers were to come, to treat with 
the deputies they should send to meet tliem. 

The ministers sent by France, were the Marquis d'Ux- Conferences 
elles and the Abbot de Polignac ; and those from the states jen^j^^rghf" 
were Buys and Vanderdussen : the conferences began in 
March. Tlie French proposed, that the dominions in Italy, 
with the islands, should be given to one of the competitors 
for the Spanish monarcliy, without naming which ; but it 
was understood that they meant King Philip : the deputies 
did not absolutely reject this ; but shewed that the Empe- 
ror would never consent to parting with Naples, nor giving 
the French such footing in Italy : the French seemed to be 
sensible of this : the first conference ended upon the return 
of the courier, whom they sent to Versailles. They moved 
for another conference ; and upon several propositions, 
there were several conferences renewed. The King of 
France desisted from the demand of Naples, but insisted 
on that of the places on the coast of Tuscany : at last they 
desisted from that too, and insisted only on Sicily and Sar- 
dinia : so now the partition seemed as it were settled : 
upon which, the deputies of the states pressed the ministers 
of France to give them solid assurances of King Philip's 
quitting Spain and the A\'est Indies ; to this (upon adver- 
tisement given to the court of France) they answered, that 
the King would enter into measures with them to force it. 
Many difficulties were started about the troops to be em- 
ployed, what their number should be, and who should com- 
mand them ; all which shewed the execution would prove 
impracticable. Then they talked of a sum of money, to be 
paid annually during the war; and here new difficulties 
arose, both in settling the sum, and in securing the payment: 
they otfered the bankers of Paris ; but these must all break, 
whensoever the King had a mind they should : so it plainly 
appeared, all was intended only to divide the allies, by this 
offer of a partition, to which the states consented ; and at 
which, the French hoped the house of Austria would have 



1710. 



244 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

been provoked against them. The French asked an assur- 
ance of tlie deputies, that no other articles should be in- 
sisted on, but those in the preliminaries : this the deputies 
positively refused ; for they had, by one of the prelimina- 
ries, reserved a power to all the allies to make farther de- 
mands when a general treaty should be opened ; they said, 
they themselves would demand no more, but they could 
not limit the rest from their just demands. This was an- 
other artifice to provoke the empire and the Duke of Sa- 
voy, as if the states intended to force them to accept of 
such a peace as they should prescribe : in another confer- 
ence, the states rejected the offer of a sum of money for 
carrying on the war in Spain, and therefore demanded that 
the French would explain themselves upon the subject of 
evacuating Spain and the AVest Indies, in favour of King 
Charles, before they could declare their intentions with re- 
lation to the partition ; and added, that all further confer- 
ences would be to no purpose till that was done. 
All came to The Freucli were now resolved to break oif the negotia- 
sian.""'^ " tio^ 5 ^"d so they were pleased to call this demand of the 
states a formal rupture of the treaty ; and upon the return 
of an express that they sent to Versailles, they wrote a 
a long letter to the pensioner, in the form of a manifesto ; 
and so returned back to France in the end of July. This 
is the account that both our ministers here and the states 
have published of that afi'air : the French have published 
nothing ; for they would not oaati to the Spaniards that 
they ever entered upon any treaty for a partition of their 
monarchy, much less for evacuating Spain. Whether 
France did ever design any thing by all this negotiation, 
but to quiet their own people, and to amuse and divide the 
allies, is yet to us a secret ; but if they ever intended a 
peace, the reason of their going otf from it, must have been 
the account they then had of our distractions in England, 
which might make them conclude that we could not be in a 
condition to carry on the war. 
A cii!ui-e of Tlie Queen's intentions to make a change in her ministry 

the ministry , , . t i 

ill jiiigiand. "ow began to break out : ni June she dismissed the Earl 
of Sunderland from being secretary of state, without pre- 
tending any malversation in him, and gave the seals to the 
Lord Dartmouth. This gave the alarm both at home and 
abroad ; but the Queen to lessen that, said to her subjects 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 245 

here, in particular to the governors of the Bank of Eng- i''^^- 
land, and wrote to her ministers abroad, that they should 
assure her allies that she would make no other changes ; 
and said this herself to the minister whom the states had 
here : all these concurred to express their joy in this reso- 
lution, and joined to it their advice that she would not dis- 
solve the parliament. This was represented by those who 
had never been versed in the negotiations of princes in an 
alliance, as a bold intruding into the Queen's councils ; 
though nothing is more common than for princes to offer 
mutual advices in such cases. Two months after the change 
of the secretary of state, the Queen dismissed the Earl of 
Godolphin from being lord treasurer, and put the Treasury 
in commission : Lord Powlet was the first in form, but Mr. 
Harley was the person with whom the secret was lodged ; 
and it was visible he was the chief minister : and now it 
appeared that a total change of the ministry, and the dis- 
solution of the parlianient, were resolved on. 

In the meanwhile, Sacheverel, being presented to a be- Sacheverei's 
uefice in North AYales, went down to take possession of wXs!' ^ 
it; as he passed through the counties, both going and 
coming, he was received and followed by such numbers, 
and entertained with such magnificence, that our princes in 
tlieir progresses have not been more run after than he was : 
great fury and violence appeared on many occasions, 
though care was taken to give his followers no sort of pro- 
vocation ; he was looked on as the champion of the church ; 
and he shewed as much insolence on that occasion as his 
party did folly. No notice was taken by the government 
of all tliese riots; they were rather favoured and encour- 
raged than checked ; all this was like a prelude to a greater 
scene that was to be acted at court. The Queen came in 
October to council, and called for a proclamation dissolv- 
ing the parliament, which Harcourt (now made attorney- 
general, in the room of Montague, who had quitted that 
post,) had prepared : when it was read, the Lord Chancel- 
lor offered to speak ; but the Queen rose up, and would 
admit of no debate, and ordered the writs for a new parlia- 
ment to be prepared. At that time she dismissed the Lord 
Somers, and in his room made the Earl of Rochester lord 
president of the council : she sent to the Duke of Devon- 
shire for the lord steward's staff, and gave it to the Duke of 



246 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1710. Buckingham ; Mr. Boylo was dismissed from being secre- 
^"^■^ tary of state, and Mr. St. John had the seals ; the Earl of 
Derby was removed from being chancellor of the dutchy of 
Lancaster, and was succeeded by the Lord Berkeley. The 
Lord Chancellor came, upon all these removes, and deli- 
vered up the great seal ; the Queen did not look for this, 
and was surprised at it ; and, not knowing how to dispose 
of it, she, with an unusual earnestness, pressed him to keep 
it one day longer ; and the day following, she, having con- 
sidered the matter with her favourites, Mrs. Masham and 
Mr. Harlej^ received it very readily; and it was soon 
given to Sir Simon Harcourt. The Eail of Wharton deli- 
vered up his commission of lord lieutenant of Ireland ; and 
tliat was given to the Duke of Ormond : and the Earl of 
Orford, with some of the commissioners of the Admiralty, 
withdrew from that board, in whose room others were put. 
So sudden and so entire a change of the ministry is scarce 
to be found in our history, especially where men of great 
abilities had served, both with zeal and success ; insomuch, 
that the administration of all affairs, at home and abroad, 
in their hands, was not only without exception, but had 
raised the admiration of all Europe. All this rose purely 
from the great credit of the new favourites, and the Queen's 
personal distaste to the old ones. The Queen was much 
delighted with all these changes, and seemed to think she 
was freed from the chains the old ministry held her in ; she 
spoke of it to several persons as a captivity she had been 
long under. The Duke of Somerset had very much alie- 
nated the Queen from the old ministry, and had no small 
share in their disgrace ; but he was so displeased with the 
dissolution of the parliament, and the new model of the 
ministry, that though he continued some time master of the 
horse, he refused to sit any more in council, and complain- 
ed openly of the artifices that had been used to make him 
instrumental to other people's designs, Avhich he did among 
others to myself. 
Tiie eiec- Thc next, and indeed the greatest care of the new mi- 
tionsof par- jjigtry ^yj^g ^j^g manaoinijf the elections to parliament. L^n- 

liamenlmen. . f^ ^ i 

heard-of methods were used to secure them ; in London, 
and in all the parts of England, but more remarkably in tlie 
great cities, there was a vast concourse of rude multitudes 
brought 4«gether, who behaved themselves in so boisterous 



OP QUEEN ANNE. 247 

a manner, that it was not safe, and in many places not pes- ^'^^■ 
fiible, for those who had a right to vote, to come and give their 
votes for a whig ; open violence was used in several parts : this 
was so general through the whole kingdom, all at the same 
time, that it was visible the thing had been for some time 
concerted, and the proper methods and tools had been pre- 
pared for it. The clergy had a great share in this ; for be- 
sides a course for some months of inflaming sermons, they 
went about from house to house, pressing their people to 
shew, on this great occasion, their zeal for the church, and 
now or never to save it : they also told them in what ill 
hands the Queen had been kept, as in captivity, and that it 
was a charitj, as well as their duty, to free her from the 
power the late ministry exercised over her. 

AVhile the poll was taken in London, a new commission 
for the lieutenancy of the city was sent in, by which a great 
change was made ; tories were put in, and whigs were left 
out ; in a word, the practice and violence used now in elec- 
tions went far beyond any thing that I had ever known in 
England ; and, by such means, above three parts in four 
of the members returned to parliament, may at any time be 
packed : and, if free elections are necessary to the being 
of a parliament, there was great reason to doubt if this was 
a true representative duly elected. 

The Bank was the body to which the government of late A sinking of 
had recourse, and was always readily furnished by it ; but 
their credit was now so sunk that they could not do as 
they had done formerly ; actions, that some months before 
were at 130, sunk now so low as to 95, and did not rise 
above 101 or 102 all the following winter. The new minis- 
ters gave it out, that they would act moderately at home, 
and steadily abroad, maintain our alliances, and carry on 
the war. But before I enter on the session of parliament, I 
will give account of aftairs abroad. 

King Philip went to xVnagon to his army, and gave it AOuirs in 
out that he was resolved to put all to the decision of a ^^' 
battle with King Charles, who was likewise come to head 
his army ; they lay so near one another, that King Philip 
cannonaded the camp of his enemies, but his men were 
beat off with loss, and drew away to a greater distance : 
however, before the end of July, there was an action of 
great importance near Almauaja : the main body of King 



248 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1710. Philip's horse designed to cut off a part of King Charleses 
^"''^ foot that was separated from the cavahy, commanded by 
Stanhope : he drew his whole body together ; and though 
he was much inferior in number, yet he sent to King Charles 
for orders to engage the enemy. It was not without some 
difficulty, and after some reiterated pressing instances, that 
he got leave to fall on. 

^le battle As the two bodics were advancing one against another, 

of Mmanara. gtanhopc rode at the head of his body, and the Spanish ge- 
neral advanced at the head of his troops : the two generals 
began the action ; in which, very happily for Stanhope, he 
killed the Spaniard ; and his men, animated with the ex- 
ample and success of their general, fell on and broke the 
Spanish horse so entirely, that King Philip lost the best 
part of his cavalry in that action : upon which he retired 
towards Saragossa ; but was closely followed by King 
Charles : and on the 20th of August, they came to a total 
engagement, which ended in an entire defeat; and by this 
means Arragon was again in King Charles's hands. King 
Philip got off ^\dth a very small body to Madrid. But he 
soon left it, and retired, with all the tribunals following him, 
to Valladolid, and sent his Queen and son to Victoria- 
Some of his troops got off in small bodies, and these were 
in a little time brought together, to the number of about 
ten thousand men ; the troops, that they had on the frontier 
of Portugal, were brought to join them, with which they 
soon made up the face of an army. 

5;™s King Charles made all the haste he could to Madrid, but 

Charles at 

Madrid. found none of the grandees there ; and it appeared, that 
the Castilians were finnly united to King Philip, and re- 
solved to adhere to him at all hazards. The King of 
France now shewed he was resolved to maintain his grand- 
son, since, if he had ever intended to do it, it was now very 
easy to oblige him to evacuate Spain. On the contrary, he 
sent the Duke of Vendome to command the army there; 
and he ordered some troops to march into Catalonia, to 
force King Charles to come back, and secure that princi- 
pality. King Charles continued till the beginning of De- 
cember in Castille. In all that time, no care was taken by 
the allies, to supply or support him : we were so engaged in 
our party matters at home, that we seemed to take no 
thought of tliiugs abroad, and without us nothing could be 

\ 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 249 

done. The court of Vienna was so apprehensive of the ^^^"' 
danger from a war, like to break out, between the Grand 
Seignior and the Czar, that they would not diminish their 
army in Hungary. After King Charles left his army, Stah- 
remberg seemed resolved to take his winter quarters in 
Castille, and made a shew of fortifying Toledo ; but for 
want of provision, and chiefly for fear that his retreat to 
Arragon might be cut off, he resolved to march back to the 
Ebro; King Philip marched after him. Stahremberg' left 
Stanhope some hours' march behind him, and he took up 
his quarters in an unfortified village, called Brihuega ; but 
finding King Philip was near him, he sent his aide-de-camp 
to let Stahremberg know his danger, and to desire his as- 
sistance. Stahremberg might have come in time to have 
saved him, but he moved so slowly, that it was conjectured 
he envied the glory Stanhope had got, and was not sorry to 
see it eclipsed ; and therefore made not that haste he might 
and ought to have done. 

Stanhope and his men cast up entrenchments, £ind defend- The battle 
ed these very bravely, as long as their powder lasted ; but l^^J * *" 
in conclusion, they were forced to surrender themselves 
prisoners of war : some hours after that, Stahremberg came 
up, and though the enemy were more than double his num- 
ber, yet he attacked them with such success, that he defeat- 
ed them quite, killed seven thousand of their men, took 
their cannon and baggage, and staid a whole day in the 
field of battle. The enemy drew back ; but Stahremberg 
had suffered so much in the action, that he was not in a 
condition to pursue them, nor could he carry off their can- 
non for want of horses ; but he nailed them up, and by slow 
marches got to Saragossa, the enemy not thinking it conve- 
nient to give him any disturbance. As he did not judge it 
safe to stay long in Arragon, so in the beginning of January 
he marched into Catalonia; but his army had suffered so 
much, both in the last action at Villa Viciosa, and in the 
march, that he was not in a condition to venture on raising 
the siege of Gironne, which was then carried on by the 
Duke of Noailles ; and no relief coming, the garrison, after 
a brave defence, was forced to capitulate ; and by this 
means Catalonia was open to the enemy on all sides. 

The Spanish grandees seemed to be in some apprehen- Tie dis- 
sions of their bekig given up by the French ; and there =^^''^ "' ^^^ 

VOL. IV. 2 K 



250 

1710. 

Duke of Me- 
dina Cell. 



Bcthane, 
Aire, and 
St. \'enant 
are taken. 



Aft'airs in 
IIh; north. 



Tlie new 

parliament 

opened. 



HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
was a suspicion of some caballfng among them : upon 
which the Duke of Medina Celi, King Philip's chief minis- 
ter, was sent a close prisoner to the Castle of Segovia, and 
was kept there veiy strictly, none being admitted to speak 
to him : he was not brought to any examination, but after 
he had been for some months in prison, being often re- 
moved from one place to another, it was at last given out, 
that he died in prison, not without the suspicion of ill 
practices. Nothing passed on the side of Piedmont^- the 
Duke of Savoy complaining still of the imperial court, ari^ 
upon that refusing to act vigorously. 

After Doway was taken, our army sat down before Be- 
thune ; and that siege held them a month, at the end of 
which the garrison capitulated ; and our army sat down at 
one and the same time before Ayre and St. Venant, to se- 
cure the head of the Lys. St. Venant was taken in a few 
weeks ; but the marshy ground about Aire, made that a 
slower work : so that the siege continued there about two 
months before the garrison capitulated. This campaign, 
though not of such lustre as the former, because no battle 
was fought, yet was by military men looked on as a very 
extiaordinary one in this respect, that our men were about 
an hundred and fifty days in open trenches ; which was 
said to be a thing without example. During these sieges, 
the French army posted themselves in sure camps ; but did 
not stir out of them ; and it was not possible to engage them 
into any action. Nothing considerable passed on the Rhine, 
they being equally unable to enter upon action on botli 
sides. 

The Czar carried on the war in Livonia \Arith such suc- 
cess, that he took both Riga and Revel ; and to add to 
the miseries of Sweden, a great plague swept away many 
of their people. Sweden itself was left exposed to the 
Danes and the Czar ; but their dominions in Germay were 
secured by the guarantee of the allies : yet, though the go- 
vernment of Sweden did accept of this provisionally, till 
the King's pleasure should be known, it was not without dif- 
ficulty that he was prevailed on to give way to it. 

I come now to give an account of the session of parlia- 
ment, which was opened the 25th of November : the Queen, 
in her speech, took no notice of the successes of this camr 
p£»,ign, as she had always done in her former speeches; and 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 251 

instead of promising to maintain the toleration, she said i^io. 
she would maintain the indulgence granted by law to scni- ^^-^^ 
pulous consciences : this change of phrase into Sacheve- 
rel's language was much observed. The Lords made an 
address of an odd composition to her, which shewed it was 
not drawn by those who had penned their former addresses : 
instead of promising that they would do all that was possi- 
ble, they only promised to do all that was reasonable, - 
which seemed to import a limitation, as if they had appre- 
hended that unreasonable things might be asked of them ; 
and the conclusion was in a very cold strain of rhetoric ; 
they ended with saying, " they had no more to add." The 
Commons were more hearty in their address ; and in the 
end of it, they reflected on some late practices against the 
church and state. Bromley was chosen speaker without 
any opposition ; there were few whigs returned, against 
whom petitions were not ofl'ered ; there were in all about 
an hundred; and by the first steps, the majority made it 
appear, that they intended to clear the House of all who 
were suspected to be whigs. They passed the bill for 
four shillings in the pound, before the short recess at 
Christmas. 

During that time, the news came of the ill success in i7ii, 
Spain ; and this giving a handle to examine into that part The conduct 
of our conduct, the Queen was advised to lay hold on it ; l-ens^wJ by 
so, without staying till she heard from her own ministers the Lords. 
or her allies, as was usual, she laid the mutter before the 
parliament, as the public news brought it from Paris; 
which was afterwards found to be false in many particu- 
lars ; and told them what orders she had given upon it, of 
which she hoped they would approve. This was a mean 
expression from the sovereign, not used in former mes- 
sages ; and seemed to be below the dignity of the crown. 
She ordered some regiments to be carried over to Spain, 
and named the Earl of Peterborough to go to the court of 
Vienna, to press them to join in the most etfectual mea- 
sures for supporting King Charles there. The Lords, in 
their answer to this message, promised that they would exa- 
mine into the conduct of the wa? in Spain, to see if there 
had been any mismanagement in any part of it ; and they 
entered immediately into that inquiry. They began it with 
an address to the Queen, to delay the dispatch of the Earl 



•; 



<?*PfN^*^ 



252 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

I; Jl^^\ of Peterborough, till the House might receive from him 
such informations of the aflfairs of Spain, as he could give 
them. This was readily granted, and he gave the House 
a long recital of the affairs of Spain, loading the Earl of 
Gallway with all the miscarriages in that war. And in 
particular he said, that in a council of war in Valencia, in 
the middle of January 17CG-7, the Earl of Gallway had 
pressed the pushing an offensive war for that year; and 
that the Lord Tyrawly and Stanhope had concurred with 
him in that : whereas he himself was for lying on a defen- 
sive war for that year in Spain : he said, this resolution 
was carried by those three, against the King of Spain's own 
mind ; and he imputed all the misfortunes that followed in 
Spain to this resolution so taken. Stanhope had given an 
account of the debates in that council to the Queen ; and 
the Earl of Simderland, in answer to his letter, had wrote 
by the Queen's order, that she approved of their pressing 
for an offensive war; and they were ordered to persist 
in that. The Earl of Sunderland said, in that letter, that 
the Queen took notice, that they three (meaning the Earl of 
Gallway, Lord Tyrawly, and Stanhope) were the only per- 
sons that were for acting offensively ; and that little regard 
was to be had to the Earl of Peterborough's opposition. 
Upon the strength of this letter, the Earl of Peterborough 
affirmed, that the whole council of war was against an of- 
fensive war : he laid the blame, not only of the battle of 
Almanza, and all that followed in Spain upon those reso- 
lutions, but likewise the miscarriage of the design on Tou- 
lon ; for he told them of a great design he had concerted 
with the Duke of Savoy, and of the use that might have 
been made of some of the troops in Spain, if a defensive 
war had been agreed to there. The Earl of Gallway and 
the Lord Tyrawly were sent for; and they were asked 
an account of that council at Valencia: they said, there 
were many councils held there about that time ; and that 
both the Portuguese ambassador and general, and the en- 
voy of the states, agreed with them in their opinions for an 
offensive war ; and they named some Spaniards that were 
of the same mind : they also said, that all along, even to 
the battle of Almanza, in all their resolutions, the majority 
of the council of war voted for every thing that was done, 
and that they wore directed to persist in their opinions, by 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 253 

letters wrote to them, in the Queen's name, by the secreta- i^*^- 
ries of state : that as to the words, in the Earl of Sunder- ^^ 
land's letter, that spoke of them, as the only persons that 
were of that opinion ; these were understood by them, 
as belonging only to the Queen's subjects, and that they 
related more immediately to the Earl of Peterborough, 
who opposed that resolution, but not to the rest of the 
council of war ; for the majority of them was of their 
mind. 

The Earl of Gallway gave in two papers ; the one re- 
lated to his o\\Ti conduct in Spain ; the other was an an- 
swer to the relation given in writing by the Earl of Peter- 
borough. The House of Lords was so disposed, that the 
majority believed every thing that was said by the Earl of 
Peterborough ; and it was carried, that his account was ho- 
nourable, faithful, and just ; and that all the misfortunes in 
Spain were the efl'ect and consequence of those resolutions 
taken in the middle of January. 

From this censure on the Earl of Gallway, the debate 
was carried to that, which was chiefly aimed at, to put a 
censure on the ministry here. So it was moved, that an 
address should be made to the Queen, to free those who 
were under an oath of secrecy from that tie, that a full 
account might be laid before the House of all their con- 
sultations : the Queen granted this readily ; and came to 
the House, which was understood to be on design to favour 
that which was aimed at. Upon this the Duke of Marl- 
borough, the Earls of Godolphin and Sunderland, and the 
Lord Cowper shewed, that, considering the force sent over 
to Spain under the Lord Rivers, they thought an offensive 
war was advisable ; that the expense of that war was so 
great, and the prospect was so promising, that they could 
not but think an offensive war necessary ; and that to advise 
a defensive one, would have made them liable to a just 
censure, as designing to protract the war. The design on 
Toulon was no way intermixed with the affairs of Spain ; 
the Earl of Peterborough fancied he was in that secret, and 
had indeed proposed the bringing over some troops from 
Spain on that design, and had offered a scheme to the Duke 
of Savoy, in which that was mentioned, and had sent that 
over to England. But though the Duke of Savoy suffered 
that Lord to amuse himself \vith his o>vn project, which he 



254 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1711- had concerted for the attempt on Toulon; that Duke had 
^^^^ declared he would not undertake it, if it was not managed 
with the utmost secrecy, which was sacredly kept, and 
communicated only to those to whom it must be trusted 
for the execution of it. No troops from Spain were to be 
employed in that service, nor did it miscarry for want of 
men. The lords farther said, they gave their opinions in 
council according to the best of their judgments ; their in- 
tentions were very sincere for the service of the Queen, 
and to bring the war to a speedy conclusion. Yet a vote 
passed, that they were to blame for advising an offensive 
war in Spain, upon which the loss of the battle of Almanza 
followed ; and that this occasioned the miscarrying of the 
design upon Toulon. 

Feflectioiis Here was a new and strange precedent, of censuring a 
resolution taken in council ; and of desiring the Queen to 
order all, that had passed in council, to be laid before the 
House : in all the hot debates in King Charles the First's 
reign, in which many resolutions taken in council were 
justly censurable, yet the passing any censure on them was 
never attempted by men, who were no way partial in 
iavour of the prerogative : but they understood well wbat 
our constitution was in that point : a resolution in council 
was only the sovereign's act, who, upon hearing his coun- 
sellors deliver their opinions, forms his own resolution : a 
counsellor may indeed he liable to censure for what he 
may say at that board ; but the resolution taken there has 
been hitherto treated with a silent respect : but by this pre- 
cedent, it will be hereafter subject to a parliamentary in- 
quiry. The Queen was so desirous to have a ccnslu-e fixed 
on her former ministry, that she did not enough consider 
the wound given to the prerogative, by the way in which it 
was done. 

After this was over, another inquiry was madejinto the 
force we had in Spain at the time of the battle of Al- 
manza ; and it was found not to exceed fourteen thousand 
men, (hough the parliament had voted twenty-nine thou-s 
sand for the war in Spain. This seemed to be a crying 
thing; tragical declamations were made upon it; but in 
truth that vote had passed here only in the January before 
the battle of Almanza, which was fought on the 14th of 
April. Now it was not possible to levy and transport men 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 255 

in »o short a time : it was made appear, that all the money i^ii. 
given by the parliament for that service was issued out ""^^^^ 
and applied to it, and that extraordinary diligence was used 
both in forvvarding the levies and in their tiansportation : 
they were sent from Ireland, the passage from thence being 
both safest and quickest. All this, and a great deal more 
to the same purpose, was said : but it signiiied nothing ; for 
when resolutions are taken up beforehand, the debating 
concerning them is only a piece of form, used to come at 
the question with some decency : and there was so little of 
that observed at this time, that the Duke of Buckingham 
said in plain words, that they had the majority, and would 
make use of it, as he had observed done by others, when 
they had it on their side. So, though no examination hewi 
been made, but into that single point of the numbers ait 
Almanza, they came to a general vote, that' the late ministry 
had been negligent in the management of the war in Spain , 
to the great prejudice of the nation ; and they then ordered 
all their proceedings and votes to be put in an address, 
and laid before the Queen: and though they had made 
no inquiry into the expense of that war, nor into the 
application of the money given by the parliament for it, 
yet in their address they mentioned the great profusion of 
money in that service. This they thought would touch the 
nation very sensibly ; and they hoped the thing would be 
easily believed on tireir word. Protests were made against 
every vote, in the whole progress of this matter : some of 
these carried such reflections on the votes of the House, 
that they were expunged. 

I never saw any thing carried on, in the House of Lords, a strange 
so little to their honour as this was ; some, who voted with iTeedincr''" 
the rest, seemed asbamed of it : they said, somewhat was 
to be done to justify the Queen's change of the ministry; 
and every thing elsewhere had been so well conducted, as 
to be above all censure : so the misfortune of Almanza, 
being a visible thing, they resolved to lay the load there. 
The management of the public treasure was exact and un- 
exceptionable : so that the single misfortune of the whole 
war was to be magnified : some were more easily dra\\n to 
concur in these votes, because, by the act of grace, all 
tiiose who had been concerned in the administration were 
covered from prosecution and puuisliment ; so this was re- 



256 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1711. presented to some, as a compliment that would be very 
^^^^ acceptable to the Queen, and by which no person could be 
hurt. They loaded singly the Earl of Gallway with the 
loss of the battle of Almanza, though it was resolved on 
in a council of war, and he had behaved himself in it \vith 
all the bravery and conduct that could be expected from a 
great general, and had made a good retreat, and secured 
Catalonia with inexpressible diligence. They also censured 
him for not insisting on the point of honour, in the pre- 
cedence to be given to the English troops, as soon as the 
Portuguese army entered into Spain : but, by our treaty 
with that crown, the army was to be commanded by a Par- 
tuguese general; so it was not in his power to change the 
order of the army: if he had made the least struggle 
about it, the Portuguese, who were not easily prevailed on 
to enter into Spain, would have gladly enough laid hold of 
any occasion, which such a dispute would have given them, 
and have turned back upon it : and so by his insisting on 
such a punctilio, the whole design would have been lost. 
We had likewise, in our tieaty with them, yielded expressly 
the point of the flag in those seas, for which alone, on other 
occasions, we have engaged in wars ; so he had no reason 
to contest a lesser point : yet a censure was likemse laid 
on this. And this w^as the conclusion of the inquiries 
made by the House of Lords this session. 
Some abuses Harlcy, in the House of Commons, led them to inquire 
tim House of i'^to some abuses in the victualling the navy; they had 
Commons, been puplicly practised for many years, some have said 
ever since the Restoration : the abuse was visible, but con- 
nived at, that several expenses might be answered that 
way. Some have said, that the captains' tables were kept 
out of the gain made in it. Yet a member of the House, 
who was a whig, was complained of for this, and expelled 
the House ; and a prosecution w^as ordered against him : 
but the abuse goes on still, as avowedly as ever ; here was a 
shew of zeal, and a seeming discovery of fraudulent prac- 
tices, by which the nation was deceived. 
SiippKes The money did not come into the Treasury so readily as 

ji.c war. formerly, neither upon the act of four shillings in the pound, 
nor on the duty laid on malt. So, to raise a quick sup- 
ply, there were two bills passed, for raising three millions 
and a half by two lotteries, the first of 1,500,000/. and the 
() 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 257 

second of two millions, to be paid back in thirty-two years ; i7ii, 
and for a fund to answer this, duties were laid on hops, ^^^^ 
candles, leather, cards and dice, and on the postage on let- 
ters. In one branch of this, the House of Commons 
seemed to break in upon a rule that had hitherto passed for 
a sacred one. When the duty upon leather was first pro- 
posed, it was rejected by a majority, and so, by their usual 
orders, it was not to be offered again during that session : 
but after a little practice upon some members, the same 
duty was proposed, with this variation, that skins and tanned 
hides should be so charged: this was leather in ano- 
ther name. The lotteries were soon filled up ; so, by this 
means, money came into the Treasury ; and indeed this me- 
thod has never yet failed of raising a speedy supply. There 
was no more asked, though, in the beginning of this session, 
the House had voted a million more than these bills amount- 
ed to ; which made some conclude there was a secret nego- 
tiation and prospect of a peace. 

As the Duke of Marlborough was involved in the gene- The Duke of 
ral censure passed on the former ministry, so he had not the ^^u^h°tiii 
usual compliment of thanks for the successes of the former comraanded 
campaign : when that was moved in the House of Lords, 
it was opposed with such eagerness by the Duke of Ar- 
gyle and others, that it was let fall : for this the Duke of 
Marlborough was prepared by the Queen ; who, upon his 
coming over, told him that he was not to expect the thanks 
of the two houses, as had been formerly : she added, that 
she expected he should live well with her ministers, but 
did not think fit to say any thing of the reasons she had for 
making those changes in her ministry. Yet he shewed no 
resentments for all the ill usage he met with ; and, having 
been much pressed by the states and our other allies to 
continue in the command of the army, he told me, upon that 
account he resolved to be patient, and to submit to every 
thing, in order to the carrying on the war ; and finding the 
Queen's prepossession against his Dutchess was not to be 
overcome, he carried a surrender of all her places to the 
Queen : she was groom of the stole, had the robes, and the 
privy purse ; in all which, she had served with great eco- 
nomy and fidelity to the Queen, and justice to those who 
dealt with the cro^ii. The Dutchess of Somerset had the 

VOL. IV. 2 L 



our aiinies. 



208 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

^^^*- two first of these employments, and Mrs. Masham had the 
last. 
^°!"''\f °f The House of Commons found the encouragement given 
vour shew- the Palatiucs was so displeasing to the people, that they 
e<i the Paia- ordered a committee to examine into that matter. The truth 
of this story was, that in the year 1708, about fifty Pala- 
tines, who were Lutherans, and were ruined, came over to 
England : these were so eflfectually recommended to Prince 
George's chaplains, that the Queen allowed them a shilling 
a day, and took care to have them transported to the plan- 
tations: they, ravished with this good reception, wrote 
over such an account of it, as occasioned a general dispo- 
sition among all the poor of that country to come over, in 
search of better fortunes ; and some of our merchants, who 
w^ere concerned in the plantations, and knew the advan- 
tage of bringing over great numbers to people those desert 
countiies, encouraged them with the promises of lands and 
settlements there. This being printed, and spread through 
those parts, they came to Holland in great bodies : the ana- 
baptists there were particularly helpful to them, both in 
subsisting those in Holland, and in transporting them 
to England. Upon their coming over, the Queen re- 
lieved them at first, and great charities were sent to sup- 
port them : all the tories declared against the good recep- 
tion that was given them, as much as the whigs approved 
of it. It happened at a bad season, for bread was then sold 
at double the ordinary price ; so the poor complained, that 
such charities went to support strangers, when they needed 
them so much. The time of our fleet's sailing to the plan- 
tations was likewise at a great distance. The Palatines 
expected to be all kept together in a colony, and became 
very uneasy, when they saw that could not be compassed ; 
some of them were both inactive and mutinous, and this 
heightened the outcry against them : some papists mixed 
among them, and came over with them ; but they were pre- 
sently sent back. Great numbers were sent to Ireland; 
but most of them to the plantations in North America, 
where it is believed their industry will quickly turn to a 
good account. The design was now formed to load the 
late administration all that was possible ; so it was pre- 
tended, that in all that affair there was a design against 
the church, and to increase the numbers and strength of 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 259 

ihe dissenters. It has indeed passed for an established i7ii. 
maxim, in all ages, and in all governments, that the draw- ^^-^^ 
ing of numbers of people to any nation, did increase its in- 
trinsic strength ; which is only to be measured by the mul- 
titude of the people, that inhabit and cultivate it : yet the 
House of Commons came to a sudden vote, that those who 
had encouraged and brought over the Palatines, were ene- 
mies to the nation : and because a letter, wrote by the Earl 
of Sunderland, in the Queen's name, to the Council of Trade, 
was laid before them, by which they were ordered to con- 
sider of the best methods of disposing of them, it was moved, 
to lay the load of that matter on him, in some severe votes : 
yet this was put off for that time ; and afterwards by seve- 
ral adjournments delayed, till at last it was let fall. 

But while the heat raised by this inquiry was kept up, the a biu to re- 
Commons passed a bill to repeal the act for a general natu- ^g^^i^gj^^" 
ralizatiou of all protestants, which had passed two years be- laiization 
fore ; pretending that it gave encouragement to the Palatines [hi^Loni]'"^ 
to come over, though none of them had made use of that 
act, in order to their naturalization. This was sent up to 
the Lords ; and the Lord Guernsey, and some others, enter- 
tained them with tragical declamations on the subject; 
yet, upon the first reading of the bill, it was rejected. A 
bill, that was formerly often attempted, for disabling mem- 
bers of the House of Commons to hold places, had the 
same fate. 

Another bill, for qualifying members, by having 600Z. a A bin qnaii- 
year for a knight of the shire, and 300/. a year for a burgess, bS"b^ 
succeeded better : the design of this was to exclude cour- chosen, 
tiers, military men, and merchants, from sitting in the House p***^*^ 
of Commons, in hopes that this being settled, the land in- 
terest would be the prevailing consideration in all their 
consultations. They did not extend these qualifications 
to Scotland ; it being pretended that estates there being 
generally small, it w ould not be easy to find men so qua- 
lified capable to serve. This was thought to strike at an 
essential part of our constitution, touching the freedom of 
elections : and it had been, as often as it was attempted, 
opposed by the ministry, though it had a fair appearance 
of securing liberty, when all was lodged with men of estates: 
yet our gentry was become so ignorant, and so corrupt, 
that many apprehended the ill effects of this ; and that the 



260 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1711. interest of trade, which indeed supports that of the land, 
^^^^■^ would neither be understood nor regarded. But the new 
ministers resolved to be popular with those who promoted 
it, so it passed, and was much magnified, as a main part 
of our security lor the future. 
An act for Another bill passed, not much to the honour of those 
^e!^'' who promoted it, for the importation of the French wine : 
the interest of the nation lay against this so visibly, that 
nothing but the delicate palates of those who loved that 
liquor, could have carried such a motion through the two 
houses. But though the bill passed, it was like to have no 
eflfect : for it was provided, that the wine should be im- 
ported in neutral vessels ; and the King of France had for- 
bid it to be exported in any vessels but his own : it seems 
he reckoned that our desire of drinking his wine, would 
carry us to take it on such terms as he should prescribe. 
In the House of Commons there appeared a new combi- 
nation of tories, of the highest form, who thought the court 
was yet in some management with the whigs, and did not 
come up to their height, which they imputed to Mr. Harley ; 
so they began to form themselves in opposition to him, and 
expressed their jealousy of him on several occasions. 
An attempt sometimcs publicly. But an odd accident, that had almost 
by^cM^d ^^^^ fatal, proved happy to him ; it fell out on the 8th of 
March, the day of the Queen's accession to the crown : one 
Guiscard, who was an abbot in France, had for some enor- 
mous crimes made his escape out of that kingdom ; he 
printed a formal story of a design he was laying to raise a 
general insurrection in the southern parts of France (in 
conjunction with those who were then up in the Cevennes) 
for recovering their antient liberties, as well as for restoring 
the edicts in favour of the Huguenots : and he seemed 
very zealous for public liberty. He insinuated himself so 
into the Duke of Savoy, that he recommended him to our 
court, as a man capable of doing great service : he seemed 
forward to undertake any thing that he might be put on ; 
he had a pension assigned him for some years, but it did 
not answer his expense ; so when he was out of hope of 
getting it increased, he wrote to one at the court of France 
to offer his service there ; and it was thought, he had a de- 
sign against the Queen's person ; for he had tried, by all 
the ways that he could contrive, to be admitted to speak 



OP QUEEN ANNE. 201 

with her in private, which he had attempted tliat very mom- im. 
ing: but his letter being opened at the post-honse, and ^-^r^ 
brought to the cabinet council, a messenger was sent from 
the council to seize on him. He found him walking in St. 
James's Park ; and, having disarmed him, carried him to 
the Lords, who were then sitting : as he waited without, 
before he was called in, he took up a penknife, which lay 
among pens in a standish ; when he was questioned upon 
his letter, he desired to speak in private with secretary St. 
John, who refused it; and he being placed out of his reach, 
whereas Harley sat near him, he struck him in the breast 
with the penknife again and again, till it broke ; and in- 
deed wounded him as much as could be done with so small 
a tool. The other counsellors drew their swords, and 
stabbed Guiscard in several places ; and their attendants 
being called in, they dragged him out. Harley's wound 
was presently searched ; it appeared to be a slight one, 
yet he was long in the surgeon's hands : some imputed this 
to an ill habit of body ; others thought it was an artifice to 
make it seem more dangerous than indeed it was. Guis- 
card's wounds were deeper and not easily managed ; for at 
first he was sullen, and seemed resolved to die ; yet, after a 
day, he submitted himself to the surgeons : but did not 
complain of a wound in his back till it gangrened, and of 
that he died. It was not known what particulars were in 
his letter, for various reports went of it ; nor was it known 
what he confessed. 

This accident was of great use to Harley ; for the party 
formed against him, was ashamed to push a man who was 
thus assassinated by one that was studying to recommend 
himself to the court of France, and who was believed to 
have formed a design against the Queen's person. Her 
health was at this time much shaken. She had three fits 
of an ague ; the last was a severe one : but the progress of 
the disease was stopped by the bark. 

The tories continued still to pursue the memory of King ^ ^^esign 
William ; they complained of the grants made by him, iffngVii- 
though these were far short of those that had been made li^'" » 
by King Charles the Second ; but that they might distin- cities™" 
guish between those whom they intended to favour, and 
others against whom they were set, they brought in a bill, 
empowering some persons to examine all the grants made 



262 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1711. by him, and to report both the vahie of them and the con- 
siderations upon which they were made : this was the me- 
thod that had succeeded with them before, with relation to 
Ireland ; so the bringing in this bill was looked on as a 
sure step for carrying the resumption of all the grants that 
they had a mind to make void. When it was brought up 
to the Lords, the design appeared to be an unjust malice 
against the memory of our deliverer, and against those who 
had served him best ; so upon the first reading of the bill 
it was rejected. 
Inquiries Their malice turned next against the Earl of Godolphin : 
•ooDts.^ ' they found that the supplies given by parliament were not 
all returned, and the accounts of many millions \\ere not 
yet passed in the Exchequer ; so they passed a vote that 
the accounts of thirty-five millions yet stood out. This 
was a vast sum ; but, to make it up, some accounts in King 
Charles's time were thrown into the heap ; the Lord Rane- 
lagh's accounts of the former reign were the greatest part ; 
and it appeared, that in no time accounts were so regularly 
brought up, as in the Queen's reign. Mr. Bridges' ac- 
counts of fourteen or fifteen millions, were the great item, 
of which not above half a million was passed : but there 
were accounts of above eleven millions brought in, though 
not passed in form, through the great caution and exact- 
ness of the Duke of Newcastle, at whose office they were 
to pass : and he was very slow, and would allow nothing- 
without hearing counsel on every article. The truth is, 
the methods of passing accounts were so sure, that they 
were very slow ; and it was not possible for the proper 
officers to find time and leisure to pass the accounts that 
were already in their hands. Upon this, though the Earl 
of Godolphin had managed the Treasury with an uncor- 
ruptness, fidelity, and diligence, that were so imexception- 
able, that it was not possible to fix any censure on his ad- 
ministration ; yet, because many accounts stood out, they 
passed some angry votes on that : but since nothing had 
appeared, in all the examination they had made, that re- 
flected on him, or on any of the whigs, they would not con- 
sent to the motion that was made for printing that report ; 
for by that it would have appeared who had served well, 
and who had served ill. 

When this session drew near an end, some were con- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 263 

cemed fo find that a body chosen so much by the zeal and i7ii. 
influence of the clergy, should have done nothing for the '^■'^ 
good of the church ; so it being apparent, that in the suburbs 
of London there were about two hundred thousand people 
more than could possibly worship God in the churches built 
there, upon a message to them from the Queen (to which 
the rise was given by an address to her from the convoca- 
tion), they voted that fifty more churches should be built ; 
and laid the charge of it upon that part of the duty on 
coals, that had been reserved for building of St. Paul's, 
which was now finished. 

In the beginning of April, the Dauphin and the Emperor The Dao- 
both died of the small-pox ; the first on the 3d, the se- p'^/'f •'^^th, 

aod the Em- 

cond on the Gth of the month : time will shew what influ- peror's, 
ence the one or the other will have on public affairs. The 
electors were all resolved to choose King Charles Emperor. 
A little before the Emperor's death, two great affairs were 
fuUy settled ; the differences between that court and the 
Duke of Savoy were composed to the Duke's satisfaction : 
the other was of more importance ; offers of amnesty and 
concessions were sent to the malecontents in Hungary, 
with which they were so well satisfied, that a full peace was 
like to follow on it : and lest the news of the Emperors 
death should be any stop to that settlement, it was kept up 
from them, till a body often thousand came in and deliver- 
ed up their arms, with the fort of Cassaw, and took an oath 
of obedience to King Charles, which was the first notice 
they had of Joseph's death. 

The effects of this will probably go farther than barely War breai- 
to the quieting of Hungary ; for the King of Sweden, the ^^^ °°lhe^" 
Crim Tartar, and the agents of France, had so animated the Turk and tte 
Turks against the Muscovites, that though the Sultan had '^^ 
no mind to engage in a new war, till the affairs of that em- 
pire should be put in a better state, yet he was so appre- 
hensive of the Janizaries, that, much against his own incli- 
nations, he was brought to declare war against the CzEir : 
but both the Czar and he seemed inclined to accept the 
mediation that was offered by England and by the states ; 
to which very probably the Turks may the more easily be 
brought, when they see no hope of any advantage to be 
made from the distractions in Hungary. 

It 4id not yet appear what would be undertaken on either 



264 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1711. side in Spain : King Philip had not yet opened the cam- 
"'^^^'^ paign ; but it was given out, that great preparations were 
made for a siege : on the other hand. King Charles had 
great reinforcements sent him ; so that his force was 
reckoned not inferior to King Philip's : nor was it yet 
known, what resolutions he had taken, since he received 
the news of the Emperor's death. 

The campaign was now opened on both sides in the Ne- 
therlands, though later than was intended : the season con- 
tinued long so rainy, that all the ways in those parts were 
impracticable : nothing was yet attempted on either side ; 
both armies lay near one another ; and both were so well 
posted, that no attack was yet made : and this was the pre- 
sent state of aflfairs abroad, at the end of May. At home, 
Mr. Harley was created Earl of Oxford, and then made 
lord high treasurer, and had now the supreme favour : the 
session of parliament was not yet at an end. There had 
been a great project carried on for a trade into the South 
Sea ; and a fund was projected, for paying the interest of 
nine millions, that were in arrear for our marine affairs. 
The eonvo- From our temporal concerns, 1 turn to ifive an account 

cation met. ■•• 

of those which related to the church. The convocation of 
the province of Canterbury was opened the 25th of Novem- 
ber, the same day in which the parliament met : and Atter- 
bury was chosen prolocutor. Soon after, the Queen sent 
a license to the convocation, empowering them to enter 
upon such consultations, as the present state of the church 
required, and particularly to consider of such matters as 
she should lay before them; limiting them to a quorum, 
that the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishop of London, 
or the Bishop of Bath and Wells should be present, and 
agree to their resolutions. With this license, there was a 
letter directed to the Archbishop, in which the convocation 
was ordered to lay before the Queen an account of the late 
excessive growth of infidelity and heresy among us ; and to 
consider how to redress abuses in excommunications ; how 
rural deans might be made more effectual; how terriers 
might be made and preserved more exactly ; and how the 
abuses in licenses for marriage might be corrected. 
Exceptions In this wholc matter, neither the Archbishop nor any of 
•enuhem"*^ the bishops wcrc so much as consulted with ; and some 
things in the license were new : the Archbishop was not 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 265 

named the president of the convocation, as usual in former ^'^^^• 
licenses ; and in these, the Archbishop's presence and con- "'^''^ 
sent alone was made necessary, except in case of sickness, 
and then the Archbishop had named some bishops to pre- 
side, as his commissaries : and, in that case, the convoca- 
tion was limited to his commissaries, which still lodged 
the presidentship and tiie negative with the Archbishop : 
this was according to the primitive pattern, to limit the 
clergy of a province to do nothing, without the consent of 
the metropolitan ; but it was a thing new and unheard of, 
to limit the convocation to any of their own body, who had 
no deputation from the Archbishop. So a report of this 
being made, by a committee that was appointed to search 
records, it was laid before the Queen : aud she sent us a 
message to let us know, that she did not intend that tliose 
whom she had named to be of the quorum, should either 
preside or have a negative upon our deliberations, though 
the contrary was plainly insinuated in the license. The 
Archbishop was so ill of the gout, that after our first iheet- 
ings he could come no more to us : so was the Bishop of 
London : upon which, the Bishop of Bath and Wells, see- 
ing how invidiously he was distinguished from his brethren, 
in which he had not been consulted, pretended ill-health ; 
and we were at a stand, till a new license was sent us, in 
which the Bishops of Winchester, Bristol, and St. David's Anewn, 

'^ cense. 

were added to be of the quorum. The two last were newly 
consecrated, and had been in no functions in the church 
before : so the Queen not only passed over all the bishops 
made in King William's reign, but a great many of those 
named by herself, and set the two last in a distinction above 
all their brethren. All this was directed by Atterbury, ^vho 
had the confidence of the chief minister ; and because the 
other bishops had maintained a good correspondence with 
the former ministry, it was thought fit to put marks of the 
Queen's distrust upon them, that it might appear with whom 
her royal favour and trust was lodged. «- 

The convocation entered on the consideration of the mat- ^ represerv- 
ters referred to them by the Queen: and a committee was for the 
appointed, to draw a representation of the present state of Q^^^^"- 
the church, and of religion among us : but after some heads 
were agreed on, Atterbury procured that the drawing of this 

VOL. IV. 2 M 



2GG HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1711. niight be left to him; and he drew up a most virulent de- 
'^ " tianiation, defaming all the administration from the time of 
the Revolution : into this he brought many impious princi- 
ples and practices, that had been little heard of or known, 
but were now to be published, if this should be laid before 
the Queen. The lower house agreed to his draught ; but 
the bishops laid it aside, and ordered another representa- 
tion to be drawn, in more general and more modest terms. 
It was not settled which of these draughts should be made 
use of, or whether any representation at all should be made 
to the Queen ; for it was known, that the design in asking 
one was only to have an aspersion cast, both on the former 
ministry and on the former reign. Several provisions were 
prepared, with relation to the other particulars in the 
Queen's letter : but none of these were agreed to by both 
houses. 
wiiiston An incident happened, that diverted their thoughts to 

l^Ya'iUsm. another matter : Mr. Whiston, the professor of mathema- 
tics in Cambridge, a learned man, of a sober and exem- 
plary life, but much set on hunting for paradoxes, fell on 
the reviving the Arian heresy, though he pretended to differ 
from Arius in several particulars : yet, upon the main, he 
was partly ApoUinarist, partly Arian ; for he thought the 
nmis or word was all the soul that acted in our Saviour's 
body. He found his notions favoured by the apostolical 
constitutions ; so he reckoned them a part, and the chief 
part of tlie canon of the Scriptures. For these tenets he 
was censured at Cambridge, and expelled the University : 
upon that, he wrote a vindication of himself and his doc- 
trine, and dedicated it to the convocation, promising a 
larger work on these subjects. The uncontested way of 
proceeding in such a case was, that the bishop of the 
diocese in which he lived, should cite him into his court 
in order to his conviction or censure, from whose sentence 
an appeal lay to the Archbishops and from him to the 
crown : or the Arclibishop might proceed in the first in- 
stance in a court of audience : but we saw no clear prece- 
dents of any proceedings in convocation, where the juris- 
diction was contested : a reference made by the high com- 
mission to the convocation, where the party submitted to 
do penance, beuig the only precedent that appeared iii his- 
tory; and even of this wc had no record : so that it not 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 267. 

being thought a clear warrant for our proceedings, we were ^^n. 
at a stand. The act that settled the course of appeals in ^^"^ 
King Henry the Eighth's time, made no mention of sen- 
tences in convocation ; and yet, by the act in the first of 
Queen Elizabeth, that defined what should be judged he- 
resy, that judgment was declared to be iu the crown : by 
all this, which the Archbishop laid before the bishops in a 
letter that he vrrote to them on this occasion, it seemed 
doubtful whether the convocation could, in the first in- 
stance, proceed against a man for heresy ; and their pro- 
ceedings, if they were not warranted by law, might involve 
them in a premunire. So the upper house, in an address, 
prayed the Queen to ask the opinion of the judges, and 
such others as she thought fit, concerning these doubts, 
that they might know how the law stood in this matter. 

Eidit of the iud^es, with the attorney and solicitor- The difter- 

, .... , ,,..,.. J ent opinions 

general, gave their opimon, that we had a jurisdiction, and of the 
miffht proceed in such a case ; but brought no express law i^^§.^* <;""" 

^ r ' iij ceriiin£j tbe 

nor precedent to support their opinion ; they only observed, power of the 
that the law books spoke of the convocation, as having '".""^"'■a- 
jurisdiction; and they did not see that it was ever taken 
from them : they were also of opinion, that an appeal lay 
from the sentence of convocation to the cro^n ; but they 
reserved to themselves a power to change their mind, in 
case, upon an argument that might be made for a prohibi- 
tion, they should see cause for it. Four of the judges were 
positively of a contrary opinion, and maintained it from 
the statutes made at the Reformation. The Queen, having 
received these difterent opinions, sent them to the Arch- 
bishop, to be laid before the two houses of convocation ; 
and, without taking any notice of the diversity between 
them, she ^\T()te that, there being now no doubt to be made 
of our jurisdiction, she did expect that we should proceed 
in the matter before us. In this it was visible, tkat those 
who advised the Queen to \sTite that letter, considered more 
their own humours than her honour. Yet two great doubts 
still remained, even supposing we had a jurisdiction: the 
first was, of whom the court was to be composed; whether 
only of the bishops, or what share the lower house had in 
this judiciary authority : the other was, by what delegates, 
in case of an appeal, our sentence was to be examined : 
were no bishops to be iu the court of delegates? or was the 



26R HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1^11- sentence of the Archbishop, and his twenty-one suflragan 
^^^^^ bishops, with the clerg^y of the province, to be judged by 
the Archbishop of York and his three suffragan bishops 1 
These difficulties appearing to be so great, the bishops re- 
solved to begin with that in which they had, by the Queen's 
license, an indisputable authority ; which was to examine 
and censure the book, and to see if his doctrine was not 
contrary to the Scriptures, and the first four general coun- 
cils, which is the measure set by law to judge heresy. 
Whiston's -jhey drew out some propositions from his book, which 
condemned. Seemed plainly to be the revivmg oi Arianism, and censured 
them as such. These they sent down to the lower house, 
who, though they excepted to one proposition, yet cen- 
sured the rest in the same manner. This the Archbishop 
(being then disabled by the gout) sent by one of the bi- 
shops to the Queen for her assent, who promised to con- 
sider of it : but to end the matter at once, at their next 
meeting in winter, no answer being come from the Queen, 
two bishops w ere sent to ask it ; but she could not tell what 
was become of the paper which the Archbishop had sent 
her ; so a new extract of the censure was again sent to 
her: but she has not yet thought fit to send any answer to it. 
So Whiston's affair sleeps, though he has published a large 
work in four volumes in octavo, justifying his doctiine, and 
maintaining the canonicalness of the apostolical constitu- 
tions, preferring their authority not only to the epistles, but 
even to the gospels. In this last I do not find he has made 
any proselytes, though he has set himself much to support 
that paradox. 

The lower house would not enter into the consideration 
of the representation sent down to them by the bishops ; 
so none was agreed on to be presented to the Queen : but 
both were printed, and severe reflections were made, in 
several tracts, on that which was drawn by the lower house, 
or rather by Atterbury. The bishops went through all the 
matters recommended to them by the Queen; and drew 
up a scheme of regulations on them all : but neither were 
these agreed to by the lower house ; for their spirits were 
so exasperated, that nothing sent by the bishops could be 
agreeable to them. At last the session of parliament and 
the convocation came to an end. 

The last thing settled by the parliament was, tlie creating 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 269 

a new fund for a trade in the South Sea: there was a ^eat ii^ii. 
debt upon the mrvj, occasioned partly by the deficiency An^t^tlb^ 
of the funds appointed for the service at sea, but chiefly by the South 
the necessity of applying such supplies as were given, ^* ^^^ ^' 
without appropriating clauses, to the service abroad ; 
where it was impossible to carry it on by credit, Avithout 
ready money ; so it was judged necessary to let the debt of 
the navy run on upon credit : this had risen up to several 
millions ; and the discount on the navy bills ran high. All 
this was thro^\^l into one stock ; and a fund was formed 
for pajdng the interest at six per cent. 

The flatterers of the new ministers made gi-eat use of Renections 

.111 

this to magnify them, and to asperse the old ministry : but J^nisi" 
a full report of that matter was soon after published, by wij 
which it appeared, that the public money had been managed 
with the utmost fidelity and frugality ; and it was made 
evident, that when there was not money enough to answer 
all the expense of the war, it was necessary to apply it to 
that which pressed most, and where the service could not 
be carried on by credit : so this debt was contracted by 
an inevitable necessity ; and all reasonable persons were 
fully satisfied Avith this account of the matter. The Earl of 
Godolphin's unblemished integrity was such, that no im- 
putation of any sort could be fastened on him ; so, to keep 
up a clamour, they reflected on the expense he had run the 
nation into, upon the early successes in the year 1706 ; 
which were very justly acknowledged, and cleared in the 
succeeding session, as was formerly told : but that was 
now revived ; and it was said to be an invasion of the great 
right of the Commons in giving supplies, to enter on de- 
signs, and to engage the nation in an expense, not provided 
for by parliament. This was aggravated, with many tragi- 
cal expressions, as a subversion of the constitution ; so 
>vith this, and that of the thirty-five millions, of which the 
accounts were not yet passed, and some other particulars, 
they made an inflaming address to the Queen at the end of 
the sessions. And this was artificially spread through the 
nation, by which weaker minds were so possessed, that it 
was not easy to undeceive them, even by the fullest and 
clearest evidences ; the nation seemed still infatuated be- 
yorwi (he power of conviction. With this the session ended, 
and all considering persons had a very melancholy pros- 



270 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1711- pect, when they saw what might be apprehended from the 
'"'^^"'^ two sessions that were yet to come of the same parlia- 
ment. 
Affairs in I now tum to affairs abroad. The business of Spain 
^'*'""" had been so much pressed from the throne, and so much 
insisted on, all this session, and the Commons had given 
1,500,000?. for that service, (a sum far beyond all that had 
been granted in any preceding session,) so that it was ex- 
pected matters would have been carried there in another 
manner than formerly. The Duke of Argyle was sent to 
command the Queen's troops there, and he seemed full of 
heat : but all our hopes failed. The Duke of Vendome's 
army was in so ill a condition, that if Stahremberg had 
been supported, he promised himself great advantages : it 
does not yet appear what made this to fail ; for the parlia- 
ment had not yet taken this into examination. It is certain 
the Duke of Argyle did nothing ; neither he nor his troops 
were once named during the whole campaign ; he %\Tote 
over very heavy complaints that he was not supported, by 
the failing of the remittances that he expected ; but what 
ground there was for that does not yet appear : for, though 
he afterwards came over, he was very silent, and seemed in 
a good understanding with the ministers. Stahremberg 
drew out his forces ; and the two armies lay for some time 
looking on one another without coming to any action : 
Vendome ordered a siege to be laid to two small places, 
but without success. That of Cardona was persisted in 
obstinately till near the end of December, and then Stah- 
remberg sent some bodies to raise the siege, who succeed- 
ed so well in their attempt, that they killed two thousand 
of the besiegers, and forced their camp ; so that they not 
only raised the siege, but made themselves masters of the 
enemy's artillery, ammunition, and baggage ; and the Duke 
of Vendome's army was so diminished, that if Stahrem- 
berg had received the assistance whicli he expected from 
England, he would have pierced far into Spain. But we 
did nothing, after all the zeal we had expressed for retriev- 
ing matters on that side. 
Theeiectiou The Empcror's death, as it presently opened to King 
of King Charles the succession to the hereditary dominions ; so a 
be emperor, disposition appeared unanimously, among all the electors, 
to choose him Emperor : yet he staid in Barcelona till Sep' 



v^vW 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 271 

tember ; and then, leaving his Queen behind, to support i^ii. 
his afiairs in Spain, he sailed over to Italy : he staid some 
weeks at Milan, where the Duke of Savoy came to him ; 
and we were told, that all matters in debate were adjusted 
between them. We hoped this campaign would have pro- 
duced somewhat in those parts of advantage to the com- 
mon cause, upon the agreement made before the Emperor 
Joseph's death. And Mr. St. John, when he moved in the 
House of Commons for the subsidies to the Duke of Sa- 
voy, said, all our hopes of success this year lay in that 
quarter ; for in Flanders we could do nothmg. The Duke 
came into Savoy, and it was given out that he was resolved 
to press forward ; but, upon what views it was not then 
known, he stopped his course ; and after a short campaign, 
repassed the mountains. 

The election of the emperor came on at Frankfort, where 
some electors came in person, others sent their deputies ; 
some weeks were spent in preparing the capitulations; 
great applications were made to them, to receive deputies 
from the Electors of Bavaria and Cologne ; but they were 
rejected, for they were under the ban of the empire ; nor 
were they pleased with the interposition of the Pope's 
nuncio, who gave them much trouble in that matter ; but 
they persisted in refusing to admit them. Frankfort lay so 
near the frontier of the empire, that it was apprehended the 
French might have made an attempt that way : for they 
drew some detachments from their army in Flanders to in- 
crease their forces on the Rhine. This obliged Prince Eu- 
gene, after he, in conjunction with the Duke of Marlbo- 
rough, had opened the campaign in Flanders, to draw off a 
detachment from thence and march with it towards the 
Rhine ; and there he commanded the imperial army ; and 
came in good time to secure the electors at Frankfort; 
who, being now safe from the fear of any insult, went on 
slowly in all that they thought fit to propose previous to an 
ekction : and concluded unanimously to choose Charles, 
who was now declared emperor, by the name of Charles 
the Sixth: he went from Milan to Inspruck, and from 
thence to Frankfort, where he was crowned mth the usual 
solemnity'. Thus that matter was happily ended, and no- 
action happened on the Rhine all this campaign. 

The Duke of Marlborough's army was not only weak- 



272 HISTORY OF THE REIGN* 

1711. ened by the detachment that Prince Eugene carried to the 

TheCuk'e Rhine, but by the calling over five thousand men of the 

of Maribo- f^est bodics of his army for an expedition designed by sea ; 

roajci^pabb- ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ Frcncli were superior to him in number: they 

French i^y behind lines, that were looked on as so strong, that the 

forcing them was thought an impracticable thing ; and it 

was said that Villars had wTote to the French King, that 

he had put a 7ie phis ultra to the Duke of Marlborough : 

but, contrary to all expectation, he did so amuse Villars 

with feint motions, that at last, to the surprise of all Europe, 

he passed the lines near Bouchain, without the loss of a 

man. 

This raised his character beyond all that he had done 
formerly ; the design was so well laid, and was so happily 
executed, that in all men's opinions, it passed for a mas- 
terpiece of military skill ; the honour of it falling entirely 
on the Duke of Marlborough, no other person having any 
share, except in the execution. When our army was now 
so happily got within the French lines, the Dutch deputies 
proposed the attacking the French, and venturing a battle, 
since this surprise had put them in no small disorder. The 
Duke of Marlborough differed from them ; he thought there 
might be too much danger in that attempt ; the army was 
much fatigued with so long a march, in which their cavalry 
had been eight-and-forty hours on horseback, alighting only 
twice, about an hour at a time, to feed their horses ; for 
they marched eleven leagues in one day : the French were 
fresh ; and our army was in no condition to enter upon 
action, till some time was allowed for refreshment : and the 
Duke of Marlborough thought that, in case of a misfortune, 
their being within the French lines might be fatal. 
He besieged He proposed the besieging Bouchain ; which he thought 
Bouchain. might oblige the French to endeavour to raise the siege, 
and that might give occasion to their fighting on more equal 
terms, or it would bring both a disreputation and a dis- 
heartening on their army, if a place of such importance 
should be taken in their sight: both the Dutch deputies 
and the general officers thought the design was too bold, 
yet they submitted to him in the matter : it seemed imprac- 
ticable to take a place situated in a morass, well fortified, 
with a good garrison in it, in the sight of a superior army ; 
for the French lay within a mile of them : there was also 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 273 

gi-eat danger from the excursions that the ganisons of Va- i''!!- 
lenciennes and Conde might make to cut off their provi- ^^'^^ 
sions, which were to come to tliem from Tournay. All 
about the Duke studied to divert him from so dangerous an 
undertaking ; since a misfortune in his conduct would have 
furnished his enemies with the advantages that they waited 
for. He was sensible of all this, yet he had laid the scheme 
so well, that he resolved to venture on it. The French tried 
to throw more men into the place by a narrow causeway 
through the morass, but he took his measures so well that he 
was guarded against every thing. He saw what the event of 
the siege might be, so he bestiiTcd himself with unusual ap- 
plication; and was more fatigued in the course of this siege 
than he had been at any time during the whole war. He 
carried on the trenches, and by his ])atteries and bombs the 
place was soon laid in ruins. Villars seemed to be very 
busy, but to no purpose ; yet, seeing he could not raise the 
siege, he tried to surprise Doway ; but they discovered the 
design, and forced the body that was sent thither to retreat 
in all haste. After twenty days, from the opening the 
trenches, the garrison of Bouchain capitulated; and could And took it. 
have no better terms than to be made prisoners of war. As 
this was reckoned the most extraordinary thing in the whole 
history of the war, so the honour of it was acknowledged 
to belong wholly to the Duke of Marlborough ; as the blame 
of a miscarriage in it must have fallen singly on him. Vil- 
lars's conduct on this occasion was much censured ; but it 
was approved by the King of France : and with this the 
campaign ended in those parts. 

No action happened at sea, for the French had no fleet 4" ^'^P^^i- 
crat. An expedition was designed by sea for taking Quebec to"caDada? 
and Placentia ; and for that end, five thousand men were 
brought from Flanders ; Hill, who was brother to the fa- 
vourite, had the command. There was a strong squadron of 
men of war ordered to secure the transport fleet ; they were 
furnished from hence with provisions, only for three months ; 
but they designed to take in a second supply at Xew Eng- 
land, A commissioner of the victualling then told me, he 
could not guess what made them be sent out so ill fur- 
nished ; for they had stores, lying on their hands, for a full 
supply. They sailed soon after the end of the session, and 
had a quick passage to New England, but were forced to 

VOL. IV. 2 N 



274 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

i'"'^- stay many weeks on that coast, before they could be sup- 
plied with provisions. They sailed near the end of August, 
into the river of Canada, which was thirty miles broad, but 
they were ill served with pilots ; and at that season, storms 
were ordinary in those parts : one of these broke upon 
them, by which several ships were overset, and about two 
thousand five hundred men were lost. Thus the design 

It miscar- of Qucbcc miscarricd, and their provisions were too scanty 

"^ * to venture an attempt on Phicentia ; so they returned home 

unprosperous. 

This w as a great mortification to the new ministry ; it 
being their first undertaking, ill projected, and worse exe- 
cuted, in every step of it : it was the more liable to censure, 
because at the very time that the old ministry were charged 
with entering on designs that had not been laid before the 
parliament, and for which no supplies had been given, they 
projected this, even while a session was yet going on, with- 
out communicating it to the parliament ; whereas, what the 
former ministry had done this way, was upon emergents 
and successes, after the end of the session : but this matter 
has not yet been brought under a parliamentary examina- 
tion, so the discoveries that may be made if that happens, 
must be referred to their proper place. This was the state 
of our affairs during this campaign ; the merchants com- 
plained of great losses made at sea, by the ill management 
of convoys and cruizers. 

Affairs ill 'j'jjg ^y^iY between the Turk and the Czar came to a quick 
end : the Czar advanced with his army so far into Molda- 
via, that he w as cut off from his provisions ; an engagement 
followed, in which, both sides pretended they had the ad- 
vantage. It is certain, the Czar found he was reduced to 
great extremities ; for he proposed, in order to a peace, to 
sunender Azuph, with some other places, and demanded that 
the King of Sweden might be sent home to his own country. 
The Grand Vizier w as glad to arrive at so speedy a con- 
clusion of the war ; and, notwithstanding the great opposi- 
tion made by the King of Sweden, he concluded a peace 
with the Muscovite, not without suspicion of his being cor- 
rupted by money to it. The King of Sweden, being highly 
offended at this, charged the Grand Vizier for neglecting 
tlic great advantages he had over the Czar, since he and his 
whole army were at mercy ; and he prevailed so far at the 




OF QUEEN ANNE. 
Porte, that upon it the Grand Vizier was deposed, and there 
was an appearance of a war ready to break out the next 
year; for the Czar delayed the rendering Azuph, and the 
other places agreed to be delivered up ; pretending that the 
King of Sweden was not sent home, according to agreement. 
Yet, to prevent a new wcir, all the places were at length de- 
livered up : what eftect this may have, must be left to fiir- 
ther time. 

Towards the end of the year, the Danes and Saxons broke And in 
in by concert upon Pomerania, resolving to besiege Stral- ""'"^"'*' 
sund ; but every thing necessary for a siege came so slowly 
from Denmark, that no progress was made, though the 
troops lay near the place for some months ; and in that time 
the Swedes landed a considerable body of men in the isle 
of Rugen : at last the besiegers, being in want of every 
thing, were forced to raise the siege, and to retire from that 
neiglibourhood, in the beginning of January. They sat 
down next before Wismar, but that attempt likewise mis- 
carried, which rendered the conduct of the King of Den- 
mark very contemptible ; who thus obstinately carried on 
a war, at a time that a plague swept away a third part 
of the people of Copenhagen, with as little conduct as suc- 
cess. Having thus given a short view of affairs abroad, 

I come next to give the best account I can, of a secret Hariey 
and important transaction at home : the ministers now ^i,\nd 
found how hard it was to restore credit, and by conse- lo"' trea- 
quence to carry on the war ; Mr Hariey 's wound, gave the *" 
Queen the occasion which she seemed to be waiting for, 
upon his recovery she had created him an Earl, by a double 
title, of Oxford and Mortimer. Preambles to patents of 
honour, usually carry in them a short account of the dignity 
of the family, and of the services of the person advanced ; 
but his preamble was very pompous, and set him out in the 
most extravagant characters that flatterers could invent; in 
particular it said, that he had redeemed the nation from rob- 
bery, had restored credit, and had rendered the public great 
service in a course of many years : all this was set out in 
too fulsome rhetoric, and being prepared by his owti direc- 
tion, pleased him so much, that whereas all other patents 
had been only read in the House of Lords, this was printed. 
He was at the same time made lord treasurer, and became 
the chief, if not sole minister, for every thing was directed 



276 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1711. by him. It soon appeared that his strength lay in manag- 
""^"^ ing parties, and in engaging weak people by rewards and 
promises, to depend upon him; but that he neither tho- 
ronghly understood the business of the Treasury, nor the 
conduct of foreign alfairs. But he trusted to his interest in 
the Queen and in the favourite. 
Negotia- He saw the load that tl)e carrying on the war must bring 

lions for a , . , i i ^ ^ '-i 

peace with upou him ; SO hc rcsolvcd to strike up a peace as soon as 
France. ^vas possiblc. The Earl of Jersey had some correspon- 
dence in Paris and at St. Germains, so he trusted the con- 
duct of the negotiation to him. The Duke of Newcastle, 
who was lord privy seal, died of an apoplexy, in July, 
being the richest subject that.had been in England, for some 
ages ; he had an estate of above 40,000/. a year, and was 
much set on increasing it. Upon his death, it was resolved, 
to give the Earl of Jersey the privy-seal, but he died sud- 
denly the very day in which it was to be given him ; upon 
tliat, it was conferred on Robinson, Bishop of Bristol, who 
was designed to be the plenipotentiary in the treaty that was 
projected. One Prior, who had been Jersey's secretary, upon 
his death, was employed to prosecute that, which the other 
did not live to finish. Prior had been taken a boy out of a 
tavern, by the Earl of Dorset, who accidentally found him 
reading Horace, and he, being very generous, gave him an 
education in literature ; he was sent to the court of France 
in September, to try on what terms we might expect a peace : 
his journey was carried on secretly ; but upon his return, 
he was stopped at Dover ; and a packet that he brought, 
was kept, till an order came from court to set him free : and 
by this accident the secret broke out. Soon after that, one 
Mesnager was sent over from France with preliminaries ; 
but very different from those that had been concerted at the 
Hague, two years before. 
Preiimina- By thcsc the King of France offered to acknowledge the 
by France! Q^ccn, and the succession to the crown, according to the 
present settlement; and that he would bona fide enter into 
such measures, that the crowns of Fiance and Spain should 
never belong to the same person : that he would settle a 
safe and proper barrier to all the allies : that he would 
raze Dunkirk, provided an equivalent should be given for 
destroying the Ibrtifications he had made there at so great 
an expense : and that he would procure, both to England 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 277 

and to the states, the re-establishing of their commerce. I'^ii- 
The court was then at Windsor : these propositions were ''^'^ 
so well entertained at our court, that a copy of them was 
ordered to be given to Count Gallas, the Emperor's mi- 
nister : he treated these oflfers \vith much scorn, and printed 
the prelimiaaries in one of our newspapers; soon after 
that he was ordered to come no more to court, but to make 
haste out of England. 

The proceeding was severe and unusual ; for the com- count Gai- 
mon method, when a provocation was given by a public '** ^^"t. 
minister, was to complain of him to his master, and to de- dis^re. 
sire him to be recalled. It was not then known upon what 
this was grounded ; that which was surmised was, that his 
secretary, Gaultier, who was a priest, betrayed him ; and 
discovered his secret conespondence, and the advertise- 
ments he sent the Emperor, to give him ill impressions of 
our court ; for which treachery he was rewarded with an 
abbey in France ; but of this I have no certain information. 

When our court was resolved on this project, they ^^^^ °^ 
knew the Lord Townshend so well, that they could not seLt ambas- 
depend on his serving tlieir ends ; so he was both recalled ^^'^°^ *» 
and disgraced : and the Lord Raby was brought from the 
court of Prussia, and advanced to be Earl of Strafford, 
and sent ambassador to Holland. It was not then known 
how far our court carried the negotiations with France ; it 
was not certain, whether they only accepted of these pre- 
liminaries, as a foundation for a treaty to be opened upon 
them ; or if any private promise or treaty was signed : this 
last was very positively given out, both in France and 
Spain. The very treating, ^\dthout the concurrence of our 
allies, was certainly an open violation of our alliances, 
which had expressly provided against any such negotiation. 

Many mercenary pens were set on work to justify our Manyiibcis 
proceedings, and to defame our allies, more particularly aff^g" '' *''^ 
the Dutch ; this was done with much art, but with no re- 
gard to truth, in a pamphlet, entitled The Conduct of the 
Allies, and of the late Ministry ; to which very full answers 
were written, detecting the thread of falsehood that ran 
through that work. It was now said, England was so ex- 
hausted, that it was impossible to carry on the war : and 
when King Charles was chosen Emperor, it was also saidj 
he would be too great and too dangerous to all his neigh- 



171-1. 



278 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

bonis, if Spain were joined to the Emperor, and to the 
hereditary dominions. It was also zealously, though most 
falsely, infused into the minds of the people, that our 
allies, most particularly the Dutch, had imposed on us, 
and failed us on many occasions. The Jacobites did, with 
the greater joy, entertain this prospect of peace, because 
the Dauphin had, in a visit to St. Germains, congratulated 
that court upon it ; which made them conclude, that it ^vas 
to have a happy effect, with relation to the Pretender's 
affairs. 
Earl Rivers Our court denied this; and sent the Earl of Rivers to 
ovel*°b^r* Hanover, to assure the Elector, that the Queen would take 
succeeded especial care to have the succession to the crown secured 
•*"*• to his family, by the treaty that was to be opened. This 

made little impression on that Elector ; for he saw clearly, 
that if Spain and the West Indies were left to King Philip, 
the French would soon become the superior power to all 
the rest of Europe ; that France would keep Spain in sub- 
jection, and by the wealth they would fetch from the Indies, 
they would give law to all about them, and set what king 
they pleased on the throne of England. Earl Rivers staid 
a few days there, and brought an answer from the Elector 
in Avriting ; yet the Elector apprehended, not without rea- 
son, that it might be stifled ; therefore he ordered his mi- 
nister to give a full memorial, to the same purpose, of 
which our court took no notice: but the memorial was 
translated and printed here, to the great satisfaction of all 
those who were afraid of the ill designs that might be hid, 
under the pretence of the treaty then proposed. 

The Earl of Strafford pressed the states to comply with 
the Queen's desire of opening a treaty : they answered very 
slowly, being desirous to see how the parliament was in- 
clined ; but the parliament was prorogued from the 13th to 
the 29th of November, and from that to the 7th of De- 
cember. It was also reported in Holland, that the Earl 
of Strafford, seeing the states slow in granting the pass- 
ports, and upon that apprehending these delays flowed 
from their expecting to see how the parliament of England 
approved of these steps, told them plainly, that till they 
agreed to a treaty, and granted the passports, the session 
should not be opened : so they granted them, and left the 
time and place of treaty to the Queen's determination. 



The !.(alcs 
are forced 
to open a 
treaty. 




OF QUEEN ANNE. 

She named Utrecht as the place of congress, and the first 
of January, O.S. for opening it; and wrote a circular 
letter to all the allies, inviting them to send plenipoten- 
tiaries to that place. The Emperor set himself vehemently 
to oppose the progress of this matter ; he sent Prince 
Eugene to dissuade the states from agreeing to it, and of- 
fered a new scheme of the war, that should be easier to the 
allies, and lie heavier on himself: but the passports were 
now sent to the court of France; that court demanded 
passports likewise for the plenipotentiaries of King Philip, 
and of the Electors of Bavaria and Cologne. This was 
offered by our court to the states; they refused it: but 
whether our ministers then agreed to it or not, I cannot tell. 

Before the opening the session, pains were taken on Endeavours 
many persons to persuade them to agree to the measures "onrt before 
the court were in: the Duke of Marlborough, upon his they opened 
coming over, spoke very plainly to the Queen against the ulen?" '^ 
steps that were already made ; but he found her so pos- 
sessed, that what he said made no impression, so he de- 
sired to be excused from coming to council, since he must 
oppose every step that was made in that affair. Among 
others, the Queen spoke to myself; she said^ she hoped 
bishops would not be against peace : I said, a good peace 
was what we prayed daily for, but the preliminaries offered 
by France, gave no hopes of such an one ; and the trusting 
to the King of France's faith, after all that had passed, 
would seem a strange thing. She said, we were not to re- 
gard the preliminaries ; we should have a peace upon such 
a bottom, that we should not at all rely on the King of 
France's word ; but we ought to suspend our opinion, till 
she acquamted us with the whole matter. I asked leave to 
speak my mind plainly ; which she granted : I said, any 
treaty by which Spain and the West Indies were left to King 
Philip, must, in a little while, deliver up all Europe into the 
hands of France ; and, if any such peace should be made, 
she was betrayed, and we were all ruined ; in less than three 
years time, she vrould be murdered, and the fires would be 
agam raised in Smithfield : I pursued this long, till I saw 
she grew uneasy ; so I withdrew. 

On the 7th of December, she opened the parliament : in liie Queen's 
her speech, she said, notwithstanding the arts of those who the^V 
delighted in war, the time and place were appointed for howe». 



•280 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

^^^^- Ireating a general peace ; her allies, especially the states, 
had, by their ready concuiTence, expressed an entire confi- 
dence in her ; and she promised to do her utmiist to procure 
reasonable satisfaction to them all. Slie demanded of the 
House of Commons, the necessary supplies for carr3ring on 
the war ; and hoped that none would envy her the glory of 
ending it by a just and honourable peace ; she in particular 
recommended unanimity, that our enemies might not think 
us a divided people, which might prevent that good peace, 
of which she had such reasonable hopes, and so near a view. 
Reflections The spccch gave occasion to many reflections ; " the arts 
**° **' of those who delighted in war" seemed to be levelled at the 

Dvke of Marlborough, and the preliminaries concerted at 
the Hague ; her saying that the allies reposed an entire con- 
fidence in her, amazed all those who knew, that neither the 
Emperor nor the empire had agreed to the congress, but 
were opposing it with great vehemence ; and that even the 
states were far from being cordial or easy in the steps that 
they had made. 
Earl of Not- After the speech, a motion was made in the House of 
jnoveTthat I^ords, to make an address of thanks to the Queen for her 
no peace spccch ; upou this, the Earl of Nottingham did very copi- 
^fe unless ously sct forth tlic ucccssity of having Spain and the AVest 
Spain and Indies out of the hands of a prince of the house of Bour- 

the West 

Indies were bou ; he movcd that, with their address of thanks, they 
taken from should ofFcr that as their advice to the Queen : he set forth 
Bourbon, the miscry that all Europe, but England most particularly, 
must be under, if the West Indies came into a French 
management ; and that King Philip's possessing them was, 
upon the matter, the putting them into the hands of France. 
This was much opposed by the ministers ; they moved the 
referring that matter to another occasion, in which it might 
be fully debated ; but said, it was not fit to clog the address 
with it. Some officious courtiers said, that since peace 
and war belonged, as prerogatives, to the cro\\Ti, it was not 
proper to ofl'er any advice in those matters, till it was 
asked : but this was rejected with indignation, since it was 
a constant practice in all sessions of parliament, to offer 
advices ; no prerogative could be above advice ; this was 
the end specified in the writ, by which a parliament was 
summoned ; nor was the motion for a delay received. The 
eyes of all Europe were upou the present session ; and this 
6 



OF QUEEN AKNE. 281 

was a post night: so it was fit they should come to a pre- ^'ii* 
Sent resolution, in a matter of such importance. The ques- Ag^^e^Tto 
tion was put, whether this advice should be part of the ad- ^y ^^^ 
dress; and the previous question being first put, it was 
carried by one voice to put it ; and the main question was 
catried by three voices : so this point was gained, though 
by a small majority. The same motion was made in the 
House of Commons, but was rejected by a great majority : 
yet in other respects their address was well couched : for 
they said, they hoped for a just, honourable, and lasting 
peace, to her Majesty and to all her allies. 

When the address of the Lords was reported to the 
House, by the committee appointed to prepare it, the court 
tried to get the whole matter to be contested over again, 
pretending that the debate was not now, upon the matter, 
debated the day l>€fore, but only whether they should 
agree to the draught prepared by the committee : but that 
part of it, which contained the advice, was conceived in 
the very words, in which the vote had passed : and it was 
a standing rule, that what was once voted, could never 
again could be brought into question during that session: 
this was so sacred a rule, that many of those who voted with 
the court the day before, expressed their indignation against 
it, as subverting the very constitution of parliaments, if 
things might be thus voted and unvoted again, from day to 
day : yet even upon this a division was called for, but the 
majority appearing so evidently against the motion, it was 
yielded, without counting the House. 

When the address was presented to the Queen, her Tiie Qaeen'« 
answer was, she was sorry that any should think she ^'^^'* 
would not do her utmost to hinder Spain and the West 
Indies from remaining in the hands of a prince of the 
house of Bourbon : and the Lords returned her thanks for 
this gracious answer ; for they understood, by the doing her 
utmost, was meant the continuing the war. The court was 
much troubled to see the House of Lords so backward ; 
and both sides studied to fortify themselves, by bringing up 
their friends, or by getting their proxies. 

The next motion was made by the Earl of Nottingham, A bill 
for leave to bring in a bill against occasional conformity : occrsLaal 
he told those with whom he now joined, that he was but conforiaitj. 
one man come over to them, unless he could carry a bill to 
VOL. IV. 2 



282 

1711. 



Passed 
without op- 
position. 



HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

that eflbct ; but, if they would give way to that, he hoped 
he should be able to bring many to concur with them in 
other things. They yielded this the more easily, because 
tliey knew that the court had oflfered, to the high men in the 
House of Commons, to carry any bill that they should 
desire in that matter : the Earl of Nottingham promised to 
draw it with all possible temper. It was thus prepared: 
that all persons in places of profit and trust, and all the 
common-council-men in corporations, who should be at any 
meeting for divine worship, (where there were above ten 
persons more than the family,) in which the common- 
prayer was not used, or where the Queen and the Princess 
Sophia were not prayed for, should, upon conviction, for- 
feit their place of trust or profit, the witnesses making oath 
within ten days, and the prosecution being within three 
months after the offence ; and such persons were to continue 
incapable of any employment, till they should depose, that 
for a whole year together they had been at no conventicle. 
The bill did also enact, that the toleration should remain 
inviolable, in all time to come; and that if any person 
should be brought into trouble, for not having observed the 
rules that were prescribed by the act that first granted the 
toleration, all such prosecution should cease, upon their 
taking the oath prescril)ed by that act: and a teacher, 
licensed in any one county, was by the bill qualified to 
serve in any licensed meeting in any part of England ; and, 
by another clause, all who were concerned in the practice 
of the law in Scotland were required to take the abjuration 
in the month of June next. 

No opposition was made to this in the House of Lords ; 
so it passed in three days ; and it had the same fate in the 
House of Commons ; only they added a penalty on the 
ofiender of 40?. which was to be given to the informer : 
and so it was offered to the royal assent, with the bill 
for four shillings in the pound. Great reflections were 
made on the fate of this bill, which had been formerly so 
much contested, and was so often rejected by the Lords, 
and now went through both houses in so silent a manner, 
without the least opposition. Some of the dissenters com- 
plained much that they were thus forsaken by tlieir friends, 
to wliom they had trusted ; and tlic court had agents among 
tiicm, to iiiHamc their resentments, since they were sacri- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. ^83 

ficed by those on whom they depended. All the excuse i^^i- 
that the whigs made for their easiness in this matter, was, ^^'^*^ 
that they gave way to it^ to try how far the yielding it might 
go toward quieting the fears of those who seemed to think 
the church was still in danger, till that act passed; and 
thereby to engage these to concur with them in those im- 
portant matters that might come before them. It must be 
left to time to shew what good effect this act may have on 
the church, or what bad ones it may have on dissenters. 

The next point that occasioned a great debate in the ^nke Ha- 
House of Lords, which was espoused by the court ^^■ith ™nt°e^a-^** 
great zeal, was a patent creating Duke Hamilton a duke in mined. 
England : lawyers were heard for the patent ; the Queen's 
prerogative in conferring honours was clear ; all the sub- 
jects of the united kingdom had likewise a capacity of re- 
ceiving honours; the commons of Scotland had it unques- 
tionably, and it seemed a strange assertion that the peers 
of that nation should be the only persons incapable of re- 
ceiving honour. By the act of union, the peers of Scot- 
land were, by virtue of that treaty, to have a representation 
of sixteen for their whole body ; these words, by virtue of 
that treaty, seemed to intimate, that by creation or suc- 
cession they might be made capable. And, in the debate 
that followed in the House, the Scotch lords, who had been 
of the treaty, affirmed that these words were put in on that 
design ; and, upon this, they appealed to the English lords : 
this was denied by none of them. It was also urged, that 
the House of Lords had already judged the matter, when 
they not only received the Duke of Queensberry, upon his 
being created Duke of Dover, but had so far affinned his 
being a peer of Great Britain, that, upon that account, they 
had denied him the right of voting in the election of the 
sixteen peers of Scotland. But in opposition to all this it 
was said, that the prerogative could not operate when it 
was barred by an act of parliament ; the act of union had 
made all the peers of Scotland peers of Great Britain, as 
to all intents, except the voting in the House of Lords, or 
sitting in judgment on a peer ; and as to their voting, that 
was vested in their representatives, by whom they voted : 
the Queen might give them what titles she pleased ; but this 
incapacity of voting, otherwise than by these sixteen, being 
settled by law, the prerogative was by that limited as to 



284 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1711- them : they had indeed admitted the Duke of Queensbeny 
**'^^*^ to sit among them, as Duke of Dover, but that matter was 
never brought into debate ; so it was only passed over in 
silence : and he was mentioned in their books, upon the oc- 
casion of his voting in the choice of the sixteen peers of 
Scotland, in terms that were far from determining this ; for 
it was there said, that he, claiming to be Duke of Dover, 
could not vote as a Scotch peer. The Scotch lords insist- 
ed in arguing for the patent, with great vehemence, not 
without intimations of the dismal effects that might follow, 
if it should go in the negative. The court put their whole 
strength to support the patent : this heightened the zeal of 
those who opposed it ; for they apprehended, that consi- 
dering the dignity and the antiquity of the Scotch peers, 
and the poverty of the greater part of them, the court 
would always have recourse to this, as a sure expedient to 
have a constant majority in the House of Lords. There 
was no limitation indeed on the prerogative, as to the cre- 
ation of new peers, yet these were generally men of estates 
who could not be kept in a constant dependance, as some 
of the Scotch lords might be. 
Judged The Queen heard all the debate, which lasted some 

against Lim. jjo^jg . j^ conclusion, when it came to the final vote, fifty- 
two voted for the patent, and fifty-seven against it. The 
Queen and the ministers seemed to be much concerned at 
this, and the Scotch were enraged at it : they met together, 
and signed a representation to the Queen, complaining of 
it as a breach of the union, and a mark of disgrace put on 
the whole of the peers of Scotland, adding solemn pro- 
mises of maintaining her prerogative, either in an united or 
separated state. This made the ministers resolve on 
another method to let the peers, and indeed the whole 
world see, that they would have that House kept in a con- 
stant dependance on the court, by creating such a number 
of peers at once, as should give them an unquestionable 
majority. On the 22d of December, the bill for four shil- 
lings in the pound was ready for the royal assent ; yet the 
House of Commons adjourned to the 14th of January, 
which was a long recess in so critical a time. 
Thf Lords* A motion was made in the House of Lords, by the Duke 
address Uiat ^f Dcvonshirc, for leave to bring in a bill, to give the 

our allies ' o J !-> 

might be Priuce Electoral of Hanover, as Duke of Cambridge, the 




OF QUE2N ANNE. 
precedence of all peers ; this was granted, and so was ]ike 
to meet with no opposition. The Earl of Nottingham 
moved next, that before their recess, they should make an along with 
address to the Queen, desiring her to order her plenipoten- ^* "' *''• 
tiaries to concert, with the ministers of the allies, the 
grounds upon which they were to proceed in their treaties, 
and to agree on a mutual guarantee to secure them to us, as 
well as to all Europe, and in particular to secure the pro- 
testant succession to England. All the opposition that the 
court made to this was, to shew it was needless, for it was 
already ordered : and the Lord Treasurer said, the Lords 
might, in order to their satisfaction, send to examine their 
instructions. To this it was answered, that the offering 
«uch an address would fortify the plenipotentiaries in 
executing their instructions. The court moved, that these 
words might be put in the address, " if the Queen had not 
ordered it;" so, this being agreed to, the thing passed; 
and the Lords adjourned to the 2d of January. 

But a new scene was ready to be opened in the House Discovene* 
of Commons ; the commissioners for examining the pub- preta^Ki^. 
lie accounts made some discoveries, upon which they 
intended to proceed at their next meeting. Waljiole, 
who had been secretary of war, and appeared with great 
firmness in the defence of the late ministry, was first 
aimed at ; a bill had been remitted to him of 500/. by 
those who had contracted to forage the troops that lay 
in Scotland; this made way to a matter of more im- 
portance: a Jew, concerned in the contract for furnish- 
ing bread to the anny in Flanders, made a present yearly 
to the Duke of Marlborough of between 5 and 6000/. 
The general of the states had the like present, as a per- 
quisite to support his dignity, and to enable him to 
procure intelligence. The Queen ordered 10,000A a year 
more to the Duke of Marlborough, for the same service. 
The late King had also agreed, that two and a half per 
cent, should be deducted out of the pay of the foreign 
troops, which amounted to 15,000/. This the Queen, had by 
a warrant, appointed the Duke of Marlborough to receive 
on the same account. 

He heard his enemies had discovered the present made The Dnke 
him by the Jew, while he was beyond sea ; so he wrote to °<,agh*aimed 
them, and o^viied the whole matter to be true, apd added, at. 



2a(> HISTORY OF THE TIEIGN 

1711, that he had applied these sums to the procuring good intel- 
""^^^ li^'ence, to which, next to the blessinj^ of God and the bra- 
very of the troops, their constant successes were chiefly 
owing. This did not satisfy the commissioners ; but, though 
no complaints were brought from tlie army of their not being 
constantly supplied with good bread, yet they saw here 
was matter to raise a clamour, which they chiefly aimed at; 
so this was reported to the House of Commons before their 
recess. 
Heisinmed A few days after this the Queen wrote him a letter, com- 
empiov- plaining of the ill treatment she received from him, and dis- 
"»^'''- charged him of all his employments : this was thought very 
extraordinary, after such long and eminent services : such 
accidents, when they happen, shew the instability of all hu^ 
man things : this was indeed so little expected, that those 
who looked for precedents could find none, since the dis- 
grace of Belisarius in Justinian's time : the only thing pre- 
tended to excuse it was, his being considered as the head 
of those who opposed the peace, on which the court seemed 
to set their hearts. 
Twelve new But they, finding the majority of the House of Lords 
peers ma e. ^^^^j^j j^^^ jj^ brought to favouT their designs, resolved to 
make an experiment that none of our princes had ven- 
tured on in former times : a resolution was taken up very 
suddenly of making tw elve peers all at once ; three of these 
were called up by wTit, being eldest sons of peers, and 
nine more were created by patent. Sir Miles Wharton, to 
whom it was offered, refused it : he thought it looked like 
the serving a turn ; and that, whereas peers were wont to 
be made for services they had done, he would be made for 
services to be done by him ; so he excused himself, and the 
favourite's husband, Mr. Masham, was put in his room. 
And whereas, formerly, Jefferies had the vanity to be made 
a peer, while he was chief justice, which had not been 
practised for some ages ; yet the precedent set by him was 
followed, and Trevor, chief justice of the Common Pleas, 
was now advanced to be a peer. This was looked upon 
as an inidoubted part of the prerogative ; so there was no 
ground in law to oppose the receiving the new lords into 
the House: nor was it possible to raise, in the antient 
peers, a sense of the indignity that was now put upon their 
House j since the court did by this opeuly declare, that 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 287 

they were to be kept in absolute submission and obe- 1712. 
dience. v^s-o 

When the 2d of January came, they were all Intro- The Qaeen's 
duced into the House of Lords without any opposition ; n,e'£frds1o 
and when that was over, the Lord Keeper delivered a adjoum.dis- 
message from the Queen, commanding them to adjourn J^etii''"* 
forth>vith to the 14th ; for by that time her Majesty would 
lay matters of great importance before the two houses. 
Upon this a great debate arose : it was said, that the Queen 
could not send a message to any one house to adjourn, 
when the like message was not sent to both houses: the 
pleasure of the prince, in convening, dissolving, prorogu- 
ing, or ordering the adjournment of parliaments, was always 
directed to both houses; but never to any one house, 
without the same intimation was made at the same time to 
the other. The consequence of this, if allowed, might be 
the ordering one house to adjourn, while the other was left 
to sit still ; and this might end in a total disjointing of the 
constitution : the vote was carried for adjourning by the 
weight of the twelve new peers. It is true, the odds in the 
books is thirteen; but that was, because one of the peers, 
who had a proxy, without reflecting on it, went away when 
the proxies were called for. 

At this time Prince Eugene was sent by the Emperor to Prince Eu- 
England, to try if it was possible to engage our court to go f ^e„"i''' d 
on with the war ; offering a new scheme, by wliich he took 
a much larger share of it on himself than the late Emperor 
would bear. That Prince's character was so justly high, 
that all people for some weeks pressed about the places 
where he was to be seen, to look on him. I had the honour to 
be admitted at several times, to much discourse with him : 
his character is so universally known, that I will say no- 
thing of him, but from what appeared to myself. He has 
a most unaffected modesty, and does scarcely bear the ac- 
knowledgments that all the world pay him: he descends 
to an easy equality with those with whom he converses; 
and seems to assume nothing to himself, while he reasons 
with others : he was treated with great respect by both par- 
ties ; but he put a distiugiiished respect on the Duke of 
Marlborough, with whom he passed most of his time. The 
Queen used him civilly, but not with the distinction that 



288 



HISTORY OF THE REIGN 



^^2. yyas due to his high merit : nor did he gain much ground 
with the ministers, 
to boih When the 14th of January came, the houses were ordered 

Louses. jq adjourn to the 18th, and then a message was sent to both 
houses ; the Queen told them, the congress v/as opened, and 
that she would set a day for ending it, as well as she had 
done for opening it. She had ordered her plenipotentiaries 
to agree with the ministers of her allies, according to all 
her treaties with them, to obtain reasonable satisfaction to 
their demands; in particular concerning Spain and the 
West Indies ; by which the false reports of ill-designing 
men, who, for evil ends, had reported that a separate peace 
was treated, would appear, for there was never the least 
colour given for this. She also promised, that the articles 
of the treaty should be laid before the houses, before any 
thing should be concluded. Upon this, the House of Lords 
agreed to an address, thanking her Majesty for communi- 
cating this to them, and for the promises she had made 
them, repeating the words in which they were made : it was 
moved to add the words, " confonn to her alliance ; " but it 
was said, the Queen assured them of that, so the repeating 
of these words seemed to intimate a distrust ; and that was 
not carried. But, because there seemed to be an ambiguity 
in the mention made of Spain and the West Indies, the 
House expressed in what sense they understood them, by 
adding these words, " which were of the greatest importance 
to the safety and commerce of these nations." The Com- 
mons made an address to the same purpose, in which they 
only named Spain and the West Indies. 
A bill giving The Lord Treasiu-er prevented the Duke of Devonshire, 
to^*ho "^ ^^^^^ ^^^ prepared a bill for giving precedence to the Duke 
of Hanover, of Cambridge ; for he ofiered a bill, giving precedence to 
the whole electoral family, as the children and nephews of 
the crown ; and it was intimated, that bills relating to ho- 
nours and precedence ought to come from the crown : the 
Duke of Devonshire would make no dispute on this head ; 
if tlie thing passed, he acquiesced in the manner of passing 
it, only he thought it lay within the authority of tlie House. 
On this occasion the court seemed, even to an atVectation, 
to shew a particular zeal in promoting this bill ; for it 
passed through both houses in two days, it being read 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 289 

thrice in a day in them both. For all this haste, the court ^''^^ 
did not seem to design any such bill till it was proposed '^^ 
by others, out of whose hands they thought fit to take it. 
There were two other articles in the Queen's message ; by 
the one, she desired their advice and assistance, to quiet 
the uneasiness that the peers of Scotland were under, by 
the judgment lately given; by the other, she complained of 
the license of the press, and desired some restraint might 
be put upon it. The Lords entered upon the consideration Debates 
of that part of the Queen's message, that related to the ^^""1^3 
peers of Scotland ; and it took up almost a whole week, peers. 
The court proposed, that an expedient might be found, that 
the peers of Scotland should not sit among them by elec- 
tion, but by descent, in case the rest of the peers of that 
nation should consent to it : a debate followed concerning 
the articles of the union, which of them were fundamental 
and not alterable ; it was said, that by the union, no private 
right could be taken away, but by the consent of the per- 
sons concerned ; therefore no alteration could be made in 
the right of the peers of Scotland, unless they consented to 
it. It was afterwards debated, whether an alteration might 
be made with this condition, in case they should consent to 
it ; or whether the first rise to any such alteration ought not 
to be given by a previous desire. This was not so subject 
to an ill management : the court studied to have a subse- 
quent consent received as sufficient ; but a previous desire 
was insisted on, as visibly fairer and juster. 

The House of Commons, after the recess, entered on the Waipoies 
observations of the commissioners for taking the public censure. 
accounts ; and began with Walpole, whom they resolved to 
put out of the way of disturbing them in the house. The 
thing laid to his charge stood thus ; — after he, as secretary of 
war, had contracted with some for forage to the horse that 
lay in Scotland, he, finding that tlie two persons who con- 
tracted for it made some gain by it, named a friend of his 
own as a third person, that he might have a share in the 
gain ; but the other two had no mind to let him in to know 
the secret of their management, so they ofi'ered him 500/, 
for his share ; he accepted of it, and the money was re- 
mitted : but they, not knowing his address, directed their 
bill to W'^alpole, who endorsed it, and the person con- 
cerned received the money : this was found out, and Wal- 
voL. IV. 2p 



290 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1712. pole was charged v^ith it as a bribe, that he had taken for 
his o\vn use, for making the contract. Both the persons 
that remitted the money, and he who received it, w ere ex- 
amined, and aflirmed that Walpole was neither directly nor 
indirectly concerned in the matter ; but the House insisted 
upon his having endorsed the bill, and not only voted this 
a corruption, but sent him to the Tower, and expelled him 
the House. 
The censure The uext attack was on the Duke of Marlborough : the 
DdteVf"^ money received from the Jew was said to be a fraud ; and 
Maribo- that deducted out of the pay of the foreign troops, was said 
ro^ugh. ^Q |jg public money, and to be accounted for : the debate 
held long ; it appeared that, during the former war. King 
William had 50,000/, a-year for contingencies; it was often 
reckoned to have cost much more. The contingency, was 
that service which could be brought to no certain head, 
and was chiefly for procuring intelligence : the Duke of 
Marlborough had only 10,000/. for the contingencies ; and 
that, and all the other items joined together, amounted but 
to 30,000/. a sum much inferior to what had been formerly 
given ; and yet, with this moderate expense, he had pro- 
cured so good intelligence, that he was never surprised, 
and no party he sent out was ever intercepted or cut oflf. 
By means of this intelligence all his designs were so well 
concerted, that he succeeded in every one of them, and, by 
many instances, the exactness of his intelligence was fully 
demonstrated. It was proved, both by witnesses, and by 
formal attestations from Holland, that ever since the year 
1672, the Jews had made the like present to the general of 
the states' army ; and it was understood as a perquisite 
belonging to that command : no bargain was made with the 
Jews for the English troops, that made by the states being 
applied to them ; so that it appeared, that the making such 
a present to the general was customary ; but that was de- 
nied ; and they voted the taking that present to be illegal : 
and, though he had the Queen's warrant to receive the six- 
pence in the pound, or two and a half per cent, deducted 
from the pay of the foreign troops, yet that was voted to be 
unwarrantable, and that it ought to be accounted for. Tlie 
court espoused this with such zeal, and paid so well for it, 
that it was carried by a great majority : upon this, many 
virulent writers (whether set on to it, or officiously studying 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 291 

to merit by it, did not appear) threw out, in many defama- ^^i^; 
tory libels, a great deal of their malice against the Duke of Many libers 
Marlborough : they compared him to Catiline, to Crassus, ^^g^'^^t •'""• 
and to Anthony ; and studied to represent him as a robber 
of the nation, and as a public enemy. This gave an indig- 
nation to all who had a sense of gratitude, or a regard to 
justice. In one of these scurrilous papers, ^VTote on design 
to raise the rabble against him, one of the periods began 
thus : " he was, perhaps, once fortunate." I took occasion 
to let Prince Eugene see the spite of these writers, and 
mentioned this passage ; upon which he made this pleasant 
reflection, " that it was the greatest commendation could 
be given him, since he was always successful ; so this 
implied, that in one single instance he might be fortunate, 
but that all his other successes were owing to his conduct." 
I upon that said, that single instance must be then his es- 
caping out of the hands of the party that took him, when he 
was sailing down the Maese in the boat. But their ill 
will rested not in defamation ; the Queen was prevailed 
on to send an order to the attorney-general to prosecute 
him for the 15,000/. that was deducted yearly out of the 
pay of the foreign troops, which he had received by her 
own warrant ; but what this will end in, must be left to 
time. 

The Duke of Ormond was now declared general, and 
had the iirst regiment of guards ; and the Earl of Rivers 
was made master of the ordinance. 

Secret inquiries were made, in order to the laying more "'* '"»"- 
load on the Duke of Marlborough, and to see whether posts pea.ed evi- 
in the army, or in the guards were sold by him ; but nothing 
could be found : he had sutTered a practice to go on, that 
had been begun in the late King's time, of letting officers 
sell their commissions ; but he had never taken any part of 
the price to himself: few thought that he had been so clear 
in that matter ; for it was the only thing, in which his ene- 
mies were confident, that some discoveries would have been 
made to his prejudice ; so that the endeavours used, to 
search into those matters, producing nothing, raised the re- 
putation of his incorrupt administration, more than all his 
well-wishers could have expected. Thus happy does 
sometimes the malice of an enemy prove ! In this whole 
transaction we suav a new scene of ingratitude, acted in u 



29^ HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1712. most imprudent manner; when the man, to whom the fUl- 
'"^•'^ tion owed more, than it had ever done, in any age, to any 
subject, or perhaps to any person whatsoever, was for 
some months pursued with so much malice : he bore it with 
silence and patience, with an exterior that seemed always 
calm and cheerful ; and, though he prepared a full vindica- 
tion of himself, yet he delayed publishing it, till the nation 
should return to its senses, and be capable of examining 
these matters, in a more impartial manner. 
TueSeotch The Scotcli lords, seeing no redress to their complaint, 
in "ood"' seemed resolved to come no more to sit in the House of 
hopes. Peers ; but the court was sensible, that their strength in 
that House consisted chiefly in them, and in the new peers : 
so pains were taken, and secret forcible arguments were 
used to them, which proved so eflectual, that after a few 
days' absence, they came back ; and continued, during thfe 
session, to sit in the House. They gave it out, that an ex- 
pedient would be found, that would be to the satisfaction of 
the peers of Scotland ; but nothing of that appearing, it 
was concluded that the satisfaction was private, and per- 
sonal. The great arrear, into which all the regular pay- 
ments, both of the household and of salaries and pensions 
was left to run, made it to be generally believed, that the 
income for the civil list, though it exceeded the establish- 
ment very far, was applied to other payments, which the 
ministers durst not o^vn. And though secret practice on 
members had been a great while too common, yet it was 
believed, that it was at this time managed with an extra- 
ordinary profusion. 

Those, who were suspected to have very bad designs, 
applied themselves with great industry to drive on such 
bills, as they hoped would give the presbyterians in Scot- 
land such alarms, as might dispose them to remonstrate, 
that the union was broken. They passed not all at once ; 
but I shall lay them together, because one and the same 
design was pursued in them all. 
A toieraiioi) A tolcration was proposed for the episcopal clergy, who 
lili. litiirf,'" would use the liturgy of the church of England ; this seemed 
in Scoiiand. so reasonable, that no opposition was made to it: one 
clause put in it, occasioned great complaints ; the magis- 
trates, who by the laws were obliged to execute the sen- 
tences of the judicatories of their kirk, were by this act 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 293 

required to execute none of them. It was reasonable to i^^i^. 
require them to execute no sentences that might be passed ^^''^ 
on any, for doing what was tolerated by this act ; but the 
carrying this to a general clause, took away the civil sanc- 
tion, which in most places is looked on as the chief, if not 
the only strength of church power. Those who were to 
be thus tolerated, were required, by a day limited in the 
act, to take the oath of abjuration ; it was well known, that 
few, if any of them, would take that oath ; so to cover them 
from it, a clause was put in this act, requiring all the pres- 
byterian ministers to take it; since it seemed reasonable, ^^^^^^ethc 
that those of the legal establishment should be required to presbvte- 
take that, which was now to be imposed on those, who ""'"'' *^^"'' 
were only to be tolerated. It was well understood, that 
there were words in the oath of abjuration, to which the 
presbyterians excepted. In the act of succession, one of 
the conditions on which the successor was to be received, 
was, his being of the communion of the church of England ; 
and by the oath of abjuration, the succession was sworn to, 
as limited by that act : the word " limitation" imported only 
the entail of the crown ; but it was suggested that the par- 
ticle " as" related to all the conditions in that act. This was 
spread among so many of that persuasion, that it was be- 
lieved a great party among them would refuse to take it ; 
so a small alteration was made by the House of Lords, of 
these words, "as was limited," into words of the same sense, 
'^' which was limited ;" but those who intended to excuse the 
episcopal party, who they knew were in the Pretender's in- 
terests, from taking the oath, were for keeping in those 
words, which the presbyterians scrupled. The Commons 
accordingly disagreed to the amendment made by the Lords ; 
and they receding from it, the bill passed, as it had been 
sent up from the Commons. Another act passed for dis- 
continuing the courts of judicature, during some days at 
Christmas, though the observing of holidays was contra- 
ry to their principles ; this was intended only to irritate 
them. 

After that, an act was brought in, for the restoring of Pat. o^ages 
patronages ; these had been taken a^vuy by an act in King "^"'"^ 
William's reign; it was set up by the presbyterians, from 
their first beginning, as a principle, that parishes had, from 
warrants in scripture, a right to choose their ministers ; so 



294 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1^12. tiiat they had always looked on the right of patronage, as 
^"^^^^ an invasion made on that : it was therefore urged, that 
since, by the act of union, presbytery, with all its rights and 
privileges, was unalterably secured ; and since their kirk- 
session was a branch of their constitution, the taking from 
them the right of choosing their ministers was contrary to 
that act : yet the bill passed through both houses, a small 
opposition being only made in either. By these steps the 
presbyterians were alarmed, when they saw the success of 
. every motion that was made, on design to weaken and un- 
dermine their establishment. 
The barrier Another matter, of a more public nature, was at this 

treatj. ^ , 

time set on foot ; both houses of parliament had in the 
year 1709, agreed in an address to the Queen, that the pro- 
testant succession might be secured by a guarantee, in the 
treaty of peace ; and this was s'ettled at the Hague, to be 
one of the preliminaries : but when an end was put to the 
conferences atGertruydenburgh, the Lord Townshend was 
ordered to set on foot a treaty with the states to that effect. 
They entertained it readily ; but at the same time they pro- 
posed, that England should enter into a guarantee with them, 
to maintain their barrier ; which consisted of some places 
they were to garrison, the sovereignty of which was still 
in the crown of Spain; and of other places, which had not 
belonged to that crown, at the death of King Charles the 
Second, but liad been taken in the progress of the war : 
for by theii' agreements with us, they bore the charge of 
the sieges, and so the places taken were to belong to them : 
these were chiefly Lisle, Tournay, Meuin, and Doway; 
and were to be kept still by them. But as for those places, 
which, from the time of the treaty of the Pyrenees, belong- 
ed to the Spaniards ; they had been so ill looked after, by 
tlie Spanish Governors of Flanders, who were more set on 
enriching themselves, and keeping a magnificent court at 
Brussels, than on preserving the country; that neither were 
the fortifications kept in due repair, nor the magazines fur- 
nished, not the soldiers paid : so that whensoever a war 
broke out, the French made themselves very easily masters 
of places so ill kept. The states liad therefore proposed, 
during tliis war, that the sovereignty of those places shoiiM 
continue still to belong to tlie crown of Spain ; but they 
should keep giirrisous in the strongest and the most ex.- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 295 

posed, in particular those that lay on the Lys and the ^''i^. 
Scheld ; and for the maintaining this, they asked 100,000Z. ^^-^^ 
a-year from those provinces ; by which means they would 
be kept better and cheaper than ever they had been, while 
they were in the hands of the Spaniards : they also asked 
a free passage for all the stores, that they should send to 
those places. This seemed to be so reasonable, that since 
the interest of England, as well as of the states, required 
that this frontier should be carefully maintained, the minis- 
try were ready to hearken to it : it was objected, that in 
case of a war between England and the states, the trade 
of those provinces would be wholly in the hands of the 
Dutch ; but this had been settled in the great truce, which, 
by the mediation of France and England, was made be- 
tween the Spaniads and .the states : there was a provisional 
order therein made, for the freedom of trade in those pro- 
vinces ; and that was turned to a perpetual one, by the 
peace of Munster. King Charles of Spain had agreed to 
the main of the barrier ; some places on the Scheld were 
not necessary for a frontier, but the states insisted on them, 
as necessary to maintain a communication with the fron- 
tier : the King of Prussia excepted likewise to some places 
in the Spanish Guelder. The Lord Townshend thought, 
that these were such inconsiderable objections, that though 
his instructions did not come up to every particular, yet he 
signed the treaty, known by the name of the Barrier Treaty : 
by it the States bound themselves to maintain the Queen's 
title to her dominions and the protestant succession, with 
their whole force : and England was reciprocally bound to 
assist them in maintaining this barrier. 

The mercenary writers, that were hired to defend the it ^^^^s com 
peace then projected with France, attacked this treaty with ^ ^'°^ 
great virulence, and by arguments that gave just suspi- 
cions of black designs. They said it was a disgrace to 
this nation to engage any other state to secure the succes- 
sion among us, which perhaps we might see cause to alter; 
whereas by this treats'^, the states had an authority given 
them to interpose in our counsels. It was also said, that 
if the states were put in possession of all those strong 
towns, they might shut us out from any share of trade in 
them, and might erect our manufactures in provinces very 
capable of them ; but it was answered, that this could not 



296 

1712. 



And con- 
demned to 
the House 
of Lords. 



HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
be done as long ^s this treaty continued in force, unless 
the sovereign of the country should join with them against 
us. Some objected to the settlement made at Munstcr^ as 
a transaction when we were in such confusion at home 
that we had no minister there ; but that treaty had only 
rendered the truce, and the provisional settlement made 
before by the mediation of England, perpetual ; and we 
had since acquiesced in that settlement for above sixty 
years. By examining into the particulars of the treaty, it 
appeared, that in some inconsiderable matters, the Lord 
Townshend had gone beyond the letter of his instructions, 
in which he had so fully satisfied the ministry, that though 
upon his first signing it, some exceptions had been taken, 
yet these were passed over, and the treaty was ratified in 
form. 

But the present ministry bad other views : they designed 
to set the Queen at liberty from her engagements by these 
alliances, and to disengage her from treaties. The House 
of Commons went now very hastily into several resolutions, 
that were very injurious to the states : they pretended, they 
had failed in the performance of all agieements, with rela- 
tion to the service, both at sea and land ; and the troops, 
that were to have been furnished in Portugal and Savoy, as 
well as the subsidies due to those princes. They fell next 
on the barrier treaty ; they gave it out, that the old minis- 
try designed to bring over an army from Holland, whenso- 
ever they should, for other ends, pretend that the protestant 
succession was in danger ; and it was said, there was no 
need of any foreign assistance to maintain it. In the dcr 
bate, it was insisted on, that it could be maintained safely 
no other way ; it was not to be doubted, but the King of 
France would assist the Pretender ; England was not in- 
clined to keep up a standing army, in time of peace, to re- 
sist him ; so that we could not be so safe any other way, 
as by having the states engaged, to send over their army, if 
it should be necessary. But reason is a feeble thing, to 
bear down resolutions already taken; so the House of Com- 
mons voted the treaty disliojiourablc, and injurious to Eng- 
land ; and Uiat the Lord Townshend had gone beyond his 
instructions in signing it : and thai he and all, who had ad- 
vised and ratified that treaty, were public enemies lo the 
These votes were carried by a great majority, 
6 



kingdom 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 297 

and were looked on as strange preludes to a peace. When ^'^^-• 
the states heard, what exceptions were taken to the barrier 
treaty, they >\Tote a very respectful letter to the Queen, in 
in which they offered to explain or mollify any part of it, 
that was wrong understood ; but the managers of the House 
of Commons got all their votes to be digested, into a well- 
composed, inflaming representation, which was laid before 
the Queen ; by it, all the allies, but most particularly the 
states, were charged for having failed in many particulars, 
contrary to their engagements : they also laid before the 
Queen the votes they had made, with relation to the barrier 
treaty ; and that they might name a great sum, that would 
make a deep impression on the nation (which was ready to 
receive all things implicitly from them) they said England 
had been, during the war, overcharged 19,000,000Z. beyond 
what they ought to have paid ; all which was qast on the 
old ministry. 

The states, in answer to all this, drew^ up a large memo- Tbe states 

•T-i.l t-1 ■ JUSllfv 

rial, m which every particular in the representation was ex- themselves. 
amined, and fully answ ered : they sent it over to their en- 
voy, who presented it to the Queen; but no notice was 
taken of it — the end was already served ; and the entering 
into a discussion about it, could have no other effect, but to 
confound those who drew it. Tlie tw o first heads of the 
states' memorial, that related to the service at sea and in 
Flanders, were printed here, and contained a full answer 
to all that was charged on them as to those matters, to the 
ample conviction of all who examined the particulars. The 
House of Commons saw the effect this w as like to have ; so 
they voted it a false, malicious, scandalous, and injurious 
paper, and that the printing it w as a breach of privilege : 
and to stop the printing the other heads, they put the printer 
in prison ; this was a confutation, to which no reply could 
be made : yet it seemed to be a confession, that their re- 
presentation could not be justified, when the answer to it 
was so carefully stifled. The House of Commons went 
next to repeal the naturalization act, in which they met 
with no opposition. 

The self-denying bill was brought into the House of Cora- Tiie self-de- 
mons ; and, as was ordinary, it passed easily there : the ^^^"^ " 
scandal of corruption was how higher than ever ; for it was 
believed, men w ere not only bribed for a whole session, but 

VOL. IV. 2 Q 



298 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

i"i'-* had new biihcs for particular votes. The twelve new 
peers beiiii;- brouiiht into the Hoiujc of Lords, had irritated 
-so many there, that for two days, by all the judgments that 
could be made of the House, the bill was likely to have 
passed that House ; but upon some prevailing arguments, 
secretly and dextcrouslj applied to sonielords,an alteration 
was made in it, by which it was lost: for whereas the bill, 
as it stood, w as to take place after the determination of the 
present parliament, this was altered, so as that it should 
take place after the demise of the Queen ; so it was no 
more thought on. 

The House of Commons voted 2,000,000/. to be raised by 
a lottery ; for which a fund was created that might pay both 
principal and interest in thirty- two years. 
The treaty I look uext to Utrcclit, whcrc the treaty was opened : the 
opened? Emperor and the empire sent their ministers very late and 
unwillingly thither; but they submitted to the necessity of 
their aft'airs ; yet with this condition, that the French pro- 
posals (for so the propositions that were formerly called 
preliminaries, came to be named) should be no ground to 
proceed on ; and that a new treaty should be entered on, 
%vithout any regard to them. It was also agreed, to save 
the loss of time in settling the ceremonial, that the plenipo- 
tentiaries should assume no character of dignity, till all 
matters were adjusted, and made ready for signing. The 
1st of January was the day named for opening the con- 
gress'; but they waited some time for the allies : in the be- 
ginning of February, O.S., the French made their proposals 
in a very high strain. 
Tiie French They promised, that at the signing of the treaty, they 
proposals. -^Quid own the Queen and the succession to the crown, as 
she should direct ; Spain and the West Indies were to re- 
main with King Philip ; the dominions in Italy, with the 
Islands, except Sicily, were to go to the Emperor ; and the 
Spanish Xetherlands to the Elector of Bavaria : the trade 
was to be regulated, as it was before the war ; some places 
in Canada were to be restored to England, with the freedom 
of fishery in Newfoundland ; but Placentia was to remain 
with the French : Dunkirk was offered to be demolished ; 
but Lisle and Toumay were to be given for it : tlie states 
were to have tiieir demands for the Ijarrier ; and the frontier 
between France, the Empire, and Italy, was to be tlic same 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 299 

that it was before the war ; by which Landau, Fenestrella, i''^^- 
and Exilles, were to be restored to France. These demands ''^ 
were as extra vag;ant, as any that France could have made, 
in the most prosperous state of their aftairs : this filled the 
allies with indignation, and heightened the jealousy they 
had of a secret understanding between the courts of Eng- 
land and France. 

But a great change happened in the aftairs of France at The death of 
this very time, that their plenipotentiaries were making Dau.?hi'us. 
these demands at Utrecht. The Dauphiness was taken 
suddenly ill of a surfeit, as it was given out, and died in 
three days ; and within three or four days after that, the 
Dauphin himself died; and in a few days after him his 
eldest son, about five or six years old, died likewise ; and 
his second son, then about three years old, was thought to 
be in a dying condition. These deaths coming so quick 
one after another, struck that court. The King himself 
was for some days ill, but he soon recovered. Such re- 
peated strokes were looked on with amazement. Poison 
was suspected, as is usual upon all such occasions ; and 
the Duke of Orleans was generally charged with it. He 
was believed to have dealt much in chymistry, and was an 
ambitious prince. While he was in Spain, at the head of 
King Philip's army, he formed a project to set him aside, 
and to make himself King of Spain ; in which, as the Lord 
Townshend told me, he went so far, that he tried to engage 
Mr. Stanhope to press the Queen and the states to assist 
him, promising to break with France, and to marry King 
Charles's dowager : this came to be discovered ; he was 
upon that called out of Spain ; and it was thought, that the 
only thing that saved him was the King's kindness to his 
natural daughter whom he had married. The King not 
only passed it over, but soon after he obliged the Duke of 
Berry to marry his daughter. Such care had that old King 
taken to corrupt the blood of France with the mixture of 
his spurious issue. King Philip was not at all pleased 
with tlie alliance ; but wTole to his elder brother, expos- 
tulating for his not opposing the marriage more vigorously, 
with which he professed himself so displeased, that he could 
not be brought to congratulate upon it. This letter was 
sent from Madrid to Paris ; but was intercepted and sent 



300 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

I'^i"- to Barcelona, and from thence to the Hague: Dr. Hare 
^"'^''^ told me he read the original letter. 
TLeciiarac- The Dukc of Biirgundy, when he became dauphin, up- 
piiinf ^^' on his father's death, had been let into the understand- 
ing the secrets of government ; and as was given out, he 
had on many occasions expressed a deep sense of the mi- 
series of the people with great sentiments of justice. He 
had likewise, in some disputes that Cardinal de Noailles 
had with the Jesuits, espoused his interests, and protected 
him. It was also believed, that he retained a great affec- 
tion to the Archbishop of Cambray, whose fable of Tele- 
machus carried in it the noblest maxims possible, for the 
conduct of a wise and good prince, and set forth that 
station in shining characters, but which were the reverse of 
Louis the Fourteenth's whole life and reign. These things 
gave the French a just sense of the loss they had in his 
death, and the apprehensions of a minority, after such a 
reign, struck them with a great consternation. These deaths, 
in so critical a time, seemed to portend, that all the vast 
scheme which the King of France had formed with so 
much perfidy and bloodshed, was in a fair way to be soon 
blasted : but I will go no further in so dark a prospect. 
An indigna- ^he Frcuch propositious raised, among the true English, 
tion, when a just indignation; more particularly their putting off the 
pro^oTis'^ owning the Queen, till the treaty came to be signed. The 
came over, Lord Treasurer, to soften this, said, he saw a letter, in 
^thTo'^ases. which the King of France acknowledged her Queen ; this 
was a confession that there was a private correspondence 
between them ; yet the doing it, by a letter, was no legal 
act. In excuse of this, it was said, that the late King was 
not owned by the French, till the treaty of Ryswick came 
to be signed ; but there was a mediator in that treaty, 
with whom our plenipotentiaries only negotiated ; whereas 
there was no mediator at Utrecht ; so that the Queen was 
now, without any interposition, treating with a princ<?, 
who did not own her right to the crown. The propositions 
made by the French were treated here with the greatest 
scorn ; nor did the ministers pretend to say any thmg in 
excuse for them : and an address was made to the Queen, 
expressing a just indignation at such a proceeding, promis- 
ing her all assistance in carrying on the war, till she should 
arrive at a just and honomable peace. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 301 

The allies did offer their demands next, which ran as ^^i^. 
high another way. The Emperor asked the whole Spanish ^^ ^^ 
monarchy: England asked the restoring Newfomidland, mandsoftlie 
and the demolishing Dunkirk : the states asked their whole ^"'"• 
barrier; and every ally asked satisfaction to all the other 
allies, as well as to himself. England and the states de- 
clared, that they demanded Spain and the West Indies for 
the Emperor ; so the high pattern set by the French in 
their demands, w as to the full imitated by the allies. The 
French set a day for offering their answ er ; but when the 
day came, instead of offering an answer in writing, they 
proposed to enter mto verbal conferences upon the de- 
mands made on both sides : this had indeed been prac- 
tised in treaties w here mediators interposed ; but that was 
not done till the main points were secretly agreed to. 
The allies rejected this proposition, and demanded spe- 
cific answers in wTiting ; so, till the beginning of May, 
the treaty went on in a very languid manner, in many fruit- 
less meetings, the French always saying they had yet re- 
ceived no other orders ; so that the negotiation there was 
at a full stand. 

The preparations for the campaign were carried on by ^^^p"^',,,^ 
the Emperor and the states with all possible vigour. Prince campaign. 
Eugene staid three months in England, in a fruitless nego- 
tiation with our court, and was sent back >vith general and 
ambiguous promises. The states gave him the supreme 
command of their army, and assured him that, in the 
execution of the project that was concerted among them, 
he should be put under no restraint by their deputies or 
generals, and that no cessation of arms should be ordered 
till all was settled by a general peace. The Duke of Or- 
mond followed him in April, well satisfied both with his 
instructions and his appointments ; for he had the same 
allowances that had been lately voted criminal in the Duke 
of Marlborough. 

At this time the Pretender was taken ill of the small-pox: The Pre- 
he recovered of them ; but his sister, who was taken with [^"/igdV''*' 
the same disease, died of it. She was, by all that knew 
her, admired as a most extraordinary person in all re- 
spects ; insomuch, that a very great character was spread 
of her by those who talked but indifferently of the Pre- 
tender himself: thus he lost a great strength which she pro- 



302 

1712. 



Proceed- 
ings in con- 
vocation. 



C-ensure on 
Winston's 
hook, not 
oontirmed 



HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
cured to him, from all who saw or conversed with her. I 
turn next to give an account of the convocation. 

There was a doubt suggested, whether the Queen's li- 
cense did still subsist, after a prorogation by a royal writ : 
the Attorney-General gave his opinion, that it was still in 
force; upon which the bishops went on with the resolution, 
in which the former session had ended, and sent back to 
the lower house a paper which had been sent to them from 
that house in the former session, with such amendments as 
they thought proper: but then Atterbury started a new 
notion, that as, in a session of parliament, a prorogation 
put an end to all matters not tinished, so that they were to 
begin all a-new ; the same rule was to be applied to con- 
vocations in pursuance of his favourite notion, that the 
proceedings in parliament were likewise to be observed 
amongst them. The bishops did not agree to this ; for, 
upon searching their books, they found a course of pre- 
cedents to the contrary : and the schedule, by which the 
Archbishop prorogued them, when the royal writ was sent 
him, did, in express words, continue all things in the state 
in which they were then, to their next meeting. Yet this 
did not satisfy Atterbury and his party ; so the lower house 
ordered him to lay the matter before the Attorney-General 
for his opinion ; he did that very partially, for he did not 
shew him the paper sent down by the bishops; he only 
gave him a very defective abstract of it, whereupon the 
Attornoy- General gave him such an answer as he desired ; 
by which it was very plain, that he was not rightly in- 
formed about it. The bishops resolved to adhere to the 
method of former convocations, and not to begin matters 
afresh that had been formerly near finished ; by this means 
they were at a full stop, so that they could not determine 
those points which had been recommended to them by the 
Queen : but they entered upon new ones ; there was then a 
bill, in tlie house of parliament, for building fifty new 
churches in and about London and Westminster ; so an 
office, for consecrating churches and churchyards, was 
prepared : and probably this will be all the fruit that the 
church will reap from this convocation. 

The censure that was passed on Whiston's book, in tlie 
former session, had been laid before the Queen in due 
iorui for her approbation: but at the opening of thig scs- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 803 

sion in December, the bishops finding that no return was . i7i2. 
come from the throne in that matter, sent tvvo of their num- . "T"^*^ 

by the 

ber to receive her jVIajesty's pleasure in it. The Arch- Queeu. 
bishop being so ill of the gout, that he came not among us 
all that winter. The Queen had put the censure, that we 
had sent her, into the hands of some of her ministers, but 
could not remember to whom she gave it ; so a new ex- 
tract of it was sent to her ; and she said she would send 
her pleasure upon it very speedily; but none came during 
the session, so all further proceedings against him were 
stopped, since the Queen did not confirm the step that we 
had made : this was not unacceptable to some of us, and 
to myself in particular. I was gone into my diocese when 
that censure was passed ; and I have ever thought, that the 
true interest of the Christian religion was best consulted, 
when nice disputing about mysteries was laid aside and 
forgotten. 

There appeared, at this time, an inclination in many of 4° "?'^^'"*" 

, -, J, t'on "• some 

the clergy, to a nearer approach towards the church of of tiie clergy 
Rome. Hicks, an ill-tempered man, who was now at the to"^''<^* P**- 
head of the Jacobite party, had in several books promoted 
a notion, that there was a proper sacrifice made in the 
eucharist, and had, on many occasions, studied to lessen 
our aversion to popery. The supremacy of the crown in 
ecclesiastical matters, and the method in which the Refor- 
mation was carried, was openly condemned. One Brett 
had preached a sermon in several of the pulpits of Lon- 
don, which he afterwards printed, in which he pressed the 
necessity of priestly absolution, in a strain beyond what 
was pretended to even in the church of Rome. He said 
no repentance could serve without it, and affirmed that 
the priest was vested with the same power of pardoning 
that our Saviour himself had. A motion was made in the 
lower house of convocation to censure this ; but it was so 
ill supported, that it was let fall. Another conceit was 
taken up of the invalidity of lay baptism, on which several 
books have been writ ; nor was the dispute a trifling one ; 
since by this notion, the teachers among the dissenters 
passing for laymen, this went to the re-baptizing them and 
their congregations. 

Dodwell gave the rise to this conceit ; he was a very Dodweiis 
learned man, and led a strict life; he seemed to hunt°*^'"°*' 



"^.^ 



304 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1^^'- after paradoxes iii all his Avritiiigs, and broached not a few ; 
he thought none could be saved, but those who, by the sa- 
craments, had a federal right to it ; and that these were the 
seals of the covenant : so that he left all, who died without 
the sacraments, to the uncovcnanted mercies of God ; and 
to this he added, that none had a right to give the sacra- 
ments, but those who were commissioned to it ; and these 
were the apostles, and after them bishops and priests or- 
dained by them : it followed upon this, that sacraments ad- 
ministered by others were of no value. He pursued these 
notions so far, that he asserted that the souls of men were 
naturally mortal, but that the immortalizing virtue was con- 
veyed by baptism, given by persons episcopally ordained. 
And yet, after all this, which carried the episcopal function 
so high, he did not lay the original of that government on 
any instruction or warrant in the scripture ; but thought it 
was set up in the beginning of the second century, after th^ 
apostles were all dead. He \wote very doubtfully of the 
time, in which the canon of the New Testament was set- 
tled ; he thought it was not before the second century, and 
Hiat an extraordinary inspiration was continued in' the 
churches to that very time, to which he ascribed the origi- 
nal of episcopacy. This strange and precarious system 
was in great credit among us ; and the necessity of the sa- 
crament, and the invalidity of ecclesiastical functions, when 
performed by persons, who were not episcopally ordained, 
were entertained by many \\dth great applause : this made 
the dissenters pass for no Christians, and put all thoughts 
of reconciling them to us far out of view : and several little 
books were spread about the nation to prove the necessity 
of re-baptizing them, and that they w ere in a state of dam- 
nation till that was done; but few were, by these argu- 
ments, prevailed upon to be re-baptized : this struck even 
at the baptism by midwives in the church of Rome ; which 
was practised and connived at here in England, till it was 
objected in the conference, held at Hampton Court, soon 
after King James the First's accession to the crown, and 
baptism was not till then limited to persons in orders : 
nothing of this kind was so much as mentioned in the year 
1660, when a great part of the nation had been baptized by 
dissenters : but it was now promoted with much heat. 
The bishops thouglit it uecessaiy to put a stop to this 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 305 

new and extravagant doctrine ; so a declaration was agreed. ^^^2. 
to, first against the irregularity of all baptism by persons ^j^^ ^^^^ ^ 
who were not in holy orders, but that yet, according to the designed to 
practice of the primitive church, and the constant usage of J^"^|^^®™^® 
the church of England, no baptism (in or with water, in the disscnurs. 
name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost) ought to be 
reiterated. The Archbishop of York at first agreed to this ; 
so it was resolved to publish it, in the name of all the bi- 
shops of England ; but he was prevailed on to change his 
mind ; and refused to sign it, pretending that this would 
encourage irregular baptism : so the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, with most of the bishops of his province, resolved to ^""^®., 
offer it to the convocation. It was agreed to in the upper nol agree to 
house, the Bishop of Rochester only dissenting : but when ^'• 
it was sent to the lower house, they would not so much as 
take it into consideration, but laid it aside, thinking that it 
would encourage those who struck at the dignity of the 
priesthood. This was all that passed in convocation. 

The supplies demanded were given, in all about six mil- Great sup- 
lions ; there were two lotteries of 1,800,000/. a piece, besides ^ "^^ ^'^*^ 
the four shillings in the pound, and the malt bill. A motion 
was made for a clause, to be put in one of the lottery bills, 
for a commission to inquire into the value and consideration 
of all the grants made by King William. The ministers ap- 
prehended the difficulty of carrying a money bill, with a 
tack to it, through the House of Lords ; so they prevailed 
to get it separated from the money bill, and sent up in a, 
particular one ; and undertook to carry it. When it came 
up to the House of Lords, a great party was made against 
it ; those who continued to pay a respect to the memory of 
King William, thought it was a very unbecoming return to 
him, who had delivered the nation from slavery and popery, 
to cast so particular an indignity on his grants : the bill 
made all its steps through the House of Lords to the last, 
with a small majority of one or two. The Earl of Notting- 
ham was absent the first two days, but came to the House 
on the last; he said, he always thought those grants were 
too large, and very unseasonably made, but he thought 
there ought to be an equal way of proceeding in that mat- 
ter ; they ought either to resume them all, or to bring all 
concerned in them to an equal composition : he therefore 
could not approve of this bill, which, by a Yery clear consc- 

voL. IV. 2r 



306 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

I'' 12. quence, would put it in the power of a fellow-subject to re- 
^"^^^"^ sume or to cover grants at his pleasure ; and so it would 
put the persons, concerned in the grants, into too great a 
dependance on him. At the last reading of the bill, seventy- 
eight, in person or by proxy, were for the bill, and as many 
were against it : the votes being equal, by the rule of the 
House, the negativ e carried it : so, for that time, the bill 
was lost. 

During the session, reports were often given out, that all 
things were agreed, and that the treaty was as good as 
finished : but new stories were set on foot, and pretended 
delays, to put off the expectation of peace : however, in 
the end of May, we were surprised with letters from the 
camp, which told us, that the army of the allies being joined, 
was twenty-five thousand men stronger than the French ; 
an advantage that they never had before during the whole 
course of the war : that Prince Eugene therefore propos- 
ed, that they should march towards the head of the Scheld, 
where the French army lay, and, upon their advancing, the 
French would be obliged cither to venture on action or to 
retire ; and in that case Cambray w ould be left open to the 
allies to sit down before it. The council of war agreed to 
Tiie Duke this ; but, to their great surprise, the Duke of Ormond 
oforiuond shcwcd ordcrs not to act oflensively against the French ; 
to act offen- he Seemed to be very uneasy with these orders, but said 
8i?eijr ijg must obey them. This w as much resented by tlie whole 
army, and by the ministers of the allies at the Hague and at 
Utrecht : and it struck us here in England with amazement. 
Motions -were made upon it in both houses of parlia- 
ment; for it seemed we were neither to have peace nor 
war: so it was proposed, that an address should be made 
to the Queen, that she would set the Duke of Ormond at 
liberty to act in concurrence with the other generals, and 
carry on the war so as to obtain a good peace. Those who 
opposed this, asked what proofs they had of what was said 
concerning the Duke of Ormond's orders ; they had only 
private letters, which were not produced : so it was said 
there was not ground enough to found an address upon, 
which ought not to be made on bare reports. The minis- 
ters would neither confess nor deny the matter, pretending 
the oa<h of secrecy ; yet they aflirmcd the Duke of Or- 
mond was at liberty to cover a siege. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 307 

That which prevailed in both houses to hinder the ad- i''i2. 
dress was, that the ministers in both did affirm that the a ^i^^^e 
peace was agreed on, and would be laid before th^m in pea<=e dis- 
three or four days : it was upon that suggested that this "hehorl 
must be a separate peace, since the allies knew nothing of T'^^surer. 
it. The Lord Treasurer said, a separate peace was so 
base, so knavish, and so villanous a thing, that every one 
who served the Queen knew they must answer it witli their 
heads to the nation ; but it would appear to be a safe and 
a glorious peace, much more to the honour and interest 
of the nation, than the preliminaries that were agreed to 
three years before : he also affirmed that the allies knew 
of it, and were satisfied with it ; so the motion fell, and 
all were in great expectation to see what a few days would 
produce. In order to this, it was proposed to examine 
into all the proceedings at the Hague, and at Gertruyden- 
burgh, in the years 1709 and 1710 : this was set on by a 
representation made by the Earl of Strafford, for he affirm- 
ed, in the House of Lords, that those matters had not been 
fairly represented : he said he had his information from one 
of the to o who had been employed in those conferences : 
by this it was plain he meant Buys. Lord Townshend had 
informed the House, that those who had treated with the 
French at Gertruydenburgh did, at their return, give an ac- 
count of their negotiation to the ministers of the allies, in 
the pensioner's presence, before they reported it to the 
states themselves : but upon this, the Earl of Strafford said, 
they had been first secretly with the pensioner, who direct- 
ed them both what to say, and what to suppress. Upon 
this, the House made an address to the Queen, desiring her 
to lay before them all that passed at that time, and in that 
negotiation ; but nothing followed upon this, for it was said 
to be designed only to amuse the House. 

Surprises came at this time quick one after another. At The Qneen, 
Utrecht, on the 2d of June, N. S., the plenipotentiaries of ^^JJ'^f^'" 
the states expostulated Asith the Bishop of Bristol, upon Bristol, said 
tlie orders sent to the Duke of Ormond : he answered, he fr'^ee from all 
knew nothing of them ; but said he had received a letter, her treaties 
two days before, from the Queen, in which she complained ^j^tes. ^ 
that, notwitlistanding all the advances she had made, to 
engage the states to enter with her upon a plan of peace, 
they had not answered her as they ought, and as she hoped 



308 



1712. 



The Qneen 
laid before 
the parlia- 
ment tlie 
plan of the 
peace. 



Addresses 
of both 
houses npon 
it. 



HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
they would have done : therefore she did now think herself 
at liberty to enter into separate measures, to obtain a 
peace for her own convenience. The plenipotentiaries 
said, this was contrary to all tiieir alliances and treaties ; 
they thought that, by the deference they had shewed her 
on all occasions, they had merited much better usage from 
her ; they knew nothing of any advances made to them on 
a plan of peace. The Bishop replied, that, considering the 
conduct of the states, the Queen thought herself disengaged 
from all alliances and engagements with them : the Bishop 
did not in express words name the barrier treaty; but he 
did not except it : so they reckoned it was included in the 
general words he had used. This did not agree with what 
the Lord Treasurer had said in the House of Lords : and 
when the states' Envoy complained to him of these decla- 
rations made them by the Bishop, all the answer he made 
was, that he was certainly in a very bad humour when he 
talked at that rate. 

On the 5th of June, the Queen came to the parliament, 
and told them on what terms a peace might be had. King 
Philip was to renounce the succession to the crown of 
France if it should devolve on him ; and this was to execute 
itself, by putting the next to him into the succession : Sicily 
was to be separated from Spain, though it was not yet 
settled who should have it. The protestant succession 
wa^ to be secured, and he who had pretended to the 
crown, was no more to be supported. Dunkirk was to be 
demolished, and Newfomidland to be delivered to England. 
Gibraltar and Port Mahon were to remain in our hands : 
we were also to have the assiento, a word importing tlie 
furnishing the Spanish West Indies with slaves from Africa. 
The Dutch were to have their barrier, except two or three 
places ; and due regard would be had to all our allies. 

Both houses agreed to make addresses of thanks to the 
Queen for communicating this plan to them, desiring her to 
finish it : an addition to these last words, " in conjunction 
with her allies," was moved in both houses, that so there 
might be a guarantee settled for the maintaining the terms 
of the treaty ; but it was rejected by a great majority in 
both houses. It was said, in opposition to it, that it would 
subj^ect the Queen and the whole treaty to the pleasure of 
the allies, who might prove backward and intractable : and 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 309 

since England had borne the greatest share of the burthen ^'^12. 
of the war, it was reasonable that the Queen should be the ''"^^^^ 
arbiter of the peace. On the other hand it was said, that 
if the allies did not enter into a guarantee, we must depend 
on the faith of the French, and be at their mercy ; and so 
have nothing to trust to, but the promises of a court noted, 
in a course of many years, for a train of perfidy. But many 
had formed an obstinate resolution to get out of the war 
on any terms : so nothing that was offered, that seemed to 
obstruct the arriving speedily at that end, was heard with 
patience ; and no regard was had to the faith of treaties : 
yet both houses observed one caution, not to express their 
being satisfied with the plan of the peace, though it was 
covertly insinuated. Mention was also made of our treaties 
with our allies, and of the protestant succession : the Lords, 
who had all along protested against the steps that the 
court had taken, entered the reasons of their protesting 
against the negative put on adding the words, " in conjunc- 
tion with her allies," and on the former vote, concerning the 
orders sent to the Duke of Orraond : these carried in them 
such just and severe reflections on the ministry, as running 
the nation into an open breach of all public trust, and put- 
ting every thing into the hands of the French, that, by the 
strength of the majority, they were expunged: yet they 
were printed, and copies of them were sent over the nation ; 
but nothing could break through that insensibility which 
had stupified the people. A new set of addresses ran 
about full of gross flattery, magnifying the present conduct, 
with severe reflections on the former ministry, which some 
carried back to King William's reign : some of these ad- 
dresses mentioned the protestant succession, and the house 
of Hanover, with zeal ; others did it more coldly ; and 
some made no mention at all of it. And it was universally 
believed, that no addresses were so acceptable to the mi- 
nisters as those of the last sort. 

About the middle of June, the session of parliament Tiie pnd nf 
came to an end : the Queen, in her speech, said, she was of narUa- " 
glad to find they approved of her scheme of peace, though Jnent. 
that was in none of the addresses ; many who intended to 
merit by their officious zeal, had indeed magnified it in both 
houses, but it was not in either of their addresses. The 
Earl of Stiafford was again sent over to induce tlie states 



310 

1712. 



HISTORY OF THE REIGfN 

to accept the offers that the French were making, and to 
consent to a cessation of arms. 

Prince Eugene ordered Qiiesnoy to be besieged ; and he, 
in conjunction with the Duke of Orraond, covered the 



army. 



Quesnoy 
taken. 



The Duke 

of OriiK lul 

proclaims a. . ii-j 11 

cessation of sicgc ; l)ut whcu the placc was so straitened, that it could 
arms, aiii jjqj. ]iq\([ Q^t abovc two or three days, the Duke of Ormond 
Eugene's seut Priiicc Eugcnc w ord, that he had orders to proclaim a 
cessation of arms for two months. Prince Eugene disa- 
greeing to this, he signified his orders to all the German 
troops that were in the Queen's pay : but the states and 
the Emperor had foreseen that this might happen, and had 
negotiated so effectually with the princes, to whom these 
troops belonged, that they had sent orders to their generals 
to continue with Prince Eugene, and to obey his command. 
This they represented to the Duke of Ormond, and h^ 
upon that told them, they should neither have bread nor 
pay, nor their arrears, if they refused to obey his orders : 
this last seemed unjust, since they had served hitherto ac- 
cording to agreement ; so that their arrears could not be* 
detained with any colour of justice. Quesnoy capitulated, 
and the garrison w ere made prisoners of w ar. It was said, 
that the court of France had promised to put Dunkirk in 
the Queen's hands, as a sure j)ledge of performing all that 
that they had stipulated, in order to a general peace : this 
w^as executed in the beginning of July, and a body of 
our troops, with a squadron of ships, were sent to take 
possession of the place. The Duke of Ormond made a 
second attempt on the generals of the German troops, to 
see if they w ould agree to the cessation of arms ; but they 
excused themselves upon the orders they had received from 
their masters : so he proclaimed the cessation at the head of 
the English troops, upon which he separated himself from 
Prince Eugene's army, and retired to Ghent and Bruges, 
possessing himself of them. The fortified places, near the 
frontier, had orders to let the officers pass through, but not 
to suffer the troops to possess themselves of them. The 
withdrawing the English forces in this manner from the 
confederate army was censured, not only as a manifest 
breach of faith and of treaties, but as treacherous in the 
highest and basest degree. The Duke of Ormond had 
given the states such assurances of his going along with 
them through the whole campaign, that he was let into the 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 311 

secrets of all their counsels, which, by that confidence, were i"^^- 
all known to the French: and, if the auxiliary German ""^ 
troops had not been prepared to disobey his orders, it was 
believed he, in conjunction with the French array, would 
have forced the states to come into new measures. But 
that was happily prevented. Yet all this conduct of our 
general was applauded at home as gTcat, just, and wise; 
and our people were led to think it a kind of triumph, upon 
Dunkirk's being put into our hands, not considering that 
we had more truly put ourselves into the hands of the 
French, by this open breach of faith ; after which, the con- 
federates could no longer trust or depend onus. Nor was 
this only the act of the court and ministry, but it became 
the act of the nation, which, by a general voice, did not 
only approve of it, but applaud it. 

Prince Eugene's next attempt was upon Landrecy, in LandtecT 
which it seemed probable that he would succeed ; but this ^^^''s*^**- 
prospect, and indeed the whole campaign, had a fatal re- 
verse. There was a body of eight or ten thousand men 
posted at Denain, on the Scheld, commanded by the Earl 
of Albemarle, to secure the conveying bread and amminii- 
tion to the army, and to the siege. Villars made a motion 
as if he designed to give Prince Eugene battle ; but after 
a feint that way, he turned quick upon this body, that lay 
on both sides of the river, w ith only one bridge of pon- 
toons: the rest had been sent to the siege of Landrecy, 
and there was not a supply of more brought. That bridge, ^ ^^^^^ ,^^^ 
with the weight that was on it, broke; so the bodies could at Denain 
not be joined. But military men assured me, that if it had ^ver^^'on 
not been for that misfortune, Villars's attempt might have the cau.- 
turned fatally on himself, and to the ruin of his w hole army. '^■*'^"" 
But in conclusion, he gave them a total defeat, and so 
made himself master of those posts which they w ere to de- 
fend. This opeoed a new scene ; it not only forced the 
raising the siege of Landrecy, but gave Villars an occasion 
to sieze on Marchiennes, and some other places, where he 
found great stores of artillery and ammunition, and fur- 
nished him likewise with an opportunity of sitting down 
before Dow ay. What errors w ere committed, either in the 
counsels or orders, or in the execution of them, and at 
whose door these ought to be laid, is far above my under- 
standing in military matters ; but be that as it will, this 



312 

1712. 



Distractions 
at the 
Hague. 



The reimti- 
ciatirm of 
tlie succes- 
sions in 
Spain and 
France. 



HISTORY OF THE REIGN 
misfortune served not a little to raise the Duke of Marlbo- 
rough's character, under whose command no such thing had 
ever happened. The effects of this disgrace were great ; 
Doway was taken, after a long and brave defence ; Prince 
Eugene tried to raise the siege, but did not succeed in it. 
Indeed, the states would not put things to so great a ven- 
ture, after such a loss ; the garrison were made prisoners of 
war. Quesnoy was next besieged ; the great artillery that 
had been employed in the siege were left in the place : the 
garrison improved that advantage; so that the taking it 
cost the enemy very dear. 

These losses created a great distraction in the counsels 
at the Hague ; many were inclined to accept of a cessa- 
tion; the Emperor and the princes of the empire made 
great ofi'ers to the states, to persuade them to continue the 
war ; at the same time, the French grew very insolent on 
their successes, and took occasion, from a quarrel between 
the footmen of one of the Dutch plenipotentiaries and one 
of theirs, to demand an extravagant reparation ; which the 
Dutch not complying with, a full stop was put to all 
proceedings at Utrecht for some months. Our court took 
some pains to remove that obstruction; but the Frencb 
King's pride being now again in exaltation, he was intract- 
able. St. John, being made Viscomit Bolingbroke, was 
sent over with secret instructions to the court of France, 
where, as it was believed, the peace was fully concluded : 
but all that was published upon his return was a new ces- 
sation of arms, both by sea and land, for four months 
longer. Duke Hamilton was named to go ambassador 
to France, and Lord Lexington to Spain. The Earl of 
Strafford continued to press the states to come into the 
Queen's measures, which it was said he managed with 
great imperiousness. The states resolved to offer their 
plan to the Queen, in which they pressed the restoring 
Strasburgh to the empire, to have Valenciennes demolish- 
ed, and Conde added to their barrier, and that the old ta- 
riff for trade should be again restored. 

The Lord Lexington went first to Spain, where the 
cortes were summoned, in which that King did solemnly 
renounce, for himself and his heirs, the right of succession 
to the crown of France, and limited the succession to the 
crown of Spain, after his own posterity, to the house of 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 313 

Savoy. The lite renunciation \vas made some months after 1^12. 
that, by the princes of France to the crown of Spain ; and ^^''^ 
Philip was declared incapable of succeeding to the crown 
of France. It was something strange to see so much 
weight laid on these renunciations, since the King of 
France had so often, and so solemnly declared (upon his 
claiming, in the right of his Queen, the Spanish Xether- 
lands, when the renunciation made by his Queen before the 
marriage, pursuant to the treaty of the Pyrenees, of all 
rights of succession to her father's dominions, was object- 
ed to him) that no renunciation, which was but a ci\il act, 
could destroy the rights of blood, founded on the laws of 
nature : but this was now forgot, or very little considered. 
At this time the Order of the Garter had nine vacant stalls, 
so six knights were at one time promoted, the Dukes of 
Beaufort, Hamilton, and Kent, and the Earls of Oxford, 
Powlet, and Strafford. The Duke of Hamilton's being ap- 
pointed to go to the court of France, gave melancholy spe- 
culations to those who thought him much in the Pretender's 
interest; he was considered, not only in Scotland, but here 
in England, as the head of his party : but a dismal acci- 
dent put an end to his life, a i'ew days before he intended 
to have set out on his embassy. 

He and the Lord Mohun were engaged in some suits of^^^'^otHaf 
law ; and a violent hatred was kindled between them : so Lord "iThaa 
that, upon a very high provocation, the Lord Mohun sent b"^''' killed 
him a challenge, which he tried to decline ; but, both being '" ^ *'*^*" * * 
hunied by those false points of honour, they fatally went 
out to Hyde Park, in the middle of November, and fought 
with so violent an animosity, that neglecting the rules of 
art, they seemed to run on one another, as if they tried who 
should kill first ; in which they were both so unhappily 
successful, that the Lord Mohun was killed outiight, and 
Duke Hamilton died in a few minutes after. I will add no 
character of him : I am sorry I cannot say so much good 
of him as I could wish, and I had too much kindness for 
him to say any evil without necessity. Nor shall I make 
any reflections on the deplorable effect of those unchristian 
and barbarous maxims, which have prevailed so univer- 
sally, that there is little hope left of seeing them rooted out 
of the minds of men ; the false notions of honour and cou-? 
VOL. IV. 2 s 



314 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1712. i-agc bein^ too strong to be weighed down by pnident or 
relii^ioiis considerations. 
The Dake The Duke of Shrewsbury was, upon Duke Hamilton's 
of Shrews- death, named for the embassy to France, and went over 
France, and iu the end of December : the same yacht that carried him 
Duke de (q Calais, brought over the Duke de Aumont, the French 
caine to ambassador, who was a good-natured and generous man, 
England. Qf pyofase expcusc, th^o^v^ng handfuls of money often out 
of his coach, as he went about the streets: he was not 
thought a man of business, and seemed to employ himself 
chiefly, in maintaining the dignity of his character, and 
making himself acceptable to the nation. I turn next to 
foreign affairs. 
The aiTaus The War in Poraerania went on but slowly, though the 
IB the north. (;^2ar and the Kings of Denmark and Poland joined their 
forces ; upon which it was thought, the interest of Sweden 
must have sunk in those parts : but the feebleness of one 
or other of those princes lost them great advantages. 
Steinbock, the Swedish general, seeing the Danes were se- 
parated from their allies, made a quick march toward them ; 
and though the Saxons had joined them before he came up, 
yet he attacked them. The action was hot, and lasted some 
hours ; but it ended in a complete victory on the Swedish 
side. At the same time the Swedes were animated by re- 
ports from Constantinople, which gave them hopes of the 
war between the Turks and the Czar being like to break 
out again, which the King of Sweden continued to solicit, 
and in which he had all the assistance that the French 
could give him. 
The Empc- This gave the Emperor great apprehensions that disor- 
fZ Uiedr ^^^^ ^^ Hungary might follow upon it, which would defeat 
with France, the mcasuTes he had taken to settle matters in that king- 
dom ; so that being safe on that side, he might turn his whole 
force against France, and by that means, encourage the 
states to continue the war. Those in Holland, who pressed 
the accepting the offers that France made them, represented 
that as a thing not possible to be supported : the promises 
of the Emperor and the princes of the empire had so often 
failed them, that they said, they could not be relied on ; and 
the distractions in the north, made them apprehend that 
fliose princes might be obliged to recal their troops, which 
were in the aervice of the states. 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 315 

Th€ Earl of Strafford was sent back to the Hague with ^''i^- 
the French plan, which came to be called the Queen's plan : '"^'^ 
but to dra\v^ them in the more, he was ordered to enter upon ^ier treaty 
a new barrier treaty with them, by which the former was to ^vUb tUe 

•^ i . ii states. 

be set aside : by it, the states w^ere td mamtam the succes- 
sion to the crowTi, when required to it by the Queen, but 
not otherwise. This gave still new occasions for jealousy ; 
for whereas, by the former treaty, they were strictly bound 
to maintain the succession, so that they were obliged to op- 
pose any attempts they saw made against it ; they were by 
this treaty obliged to stay till they were sent to; and if 
our ministers should come to entertain ill designs that way, 
they would take care no notice should be given to the states. 
The barrier for the Dutch came far short of the former ; the 
states wrote another letter to the Queen, desiring her to in- 
terpose, for restoring Strashurgh to the empire, for adding 
Conde to their barrier, and for settling the commerce on the 
foot of the antient tariff; as also for obtaining more rea- 
sonable terms for the Emperor : but things were so fixed 
between the court of France and ours, that there was no 
room for intercession. 

The Earl of Godolphin died of the stone in September : The death of 
he was the man of the clearest head, the calmest tem.per, codorpiiin. 
and the most incoiTUpt of all the ministers of state I have HiscUarac- 
ever known. After having been thirty years in the Trea- "' 
suvy, and during nine of those, lord treasurer, as he was 
never once suspected of corruption, or of sullering his ser- 
vants to grow rich under him, so in ail that time his estate 
was net increased by him to the value of 4000/, He served 
the Queen with such a particular affection and zeal, that 
he studied to possess all people with great personal esteem 
for her ; and she herself seemed to be so sensible of this 
for many years, that if courts were not different from all 
other places in the world, it might have been thought, that 
his wise management at home, and the Duke of Marlbo- 
rough's glorious conduct abroad, would have fixed them in 
their posts ; above the little practices of an artful favourite, 
and the cunning of a man, who has not hitherto shewed any 
token of a great genius, and is only eminent in the arts of 
deluding those that hearken to him. 

Upon the Earl of Godolphin's death, the Duke of Marl- J^j^f ^**' 
borough resolved to go and live beyond sea; he executed rongh went 



to Hre he- 



316 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

iT^is. it in the end of November ; and his Dutchess followed hira 
in the beginning of February. This was variously cen- 
youd s (Ta! sured ; — some pretended it was the giving up and abandon- 
ing the concerns of his country; and they represented it as 
the effect of fear, with too anxious a care to secure him- 
self: others were glad he was safe out of ill hands; where- 
by, if we should fall into the convulsions of a civil w ar, he 
would be able to assist the Elector of Hanover, as being 
so entirely beloved and contided in by all our military men ; 
"whereas, if he had staid in England, it was not to be doubt- 
ed, but, upon the least shadow of suspicion, he would have 
been immediately secured ; whereas now he would be at 
liberty, being beyond sea, to act as there might be occa- 
sion for it. 

• There were two suits begun against him ; the one was 
for the two and a half per cent., that the foreign princes 
•^vere content should be deducted for contingencies, of which 
an account was formerly given : the other was, for arrears 
due to the builders of Blenheim House. The Queen had 
given orders for building it with great magnificence ; all the 
bargains with the workmen were made in her name, and by 
authority from her ; and in the preambles of the acts of par- 
liament, that confirmed the grant of Woodstock to him and 
his heirs, it was said the Queen built the house for him : 
yet now, that the tradesmen were let run into an arrear of 
80,000/., the Queen refused to pay any more ; and set them 
upon suing the Duke of Marlborough for it, though he had 
never contracted with any of them : upon his going beyond 
sea, both those suits were staid, which gave occasion to 
people to imagine, that the ministry, being disturbed to see 
so much public respect put on a man, whom they had used 
so ill, had set these prosecutions on foot, only to render 
his stay in England uneasy to him. 
We possess Qur army continued this winter about Ghent and Bru- 
a very pre- gcs; and w^c kept a sort ot garrison ni Dunkirk: but that 
carious yy^s SO ill Supplied with artillery and ammunition, that it 
was visible they were not in a condition to keep the place 
any longer than the French wero willing to let them stay in 
it. And during that time, they were neither allowed to have 
a place to worship God, nor to bury their dead in, though 
by a mortality that raged there, some thousands died. Our 
ministers continued still to press the states and the Empe- 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 317 

ror to come into the Queen's measures; the Emperor, on i7i2. 
some occasions, talked in a very positive strain, as if he ^^'^^'"^ 
Teas resolved to put all to hazard, rather than submit to 
such hard conditions ; but the apprehensions of a war in 
the neighbourhood of Hungary, and the low state of his 
treasure, forced him to come down from that height, and 
engage the states to pi ocure better terms for him : the de- 
mand of Strasburgh was rejected by the French, with so 
positive an air, that our court did not move in it more ; 
nor did it appear that we obtained any one condition of the 
French, but what was ofl'ered in their own project. 

In conclusion, the states were forced to yield in every The barrier 
particular ; and then our ministers, to give some seeming ^\^^^y 
content to the nation, and to bring the states into some con- 
fidence with them, ordered the new barrier treaty to be 
signed ; and it was given out by their creatures, that the 
French were highly offended at their signing this ; making 
it previous to a general peace, and a sort of guarantee for 
it. Thus, after all the declamations that were made on the 
first barrier treaty, the ministers came into a new one, which 
though not so secure as the former, yet was liable to all the 
objections that were made against that. The French, as 
we were assured, in the progress of the treaty, used all that 
course of chicane, for which they have been so long fa- 
mous ; and, after all the steps our court had made to get 
them a treaty of their own projecting, we were not at last 
able to gain any one point upon them : they seemed to 
reckon, that now we had put ourselves in their hands, and 
that they might use us as they pleased. 

A proclamation was set out in the end of November, 3713, 
giving notice that the session of parliament Avould be Seven pro- 
opened on the 13th of January : but though the proroguing parJiament. 
the parliament, after such a proclamation, was without a 
precedent, yet we were put off by seven prorogations, some 
for a fortnight, and some for three weeks : it was said, we 
were daily expecting a sudden conclusion of the treaty ; 
and till all was finished, the ministers could not know 
what aids were to be demanded. What occasioned all 
these delays is yet a secret to me ; so I can write nothing 
of it. Many expresses were sent to Vienna, and the re- 
tains to those could not come quick. The demands for re- 
storing the Electors of Bavaria and Cologne, together with 



Affairs of 
Sweden, 



318 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1713. a compensation for their losses, were insisted on. The 

^ Emperor could not do the former of these without the diet, 

by whose authority they were put under the imperial ban: 

but neither the Emperor nor diet could answer the other 

demand, it rose so high. 

While we were at home uneasy at the many proroga- 
tions and delays, the news from beyond sea opened a new 
scene. The Swedes broke into Holstein, but were so 
closely followed by the Danes and Muscovites, that their 
retieat by land was cut off, and the Danish ships shut them 
from the Baltic Sea: they made great waste in the King of 
Denmark's share of Holstein, and burnt Altena, a great 
and rich village, within a mile of Hamburgh, which being 
an open place, in no sort fortified, the binning it was 
thought contrary to the laws of war. 
The King of xhc King of Prussia died in February : he was, in his 
death. o^^^™ persoii, a virtuous man, and full oi zeal m the matters 
of religion ; he raised above two hundred new churches in 
his dominions ; he was weak, and much in the power of 
his ministers and flatterers ; but was so apt to hearken to 
whispers, tliat he changed twice the whole set of his mi- 
nistry : his assuming the title of a king, and his affecting 
an extraordinary magnificence in his court, brought a great 
charge on himself, and on all about him, which made him 
a severe master to his subjects, and set him on many pre- 
tensions, chiefly those relating to the Prince of Frizeland, 
which were not thought well grounded. He was suc- 
ceeded in his dignity by his son, who had hitherto ap- 
peared to affect a roughness of behaviour, and seemed 
fond of his grenadiers, not only beyond all other military 
men, but beyond all men whatsoever: he seemed to have a 
warlike inclination ; but what he ^^111 prove, now that he is 
on the throne, must be left to time. 
■Uhe King of The appcaranccs of a new war between the Turks and 
orififortunes. ^^^ Czar varied so often, that it was doubtful in what it 
might end : the King of Sw eden used all possible means to 
engage the Turk in it; but he threw himself, by his in- 
tractable obstinacy, into great dangers: the party at the 
Porte that opposed the war, studied to get rid of that King, 
and of his importunities. Orders were sent him to march 
back into his kingdom ; and they undertook to procure 
him a safe passage to it ; but he treated the person that 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 319 

was sent with this message, with great insolence, and for- i7i3. 
tified himself, as well as he could, with the Swedes that ^"^^"''^ 
were about him, and resolved to defend himself. A force, 
much superior to his, was brought against him ; but he 
maintained himself so resolutely in his house, that some 
hundreds of those who attacked him were killed : the Turks 
upon that set fire to the house, whereupon he was forced to 
surrender, and was put under a, guard; and most of his 
Swedes were sold for slaves : he was carried to a house 
near Adrianople, but not suflcred to come to court : only 
the Sultan disowned the violence used to his person. In the 
meanwhile, the Czar shipped an army from Petersburgh, 
that landed in Finland: the Swedes were not able to stand 
before him; every place, as he advanced, submitted to 
him ; and he was now master of Abo, the capital of Fin- 
land, and of that whole province. Steinbock, with his 
army, maintained himself in Tonningen as long as their 
provision lasted : but, all supplies being carefully stopped, 
he was forced at last to deliver up himself and his army 
prisoners of war; and these were the best troops the 
Swedes had, so that Sweden was struck with a general 
consternation : to this distracted state has that furious 
prince abandoned his own kingdom. And there I must 
leave it, to return to our own affairs. 

After a long expectation, we at last knew, that, on the T^* treaties 
13th of March, the treaty of peace between England, the°ses'sion 
France, and the states was signed : upon this, the parlia- "f Parlia- 
ment was opened on the 9th of April. The Queen, in her ^t° °^*° 
speech, told the two houses, that she had now concluded a 
peace, and had obtained a further security for the protest- 
ant succession, and that she was in an entire union with the 
house of Hanover ; she asked of the Commons the neces- 
sary supplies, and recommended to both houses the culti- 
vating the arts of peace, with a reflection upon faction. 
Upon this speech, a debate arose in the House of Lords, 
concerning some words that were moved to be put in the 
address (which, of course, was to be made to the Queen), 
applauding the conditions of the peace, and the security for 
the protestant succession : this was opposed, since we did 
not yet know what the conditions of the peace were, nor 
what that security was ; all that appeared was, that the 
Pretender was gone out of Fruuce into the Barrois, a part 



320 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1713. of Lon-aine, lor whicli that Duke did homage to the crown 
^'"'''^ of France. An address of coiigiatulation was agreed to, 
but without any approbation of the peace. The House of 
Commons observed the same caution in their address. 
But, upon this, a new set of addresses ran through the na- 
tion, in the usual strains of flattery and false eloquence. 
The parliament sat above a month, before the articles of 
peace, and of a treaty of commerce, made at the same time, 
were laid before them. It was given out, that till the rati- 
fications were exchanged, it was not proper to publish 
them ; but when that was done, they were communicated 
to both houses, and printed. 
Tiie sub- By the treaty of peace, the French King was bound to 
tLe"treaties S^^'^ neither harbour nor assistance to the Pretender, but 
of peace and acknowledged the Queen's title and the protestant succes- 
sion, as it was settled by several acts of parliament : Dun- 
kirk was to be razed in a time limited, within five months 
after the ratifications ; but that was not to be begun till an 
equivalent for it was put in the hands of France. New- 
foundland, Hudson's Bay, and St. Christopher's, were to 
be given to England; but Cape Breton was left to the 
French, with a liberty to dry their fish on Newfoundland : 
this was tlie main substance of the articles of peace. The 
treaty of commerce settled a free trade, according to the 
tariff in the year 1664, excepting some commodities, that 
were subjected to a new tariff, in the year 1699, which was 
so high, that it amounted to a prohibition : all the produc- 
tions of France were to come into England under no other 
duties, but those that w ere laid on the same productions 
from other countries ; and when this was settled, then com- 
missaries were to be sent to London, to agree and adjust 
all matters relating to trade : the treaty of commerce with 
Spain was not yet finished. As for the allies, Portugal and 
Savoy were satisfied ; the Emperor was to have the dutchy 
ot Milan, the kingdom of Naples, and the Spanish Nether 
lands: Sicily was to be given to the Duke of Savoy, with 
the title of king : and Sardinia with the same title, was to 
be given to the Elector of Bavaria, in lieu of his losses : 
the states were to deliver up Lisle, and the little places 
about it : and, besides the places of which they were already 
possessed, they were to have Namur, Charleroy, Luxem- 
burgh;, Ypres, and Newport : the King of Prussia w as to 



"^r^ 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 321 

have the Upper Guelder, in lieu of Orange, and the other ^"^3. 
estates, which the tamily had in Franche Comte : this was 
all that I think necessary to insert here, with relation to onr 
treaty : the Emperor was to have time to the 1st of June, 
to declare his accepting- of it. It did not appear what equi- 
valent the King- of France was to have for Dunkirk ; no 
mention was made of it in the treaty ; so the House of Com- 
mons made an address to the Queen, desiring to know what 
that equivalent was. Some weeks passed before they had 
an answer; at last the Queen, by a message, said, the French 
King had that equivalent already in his own hands ; but we 
were still in the dark as to that, no further explanation 
being made of it. As to Newfoundland, it was thought that 
the French settling at Cape Breton, instead of Placentia, 
would be of great advantage to them with relation to the 
fishery, which is the only thing that makes settlements in 
those parts of any value. Tlie English have always pre- 
tended, that the tirst discovery of Xewfo midland being made 
in Henry the Seventh's time, the right to it w as in the crown 
of England. The French had leave given them, in King 
Charles the First's time, to fish there, paying tribute, as an 
acknowledgment of that license : it is true, they canied this 
much further, during the civil wars ; and this grew to a 
much greater height in the reign of King Charles the Se- 
cond: but in King William's time, an act of parliament 
passed, asserting the right of the crown to Newfoundland, 
laying open the trade thither, to all the subjects of Great 
Britain, with a positive and constant exclusion of all aliens 
and foreigners. These were the reflections on the treaty 
of peace; but there were more important objections made 
to the treaty of commerce. During King Charles the Se- 
cond's reign, our trade with France was often and loudly 
complained of, as very prejudicial to the nation ; there w as 
a commission appointed in the year 1674, to adjust the con- 
ditions of our commerce with that nation, and then it ap- 
peared, in a scheme that was prepared by very able mer- 
chants, that we lost every year a million of money by our 
trade thither. This was then so well received, that the 
scheme was entered into the journals of both houses of par- 
liament, and into the books of the Custom House : but the 
court, at that time, favoured the interests of France so much, 
preferably to their ovm, that the trade went still on till the 

\'OL. IV. 2 T 



v-%-w; 



322 HISTOliY 01 THE REIGN 

^713- year 1C78, when the parliament laid, upon all French coiu- 
motlities, such a duty as amounted to a prohibition, and 
was to last for three years, and to the end of the next ses-^ 
sion of parliament: at the end of the three years, Kmg 
Charles called no more parliaments ; and that act w as re- 
pealed in King James's parliament : hut, during the w hole 
last war, high duties w ere laid on all the productions and 
manufactures of France ; w hich, by this treaty, Avere to be 
no higher charged, than the same productions from other 
countries. It w as said, that if we had been as often beat 
by the French, as they had been by us, this would have 
been thought a very hard treaty ; and if the articles of our 
commerce had been settled, before the Duke of Ormond 
was ordered to separate his troops from the confederates, 
the French could not have pretended to draw us into such 
terms, as they had insisted on since that time, because we 
put ourselves into their power. We were engaged by our 
treaty with Portugal, that their wines should be charged a 
third part lower than the French wines ; but if the duties 
■were, according to this treaty of commerce, to be made 
equal, then considering the difference of freight, which is 
more than double from Portugal, the French wines would 
be much cheaper; and the nation generally liking them 
better, by this means we should not only Ineak our trea- 
ties with Portugal, but if we did not take olf their wines, 
we must lose their trade, which was at present the most ad- 
vantageous, that we drove any where ; for besides a great 
vent of our manufactures, we brought over yearly great re- 
turns of gold from thence ; 4, 5, and 6(10,000/. a year. We 
had brought the silk manufacture here to so great perfec- 
tion, that about three hmidred thousand people were main- 
tained by it. For carrying this on, we brought great quan- 
tities of silk from Italy and Turkey, by which people in 
those countries came to take oil' as great quantities of our 
manufactures : so that our demand for silk had opened 
good markets for our w oollen goods abroad ; which must 
fail if our manufacture of silk at home should be lost : 
which, if once we gave a free vent for silk stulfs from 
France among us, must soon be the case ; since the cheap- 
ness of provisions, and of labour in France, would enable 
the French to undersell us, even at our own markets. Our 
linen and paper manufacturers would likewise be ruined by 



OF QUEEN ANNE. gag 

a free importation of the same goods from France. These 1713. 
things came to be so generally well understood, that even '^^/^ 
while flattering addresses were coming to court from all the 
parts of the islands, petitions came from the towns and 
counties concerned in trade, setting forth the prejudice 
they apprehended from this treaty of commerce. The mi- 
nisters used all possible arts to bear this clamour dowTi ; 
they called it faction, and decried it with a boldness that 
would have surprised any but those who had observed the 
methods they had taken for many years, to vent the foulest 
calumnies, and the falsest misrepresentations possible ; 
but the matter came to be so universally apprehended, that 
it could not be disguised. 

The House of Commons gave an aid of two shillings in Aid giren 
the pound, though the ministers hoped to have carried it ^^ *''*^ ^^"^ 
higher ; but the members durst not venture on that, since a 
new election was soon to follow the conclusion of the ses- 
sion. Tliey went next to renew the duty on malt for another 
year ; and here a debate arose that was kept up some days in 
both houses of parliament, whether it should be laid on the 
whole island ; it was carried in the affirmative, of which The Scots 
the Scots complained heavily, as a burden that their coun- oppose their 

J 1 • 1 bein^ charge 

try could not bear : and whereas it was said, that those ed with the 
duties ought to be laid equally on all the subjects of the^^^°" 
united kingdom, the Scots insisted on an article of the 
union, by which it was stipulated, that no duty should be 
laid on the malt in Scotland during the war, which ought 
to be observed religiously. They said, it was evident, the 
war with Spain was not yet ended ; no peace with that 
crown was yet proclaimed, nor so much as signed : and, 
though it was as good as made, and ^^ as every day ex- 
pected, yet it was a maxim in the construction of all laws, 
that odious matters ought to be strictly understood ; whereas 
matters of favour were to be more liberally interpreted. 
It was farther said on the Scotch side, that this duty was, 
by the very words of the act, to be applied to deficiencies 
during the war ; so tliis act was, upon the matter, making 
Scotland pay that duty during the war, from which the 
articles of the union did by express w ords exempt them. 
A great number of the English were convinced of the 
equity of these groimds that the Scots went on ; but the 
majority was on the other side : so when the bill had pass- 



324 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1713. cd tlirough the House of Commons, all the Scots of both 
^'^^^^ houses met together, and agreed to move for an act dissolv- 
fo'^Lave'the "^o ^hc uniou. They went first to the Queen, and told her 
union dis- how grlcvous and indeed intolerable this duty would be to 
*° ' ® ■ their comitry, so that they were under a necessity to try 
how the union might be broken. The Queen seemed uneasy 
at the motion ; she studied to divert them from it, and as- 
sured them that her officers should have orders to make it 
easy to them. Tliis was understood to imply that the duty 
should not be levied; but they kiu^w this could not be 
depended on ; so the motion w as made in the House of 
Lords, and most of the lords of that nation spoke to it : 
they set forth all the hardships that they lay under since 
the union ; they had no more a council in Scotland ; their 
peers at present were the only persons in the whole island, 
that were judged incapable of peerage by descent ; their 
laws were altered in matters of the highest importance, 
particularly in matters of treason ; and now an imposition 
was to be laid on their malt, which must prove an into- 
lerable burden to the poor of that country, and force them 
to drink water: upon all these reasons they moved for 
liberty to bring in a bill to dissolve the union, in which 
they would give full security for maintaining the Queen's 
prerogative, and for securing the protestant succession. 
This was opposed with much zeal by the ministers, but 
was supported by others ; who, though they did not intend 
to give up the union, yet thought it reasonable to give a 
hearing to this motion, that they might see how far the 
protestant succession could be secured, in case it should 
be entertained ; but the majority were for rejecting the mo- 
tion. When the malt bill was brought up to the Lords, 
there was such an opposition made to it, tliat fifty-six. 
voted against it ; but sixty-lour v,ere for it, and so it 
passed. 
A bill for The matter of the greatest consequence in this session, 
the trebly of was a bill for settling the commerce with France accord- 
commerce ing to the treaty, and for taking off the prohibitions and 
effectuah"*^^ high duties that were laid on the productions of France. 
The traders in the city of London, and those in all the 
other parts of England were alarmed with the great preju- 
dice this would bring on the whole nation. The Turkey 
Company, those tliat traded to Portugal and Italy, and all 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 325 

who were concerned in the woollen and silk manufactures 1713. 
appeared before both houses, and set forth the great mis- v^r%/ 
chief that a commerce with France, on the foot of the 
treaty, would bring upon the nation ; while none appeared 
on the other side to answer their arguments, or to set forth 
the advantage of such a commerce. It was manifest that 
none of the trading bodies had been consulted in it; and 
the commissioners for trade and plantations had made very 
material observations on the first project, which was sent 
to them for their opinion : and afterwards, when this pre- 
sent project was formed, it was also transmitted to that 
board by the Queen's order, and they were required to 
make their remarks on it : but Arthur Moor, who had risen 
up from being a footman, mthout any education, to be a 
great dealer in trade, and was the person of that board in 
whom the Lord Treasurer confided most, moved, that they 
might first read it every one a part, and then debate it; 
and he desired to have the first perusal ; so he took it away 
and never brought it back to them ; but gave it to the Lord 
Bolingbroke, who carried it to Paris, and there it was set- 
tled. The bill was very feebly maintained by those who 
argued for it; yet the majority went with the bill till the 
last day ; and then the opposition to it was so strong, that 
the ministers seemed inclined to let it fall ; but it was not 
then known whether this was only a feint, or whether 
the instances of the French ambassador, and the engage- 
ments that our ministers were under to that court, prevailed 
for carrying it on. It was brought to the last step ; and 
then a great many of those, who had hitherto gone along 
^vith the court, broke from them in this matter, and be- 
stirred themselves so efiectually, that when it came to the 
last division, one hundred and eighty-five were for the bill, 
and one hundred and ninety-four were against it: by so 
small a majority was a bill of such great importance lost. 
But the House of Commons, to soften the ill constructions 
that might be made of their rejecting this bill, made an ad- 
dress to the Queen, in which they thanked her for the peace 
she had concluded, and for the foundation laid for settling 
our commerce ; and prayed her to name commissaries to 
regulate and finish that matter. 

To this the Queen sent an answer of a singular compo- 
sition. She said she was glad to see they were so well 



320 



1713 



A speech I 
prepared 
when the 
approbation 
of the peace 
should be 
moved in 
the House 
of Lords. 



HISTORY OP THE REIGN 
pleased with the treaty ol* peace and commerce that she 
had made, and assured them that she would use her best 
endeavours to see all the advantages that she had stipu- 
lated for her subjects, performed. This was surprising, 
since the House of Commons had sufficiently shewed how 
little they were pleased with the treaty of commerce, by 
their rejecting the bill that was oflered to confirm it ; and 
this was insinuated in their address itself: but it was plea- 
santly said, that the Queen answered them according to 
what ought to have been in their address, and not accord- 
ing to what was in it ; besides it was observable, that her 
promise to maintain what was already stipulated, did not 
at all answer the prayer of their address. This was all that 
passed in this session of parliament with relation to the 
peace. It was once apprehended that the ministers would 
have moved for an act, or at least for an address approving 
the peace ; and upon that I prepared a speech, which I 
intended to make on the subject. It was the only speech 
that I ever prepared beforehand ; but since that matter 
was never brought into the House, I had no occasion to 
make it ; yet I think proper to insert it here, that I may 
deliver down my thoughts of this great transaction to pos- 
terity. 

*'My Lords. — This matter now before you, as it is of the 
greatest importance, so it may be seen in very different 
lights ; I will not meddle >vith the political view of it ; I 
leave that to persons who can judge and speak of it much 
better than I can. I will only offer to you what appears to 
me, when I consider it, with relation to the rules of morality 
and religion ; in this I am sure 1 act within my proper 
sphere. Some things stick so with me, that I could ha^ e 
no quiet in my conscience, nor think I had answered the 
duty of my function if I did not make use of the freedom 
of speech, that our constitution and the privileges of this 
House allow me : I am the more encouraged to do this, 
because the bringing those of our order into public coun- 
cils, in which we have now such a share, was originally 
intended for this very end, that we should ofFer such con- 
siderations, as arise from the rules of our holy religion, in 
all matters that may come before us. In the opening my 
sense of things, I may be forced to use some words that 
may perhaps appear severe : I caiiuot help it, if the nature 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 327 

of these affairs is such, that I cannot speak plainly of them i^is 
in a softer strain. I intend not to reflect on any person ; '^ 
and I am sure I have such a profound respect for the 
Queen, that no part of what I may say can be understood 
to reflect on her in any sort; her intentions are, no doubt, 
as she declares them to be, all for the jrood and happiness 
of her people ; but it is not to be supposed that she can 
read long treaties, or carry the articles of them in her me- 
mory : so if things have been either concealed from her, or 
misrepresented to her, she can do no wrong ; and, if any 
such thing has been done, we know on whom our consti- 
tution lays the blame. 

" Tlie treaties that were made some years ago with our 
allies are in print ; both the grand alliance, and some sub- 
sequent ones : we see many things in these that are not 
provided for by this peace ; it was, in particular, stipu- 
lated, that no peace should be treated, much less conclud- 
ed, Avithout the consent of the allies. But, before I make 
any observations on this, I must desire you will consider 
how sacred a thing the public faith, that is engaged in 
treaties and alliances, should be esteemed. 

'* I hope I need not tell you, that even heathen nations 
valued themselves upon their fidelity in a punctual observ- 
ing of all their treaties, and with how much infamy they 
branded the violation of them : if we consider that which 
revealed religion teaches us to know, that man was made 
after the image of God, the God of all truth, as we know 
who is the father of lies ; God hates the deceitful man, in 
whose mouth there is no faithfulness. In that less perfect 
religion of the Jews, when the Gibeonites had, by a frau- 
dulent proceeding, drawn Joshua and the Israelites into a 
league ^\^th them, it was sacredly observed ; and the viola- 
tion of it, some ages after, was severely punished. And, 
when the last of the kings of Judah shook off the fidelity, 
to which he had bound himself to the king of Babylon, the 
prophet thereupon said with indignation, shall he break 
the oath of God and prosper ? The swearing deceitfully 
is one of the worst characters ; and he who swears to his 
own hurt, and changes not, is among the best. It is a 
maxim of the wisest of kings, that the throne is established 
by righteousness. Treaties are of the nature of oaths ; and 
when an oath is asked to confirm a treaty, it is never de- 



328 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1713. nicd. The best account that I can give of the disuse of 
'^^'^ addiiif? that sacred seal to treaties is this : 

" The popes had for some ages possessed themselves of 
a pnuer, to which they had often recourse, of dissohing 
the laith of treaties, and the obligation of oaths : the fa- 
mous, but fatal story of Ladislaus, king of Hungary, break- 
ing his faith to Amurath, the Turk, by virtue of a papal dis- 
pensation, is well known. One of the last public acts of 
this sort was, when Pope Clement the Seventh absolved 
Francis the First, from the treaty made and sworn to at 
Madrid, while he was a prisoner there : the severe revenge 
that Charles the Fifth took of this, in the sack of Rome, 
and in keepmg that Pope for some months a prisoner, has 
made popes more cautious since that time than they were 
formerly : this also drew such heavy but just reproaches 
on the papacy, from the reformers, that some stop seems 
now to be put to such a barefaced protection of perjury. 
But the late King told me, that he understood from the 
German protestant princes, that they believed the con- 
fessors of popish princes had faculties from Rome for doing 
this as effectually, though more secretly : he added, that 
they knew it went for a maxim among popish princes, that 
their word and faith bound them as they were men and 
members of society ; but that their oaths, being acts of re- 
ligion, were subject to the direction of their confessors ; 
and that they, apprehending this, did, in all their treaties 
with the princes of that religion depend upon their honour, 
but never asked the confirmation of an oath, which had 
been the practice of former ages. The protestants of 
France thought they had gained an additional security for 
observing the edict of Nantes, when the swearing to observe 
it was made a part of the coronation oath. But, it is pro- 
bable, this very thing undermined and ruined it. 

" Grotius, Puffendorf, and others who have wrote of the 
law of nations, lay this down for a rule, that the nature of 
a treaty, and the tie that arises out of it, is not altered by 
the having or not having an oath ; the oath serves only to 
Pernicies^ heighten the obligation. They do also agree in this, that 
confederacies do not bind states to carry on a war to their 
utter ruin ; but that princes and states are bound to use 
their utmost efforts in maintaining them : and it is agreed 
by all who have treated of these matters, that the common 



SummusCo 



^-N-^ 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 329 

^nemy, by offering to any one confederate all his preten- ^^^^^\ 
sions, cannot justify his departing from the confederacy ; 
because it was entered into \\ith that ^iew, that all the pre- 
tensions upon which the confederacy was made, should be 
insisted on or departed from by common consent. 

" It is true, that in confederacies where allies are bound 
to the perfonnance of several articles, as to their quotas 
or shares, if any one fails in the part he was bound to, the 
other confederates have a right to demand a reparation for 
his non-performance : but even in that case, allies are to 
act as friends, by making allowances for what could not 
be helped ; and not as enemies, by taking advantages on de- 
sign to disengage them from their allies. It is certain, 
allies forfeit their right to the alliance if they do not per- 
form their part; but the failure must be evident, and an ex- 
postulation must be first made : and if, upon satisfaction 
demanded, it is not given, then a protestation should be 
made of such non-perfor)uance ; and the rest of the confe- 
derates are at liberty, as to him who fails on his part: these 
are reckoned among the customs and laws of nations ; and 
since nothing of this kind has been done, I cannot see how 
it can be made out that the tie of the confederacy, and 
by consequence, that the public faith has not been first 
broken on our side. 

" My Lords. — I cannot reconcile the carrying on a treaty 
T\-ith tlie French, without tlie knowledge and concurrence 
of the other confederate states and princes, and the con- 
cluding it, without the consent of the Emperor, tlie princi- 
pal confederate, not to mention the visible uneasiness that 
has appeared in the others who seem to have been forced 
to consent by declarations, if not by threatenings, from 
hence : I say, I cannot reconcile this with the articles of 
the grand alliance, and the other later treaties that are in 
print. This seems to come within the charge of the prophet 
against those who deal treacherously with those \\ ho had 
not dealt treacherously with them ; upon which, the threat- 
ening that follows may be justly apprehended. It will have 
a strange sound among all Christians, but more particularly 
among the reformed, when it is reported that the plenipo- 
tentiary of the head of the reformed princes, said openly to 
the other plenipotentiaries, that the Queen held herself free 
from all her treaties and alliances : if this be set for a pre- 

VOL. IV. 2 u 



v-^^^ 



330 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

i^i-'- cedent, here is a short way of dispensing with the public 
faith ; and if tliis was spoken by one of our prelates, I am 
afraid it will leave a heavy reproach on our church ; and, 
to speak freely, I am afraid it will draw a much heavier 
curse after it. My Lords, there is a God in heaven, who 
will judge all the world, without respect of persons ; no- 
thing can prosper without his blessing : he can blast all 
the counsels of men, when laid in fraud and deceit, how 
cunningly soever they may be either contrived or disguis- 
ed: and I must tliink that a peace made, in opposition 
to the express words of so many treaties, wHl prove a curse 
instead of a blessing to us. God is provoked by such pro- 
ceedings to pour heavy judgments on us, for the violation 
of a faith so often given which is so openly broken ; by 
this our nation is dishonoured, and our church disgraced ; 
and I dread to think what the consequence of those things 
is like to prove. I would not have expressed myself in 
such a manner, if I liad not thought tliat I was bound to it 
by the duty that I owe to Almighty God, by my zeal for 
the Queen, and the church, and by my love to my country. 
Upon so great an occasion, I think my post in the church 
and in this House lays me under the strictest obligations to 
discharge my conscience, and to speak plainly without fear 
(» flattery, let the effect of it, as to myself, be what it will : 
I shall have the more quiet in my own mind, both living 
and dying, for havmg done that which seemed to me an in- 
dispensable duty. 

" I hope this House will not bring upon themselves and 
the nation, the blame and guilt of approving that which 
seems to be much more justly censurable : the reproach 
that may belong to this treaty, and the judgments of God 
that may follow on it, are now what a few only are con- 
cerned in. A national approbation is a thing of another n^ 
ture, the public breach of faith, in the attack that was made 
on the Smyrna fleet, forty years ago, brought a great load 
of infamy on those who advised and directed it ; but they 
were more modest than to ask a public approbation of so 
opprobrious a fact : it lay on a few ; and the nation was 
not drawn in to a share in the guilt of that w hich was then 
universally detested, though it was passed over in silence. 
It seems enough, if not too much, to be silent on such an 
occasion : — I can carry my compliances no further." 



OF QUEEN ANNE. .3.31 

I now go on with the account of what was farther done ^^ij. 
in this session : the House of Commons was, as to all other a d^i^ 
things, except the matter of commerce, so entirely in the °* '""""^y 
hands of the ministers, that they ventured on a new de- S debtl!'' 
mand, of a very extraordinary nature, which was made in 
as extraordinary a manner. The civil list, which was es- 
timated at G00,000/. a-year, and was given for the ordinary 
support of the government, did far exceed it : and this was 
no evident, that during the three first years of the Queen's 
reign, 100,000/. was every year applied to the Avar; 200,000/^ 
was laid out in building of Blenheim House, and the enter- 
taining the Palatines had cost the Queen 100,000/. : so that 
here was apparently a large overplus beyond what was ne- 
cessary towards the support of the government. Yet these 
extraordinary expenses had put the ordinary payments into 
such an arrear, that at ]Midsummer, 1710, the Queen owed 
510,000/, ; but upon a new account, this was brought to be 
80,000/. less; and at that time there was an arrear of 
190,000/. due to the civil list; these two sums together 
amounting to 270,000/., the debt that remained was but 
240,000/. Yet now, in the end of the session, when, upon 
the rejecting the bill of commerce, most of the members were 
gone into the countr}% so that there were not one hundred 
and eighty of them left, a message was sent to the House of 
Commons, desiring a power to mortgage a branch of the civil 
list, for thirty-two years, in order to raise upon it 500,000/. 

This was thought a demand of very bad consequence. Reasons 
since the granting it to one prince would be a precedent to "S'*"^"^ ''• 
grant the like to all future princes: and as the account 
of the debt was deceitfully stated, so it was known, that 
the funds set off for the civil list would increase consider- 
ably in times of peace : so an opposition was made to 
it, with a great superiority in point of argument, but there 
was a great majority for it ; and all people concluded, that 
the true end of getting so much money into the hands of 
the court, was to furnish their creatures sufficiently, for 
carrying their elections. 

The Lords were sensible that the method of procuring Bu« Jf w^i* 
this supply was contrary to their privileges, since all public ^''"' *" 
supplies were either asked from the tlu-one, or by a mes- 
sage which was sent to both houses at the same time : this 
practice was inquired into by the Lords ; no precedents 



332 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1^*3. came up to it, but some came so near it, that nothing could 
^"'^^'^ be made of the objection. But the ministers apprehending 
that an o})position would be made to the bill, if it came up 
alone, got it consolidated with another of 1,200,000/. that 
was before them. And the weight of these two joined to- 
gether, made them both pass in the House of Lords, with- 
out opposition. 
Aidressof While this was in agitation, the Earl of Wharton set 
to get Uie forth, in the House of Lords, the danger the nation was in 
Pretender j^y ^^^f. Pretender's being settled in Lorraine : so he moved, 
from Lor- that an address should be made to the Queen, desiring her, 
rame. ^^ ygg jjgj. jjjQst pressing instances with the Duke of Lor- 

raine to remove him, and w ith all princes that were in amity 
or correspondence with her, not to receive the Pretender, 
nor to suffer him to continue in their dominions. This was 
opposed by none, but the Lord iVorth, .so it was carried to 
the Queen. The day after the Lords had voted this. Stan- 
hope made a motion to the same purpose in the House of 
Commons, and it was agreed to, nemine contradicente. 
The Queen, in her ans\\ er to the address of the Lords, 
said, she would repeat the instances, she had already used, 
to get that person removed, according to their desire in 
the address : this seemed to import, that she had already 
pressed the Duke of Lorraine on that subject, though the 
ministers, in the House of Lords, acknowledged that they 
knew of no applications made to the Duke of Lorraine, and 
thought the words of the ansAver related only to the in- 
stances she had used, to get the Pretender to be sent out 
of France : but the natural signification of the words seem- 
ing to relate to the Duke of Lorraine, the Lords made a se- 
cond address, in which they said, they were surprised to 
find that those instances had not their full effect, notwith- 
standing the Kings of Prance and Spain had shcAved their 
compliance with her desire on that occasion. All the an- 
swer brought to this was, that the Queen received it gra- 
ciously. She answered the Commons more plainly, and 
promised to use her endeavours to get him removed. It 
was generally believed that the Duke of Lorraine did not 
consent to receive him, till he sent one over, to know the 
Queen's pleasure upon it, and that he was very readily in- 
formed of that. 

In the end of May, Spratt, bishop of Rochester, died ; 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 333 

bis parts were very bright in his youth, and gave great ^'^'^^■ 
hopes ; but these were blasted by a lazy, libertine course of ^*^ 
life, to which his temper and good nature carried him, with- of some bi- 
out considering the duties, or even the decencies of his pro- ^•'"P*- 
fession: he was justly esteemed a great master of our lan- 
guage, and one of our correctest writers. Atterbury suc- 
ceeded him in that see, and in the deanery of Westminster : 
thus was he promoted, and rewarded for all the flame, that 
he had raised in our church. Compton, bishop of London, 
died in the beginning of July, in the eighty-tirst year of his 
age ; he was a generous and good-natured man, but easy 
and weak, and much in the power of others : he was suc- 
ceeded by Robinson, bishop of Bristol. On the 18th of 
July, the Queen came to the House of Lords, to pass the 
bills, and to put an end to the session : she made a speech 
to her parliament, in which, after she had thanked them for 
the service they had done the public, and for the supplies 
that the Commons had given, she said, she hoped the affair 
of commerce would be so well understood at their next 
meeting, that the advantageous conditions she had obtain- 
ed from France, would be made ellectual for the benefit of 
our trade. She enlarged on the praises of the present par- 
liament ; she said, at their first meeting they had eased the 
subjects of more than nine millions, without any further 
charge on them, not to mention the advantage, which the 
way of doing it might bring to the nation, and now they had 
enabled her likewise to pay her debts : they had supported 
the war, and strengthened her hands, in obtaining a peace : 
she told them, at her first coming to the crown, she found a 
war prepared for her ; and that she had now made her many 
victories useful, by a safe and honourable peace. She pro- 
mised herself, that with their concurrence, it would be last- 
ing: she desired they would make her subjects sensible 
what they gained by the peace, and endeavour to dissipate 
all the groundless jealousies, which had been too industri- 
ously fomented ; that so our di\isions might not endanger 
the advantages she had obtained for her kingdoms : there 
were some (very few she hoped) that would never be satis- 
fied viith any government; she hoped they would exert them- 
selves to obviate the malice of the ill-minded, and to unde- 
ceive the deluded : she recommended to them the adher- 
ing to the constitution in church and state ; such persons 



^-^/-^ 



334 HISTORY OF THE REIGN 

1713. had the best title to her favour; she had no other aim, but 
their advantage, and the securing our religion and liberty ; 
she hoped to meet a parliament next winter, that should act 
upon the same principles, and with the same prudence and 
vigour, to support the liberties of Europe abroad, and to 
reduce the spirit of faction at home. Few speeches from 
the throne have in my time been more severely reflected on, 
than this was: it seemed strange that the Queen, who did not 
pretend to understand matters of trade, should pass such a 
censure on both houses, for their not understanding the af- 
fair of commerce ; since at the bar of both houses, and in 
the debates within them upon it, the interest of the nation 
did appear so visibly to be contrary to the treaty of com- 
merce, that it looked like a contempt put on them to repre- 
sent it as advantageous to us, and to rank all those who had 
opposed it among the ill-minded, or at least among the de- 
luded. Nor did it escape censure, that she should affirm, 
that the nation was by them eased of the load of nine mil- 
lions, without any further charge, since the nation must 
bear the constant charge of interest at six per cent., till the 
capital should be paid off. The sharpness with which she 
expressed herself w as singular, and not very well suited to 
her dignity or her sex : nor was it well understood, what 
could be meant by her saying that she found a war pre- 
pared for her at her coming to the crowTi ; since she her- 
self began it, upon the addresses of both houses. It was 
also observed, that there w^as not, in all her speech, one 
word of the Pretender, or of the protestant succession; but 
that, which made the greatest impression on the whole na- 
tion was, that this speech discovered plainly, that the court 
was resolved to have the bill of commerce pass in the next 
session : all people concluded, the ministers were under 
engagements to the court of France to get it settled ; and 
this was taken to be the sense of the Queen's words con- 
cerning the making the peace lasting ; w hat effect this may 
have on the next elections, which are quickly to follow, 
must be left to time. 

I am now come to the end of the war, and of this parlia- 
ment, both at once : it was fit they should bear some pro- 
portion to one another ; for, as this was the worst parlia- 
ment I ever saw, so no assembly, but one composed as this 
wa:?, could have sat quiet under such a peace : but I am now 



\^/-*Jf 



OF QUEEN ANNE. 335 

afrived at ray full period, and so shall close this work : I tTi^^is.^ 
had a noble prospect before me, in a course of many years, 
of bringini; it to a glorious conclusion ; now the scene is so 
fatally altered, that I can scarce restrain myself from giving 
vent to a just indignation, in severe complaints : but an his- 
torian must tell things truly as they are, and leave the de- 
scanting on them to others ; so I here conclude this History 
of above three-and-fifty years. 

I pray God it may be read with the same candour and 
sincerity, with which I have written it, and with such a de- 
gree of attention as may help those who read it to form just 
reflections, and sound principles of religion and virtue, of 
duty to our princes, and of love to our country, with a sin- 
cere and incorruptible zeal to preserve our religion, and to 
maintain our liberty and property. 



CONCLUSION. 



I HAVE now set out the state of affairs for above half a 
century, with all the care and attention that I was capable 
of: I have inquired into all matters among us, and have 
observed them, during the course of my life, with a parti- 
cular application and impartiality. But my intention, in 
\vriting, was not so much to tell a fine tale to the world, 
and to amuse them with a discovery of many secrets and 
of intrigues of state, to blast the memory of some, and to 
exalt others ; to disgrace one party, and to recommend 
another ; my chief design was better formed, and deeper 
laid : — it was to give such a discovery of errors in govern- 
ment, and of the excesses and follies of parties, as may 
make the next age wiser, by what I may tell them of the 
last. And, I may presume, that the observations I have 
made, and the account that I have given, will gain me so 
much credit, that I may speak with a plain freedom to all 
sorts of persons : this not being to be published till after I 
am dead, when enrj, jealousy, or hatred, will be buried 
with me in my grave, I may hope, that what I am now to 
offer to succeeding ages, may be better heard, and less 
censured, than any thing I could offer to the present : so 
that this is a sort of testament, or dying speech, which I 
leave behind me, to be read and considered when I can 
speak no more. I do most earnestly beg of God to direct 
me in it, and to give it such an effect on the minds of those 
who read it, that I may do more good when dead, than I 
could ever hope to do while I was alive. 
^F3r zeai for My thoughts havc run most, and dwelt longest, on the 
orRiiTa^id. concerns of the church and religion; therefore I begin with 
them, I have always had a true zeal for the church of 
England ; I have lived in its communion with great joy, 
and have pursued its true interests with an unfeigned af- 
fection : yet, I must say, there are many things in it that 
have been very uneasy to me. 
'nie Joe* The requiring subscriptions to the thirty-nine articles, is 
tnae. ^ great imposition : I believe them all myself: but as those 



CONCLUSION. 337 

Tibout original sin and predestination, might be expressed 
inore unexceptionably, so I think it is a better way to let 
such matters continue to be still the standard of doctrine, 
"with some few corrections, and to censure those who teach 
any contrary tenets ; than to oblige all that serve in the 
church to subscribe them : the greater part subscribe with- 
out ever examining them ; and others do it, because they 
must do it, though they can hardly satisfy their consciences 
about some things in them. Churches and societies are 
much better secured by laws, than by subscriptions : it is 
a more reasonable, as well a more easy method of govern- 
ment. 

Our worship is the perfectest composition of devotion The wor- 
that we find in any church, antient or modem : yet the * *^' 
corrections that were agreed to by a deputation of bishops 
and divines, in the year 1689, would make the whole frame 
of our liturgy still more perfect, as well as more unexcep- 
tionable ; and will, 1 hope, at some time or other, be better 
entertained than they were then. I am persuaded they are 
such as would bring in the much greater part of the dis- 
senters to the communion of the church, and are in them- 
selves desirable, though there were not a dissenter in the 
nation. 

As for the ecclesiastical jurisdiction, it has been the ^nJ disci- 
burden of my life, to see how it was administered : our 
courts are managed under the rules of the canon law, dila- 
tory and expensive ; and as their constitution is bad, so 
the business in them is small ; and, therefore, all possible 
contrivances are used, to make the most of those causes 
that come before them : so that they are universally 
dreaded and hated. God grant that a time may come, in 
which that noble design, so near being perfected in King 
Edward the Sixth's days, of the reformatio legum ecclesi- 
asticarum, may be revievA ed and established : that so ma- 
trimonial and testamentary causes, which are of a mixed 
nature, may be left, a little better regulated, to the lay 
hands of chancellors and other officers ; but that the whole 
correction of the manners of the laity, and the inspection 
into the lives and labours of the clergy, may be brought 
again into the hands of spiritual men, and be put into a 
better method. It would be well if, after the poor clergy 
are relieved by the tenths and first fruits, a fund were 

VOL. IV. 2 X 



338 CONCLUSION. 

formed, of 20 or 30/. a-year, for the rural deans ; and th«f, 
they, with at least tliree of the clergy of the deanery, named 
by the bishop, examined into the manners both of clergy 
and laity; and after the methods of private admonition 
had been tried, according to our Saviour's rule, but v\dth- 
out effect, that the matter should be laid before the bishop ; 
who, after his admonitions were also ineffectual, might 
proceed to censures, to a suspension from the sacrament, 
and to a full excommunication, as the case should require. 
This would bring our church, indeed, into a primitive form, 
in which at present the clergy have less authority, and are 
under more contempt, than in any church that I have yet 
seen ; for, though in the church of Rome the public au- 
thority is in general managed according to the method 
continued among us, yet it was, in many particulars, cor- 
rected by the council of Trent ; whereas we, by that un- 
happy proviso in the act, authorizing the thirty-two com- 
missioners to reform our courts, are fatally tied down to 
all that was in use in the twenty-fifth year of King Henry 
the Eighth. Besides, in that church the clergy have, by 
auricular confession, but too great an authority over the 
people : I am far from thinking that to be a lawful, or even 
a desirable thing : but since that is not to be thought of, 
we are in a woeful condition, in which the clergy are, as it 
were, shut out from any share of the main parts of the care 
of souls. 
My zeal The waut of a true, well-regulated discipline, is a great 

^^liou! defect, owned to be so in the preface to the Office of Com- 
mination ; and, while we continue in tliis condition, we are 
certainly in an imperfect state. But this did never ap- 
pear to me to be a just ground of separation ; which I 
could never think lawful, unless the terms of communion 
among us were unlawful, and did oblige a man to sins 
that seems to me the only justifiable cause of separation — 
of leaving the established church, and of setting up a dis- 
tinct or opposite communion. Nothing under this seems 
to be a just ground of rending the body of Christ, or of dis- 
turbing the order of the world, and tiie peace of mankind, 
thereby drawing on that train of ill consequences, that 
must and do follow upon such a disjointing the society of 
Christians ; by which they become alienated from one 
another, and, in the sequel, grow to hate aud to devour 



CONCLUSION. 339 

each other, and by which they are in danger of being con- 
sumed one of another. 

I do wish, and will pray for it as long as I live, that An.i tender- 

I16S8 to SCrQ" 

some regard may be had to those scruples, with which the puiou^ con- 
dissenters are entangled ; and, though I think they are not sciences. 
all well gTounded, yet, for peace sake, I wish some things 
may be taken away, and that other things may be softened 
and explained : many of these things were retained at the 
Reformation, to draw the people more entirely into it; 
who are apt to judge, especially in times of ignorance, by 
outward appearances, more tlian by the real value of 
things ; so the preserving an exterior, that looked some- 
what like what they had been formerly accustomed to, 
without doubt had a great eflect, at first, on many persons, 
who, without that, could not have been easily brought over 
to adhere to that w ork ; and this was a just and lawful 
consideration. But it is now at an end ; none now are 
brought over from popery by this means; there is not, 
therefore, such a necessity for continuing them still, as 
there w as for keeping them up at first. I confess it is not 
advisable, without good reason for it, to make great 
changes in things that are visible and sensible ; yet, upon 
just grounds, some may be made without any danger. No 
inconvenience could follow on leaving out the cross in 
baptism, or on laying aside surplices, and regulating ca- 
thedrals ; especially as to that indecent way of singing 
prayers, and of laymen's reading the litany : all bow ings 
to the altar have at least an ill appearance, and are of no 
use : the excluding parents from being the sponsors in 
baptism, and requiring them to procure others, is ex- 
tremely inconvenient, and makes that to be a mockery, 
rather than a soleum sponsion, in too many. Other tilings 
may be so explained, that no just exceptions could lie to. 
them. 

Thus 1 wish the terms of communion were made larger 
and easier ; but since all is now bound on us by a law, 
that cannot be repealed but in parliament, there must be a 
gieat change in the minds, both of the princes and peo- 
ple, before that can be brought about : therefore the dis- 
senters ought to consider w ell, what they can do for peace, 
without sinning against God. The toleration does not at 
all justify their separation ; it only takes away the force of 



340 CONCLUSION. 

penal laws afrainst them : therefore, as lying in commofi 
discourse is still a sin, though no statute punishes it ; and 
ingratitude is a base thing-, though there is no law against 
it; so separating from a national body and from the public 
worship, is centaiuly an ill thing-, unless some sin be com- 
mitted there, in which we think ourselves involved, by Join- 
ing with that body, and in that worship : so that the tolera- 
tion is only a freedom from punislunent, and does not alter 
the nature of the thing. 

My zeal J ^^^ ^^^ ^j^- g ffom auv dislikc of toleration ; I think it 

against per- . •' . 

secution. IS a light duc to all men: their thoughts are not in their 
own power ; they must think of things, as they appear to 
them ; their consciences are God's ; he only knows them, 
and he only can change them. And, as the authority of 
parents over their children is antecedent to society, and no 
law that takes it away can be binding, so men are bound, 
antecedently to all society, to follow what appears to them 
to be the will of God ; and, if men would act honestly, the 
rule of doing to all others what we would have others do 
to us, would soon determine this matter; since every 
honest man must own, that he would think himself hardly 
dealt with, if he were ill used for his opinions, and ior per- 
forming such parts of worship, as he thought himself indis- 
pensably obliged to. Indeed the church of Rome has some 
colour for her cruelty, since she pretends to be infallible. 
But these practices are absurdly unreasonable among those, 
who own that they may be mistaken, and so may be perse- 
cuting the innocent and the orthodox. Persecution, if it 
were lav»ful at all, ought to be extreme, and go, as it does 
in the church of Rome, to extirpation ; for the bad treat- 
ment of those who are suffered still to live in a society, is 
the crektin<r so many malecontents, who at some time or 
other may make those, who treat them ill, feel their revenge : 
and the principle of persecution, if true, is that, to Avhich 
all have a right, when they have a power to put it in prac- 
tice : since they, being persuaded that they are in the right, 
from that must believe they may lawfully exert against 
others that severity, under which they groaned long them- 
selves. This will be aggravated in them by the voice of 
revenge, which is too apt to be well heard by human nature, 
chiefly when it comes with the mask and appearance of 
zeal. I add not here any political considerations, from the 



CONCLUSION. 341 

apparent interest of nations, Avhich must dispose them to 
encourage the increase of their people, to advance indus- 
try, and to become a sancluary to all, who are oppressed : 
but thougli this is visible and is confessed by all, yet I 
am now considering this matter only as it is righteous, just, 
and merciful, in the principle ; for if it were not so well 
supported in those respects, other motives w ould only be 
a temptation to princes and states to be governed by inte- 
rest, more than by their duty. 

Having thus given my thoughts in general, with relation Mvthoagiifs 
to the constitution of our church and the communion with '"""ceming 

the clcriiY* 

it, I shall proceed, in the next place, to that which is spe- 
cial with relation to the clergy. I have said a great deal on 
this head, in my book of the Pastoral Care, which of all 
the tracts I ever wrote, is that in which I rejoice the most: 
and, though it has brought much anger on me from those, 
who will not submit to the plan there laid down, yet it has 
done much good during my own life, and I hope it will do 
yet more good, after I am dead : this is a subject I have 
thought much upon, and so I will here add some things, to 
what will be found in that book. 

No man ought to think of this profession, unless he feels An inward 
within himself a love to religion, with a zeal for it, and an vocatisn. 
internal true piety ; w hich is chiefly kept up by secret 
prayer, and by reading of the Scriptures : as long as these 
things are a man's burden, they are infallible indications, 
that he has no inward vocation, nor motion of the Holy 
Ghost to undertake it. The capital error in men's preparing 
themselves for that function is, that they study books more 
than themselves, and that they read divinity more in other 
books, than in the Scriptures : days of prayer, meditation, 
and fasting, at least once a quarter in the Ember week, in 
which they may read over and over again both offices of 
ordination, and get by heart those passages in the Epistles 
to Timothy and Titus, that relate to this function, w ould 
form their minds to a right sense of it, and be an effectual 
mean to prepare them duly for it. 

Ask yourselves often, (for thus I address myself to you, 
as if I were still alive) would you follow that course of 
life, if there were no settled establishment belonging to it, 
and if you were to preach under the cross, and in danger 
of persecution ? For till you arrive at that, you are yet 



.'542 COTICLUSION. 

carnal, and come into the priesthood for a piece of bread. 
^Stiidy to keep alive in yoi a flame of exalted devotion; be 
talking; often to yourselves, and communing with your own 
hearts ; digest all that you read carefully, that you may re- 
member it so well, as not to be at a loss when any point of 
divinity is talked of: a little study well digested, in a good 
serious mind, will go a great way, and v»rill lay in materials 
for your whole live : above all things, raise within yourself 
a zeal for doing good, and for gaining souls ; indeed I have 
lamented, during my whole life, that I saw so little true 
zeal among our clergy : I saw much of it in the clergy of 
the church of Rome, though it is both ill-directed and ill- 
conducted: I saw much zeal likewise throughout the foreign 
churches : the dissenters have a great deal among them ; 
but I must own, that the main body of our clergy has 
always appeared dead and lifeless to me ; and instead of 
animating one another, they seem rather to lay one another 
asleep, AVithout a visible alteration in this, you will fall 
imder an universal contempt, and lose both the credit and 
the fruits of your ministry. 
The function When you are in orders, be ever ready to perform all 
*^ 't. the parts of your function ; be not anxious about a settle- 
ment; study to distinguish yourself in your studies, la- 
bours, exemplary deportment, and a just sweetness of tem- 
per, managed w ith gravity and discretion ; and as for what 
concerns yourselves, depend on the providence of God; 
for be will in due time raise up friends and benefactors to 
you. I do affirm this, upon the observation of my whole 
life, that 1 never knew any one, who conducted himself by 
these rules, but he was brought into good posts, or at least 
into an easy state of subsistence. 

Do not affect to run into new opinions, nor to heat your- 
selves in disputes, about matters of small importance: 
begin with settling in your minds the foundations of your 
faith ; and be full of this, and ready at it, that you may 
know how to deal with unbelievers ; for that is the spread- 
ing corruption of this age : there are few atheists, but many 
infidels, who are indeed very little better than the atheists. 
In this argument, you ought to take pains to have all well 
digested, and clearly laid in your thoughts, that you may 
manage the controversy gently, without any asperity of 
w ords, but with a strength of reason : in disputing, do not 



CONCLUSION". 343 

t>ffer to answer any argument, of which you never heard 
before, and know nothing concerning it ; that will both ex- 
pose you, and the cause you maintain ; and, if you feel 
yourself gTown too warm at any time, break off and per- 
sist no longer in the dispute ; for you may by that grow to 
an indecent heat, by which you may ^\Tong the cause, which 
you endeavour to defend. In the matter of mysteries be 
very cautious ; for the simplicity in which those sublime 
truths are delivered in the Scriptures, ought to be well stu- 
died and adhered to : only one part of the argument should 
be insisted on, I mean, the shortness and defectiveness of 
our faculties ; which being well considered, will afford a 
great variety of noble speculations, that are obvious and 
easily apprehended, to restrain the wanton sallies of some 
petulant men. 

Study to understand well the controversies of the church 
of Rome, chiefly those concerning infallibility and transub- 
stantiation ; for, in managing those, their missionaries have 
a particular address. Learn to view popery in a true light, 
as a conspiracy to exalt the power of the clergy, even by 
subjecting the most sacred truths of religion, to contrivances 
for raising their authority % and by offering to the world ano- 
ther method of being saved, besides that prescribed in the 
gospel. Popery is a mass of impostures, supported by 
men, who manage them with gieat advantages, and impose 
them Tvith inexpressible severities, on those who dare call 
any thing in question, that they dictate to them. I see a 
spirit rising among us, too like that of the church of Rome, 
of advancing the clergy beyond their due authority, to an 
unjust pitch : this ratlier heightens jealousies and preju- 
dices against us, than advances our real authority ; and it 
will fortify the designs of profane infidels, who desire no- 
thing more than to see the public ministry of the church 
first disgraced, and then abolished. The carrying any thing 
too far, does commonly lead men into the other extreme : 
we are the dispensers of the word and sacraments; and 
the more faithful and diligent we are in this, the world will 
pay so much the more respect and submission to us : and 
our maintaining an argument for more power than we now 
have, will be of no effect, unless the world sees that we 
make a good use of the authority that is already in our 
iiauds. It is with the clergy, as with princes, the only way 



•344 CONCLUSION. 

to keep their prerogative from being uneasy to their sub- 
jects, and from being disputed, is to manage it wholly for 
their good and advantage, then all will be for it when they 
tind it is for them ; this will prevail more eftectnally than 
all the arguments of lawyers, with all the precedents of 
fonuer times ; therefore let the clergy live and labour well, 
and they will feel that as much authority will follow that, 
as they will know how to manage well. And to speak 
plainly, Dodwell's extravagant notions, which have been 
too much drunk in by the clergy in my time, have weak- 
ened the power of the church, and soured men's minds 
more against it, than all the books wrote, or attempts made 
against it could ever have done ; and indeed the secret 
poison of those principles has given too many of the clergy 
a bias towards popery, with an aversion to the Reforma- 
tion, which has brouglit them under much contempt. This 
is not to be recovered, but by their living and labouring as 
they ought to do, without an eager maintaining of argu- 
ments for their authority, which will never succeed till they 
live better and labour more. When I say live better, I 
mean not only to live without scandal, which I have found 
the greatest part of them do, but to lead exemplary lives ; 
to be eminent in humility, meekness, sobriety, contempt 
of the W'Orld, and unfeigned love of the brethren; ab- 
stracted from the vain conversation of the world, retired, 
and at home; fasting often, joining prayer and meditation 
with it ; without which, fasting may do well w ith relation 
to the body, but will signify little with relation to the mind. 
If, to such a course of life, clergymen would add a little 
more labour, not only performing public offices, and 
preaching to the edification of the people, but watching 
, over them, instructing them, exhorting, reproving, and 

comfmting them, as occasion is given, from house to house, 
making their calling the business of their whole life ; they 
would soon fmd their own minds grow to be in a better 
temper, and their people would shew more esteem and re- 
gard for them, and a blessing from God would attend upon 
their labours. I say it with great regret, 1 have observed 
tlie clergy, in all the places through which I have travelled. 
Papists, Lutherans, Calvinists, and Dissenters; but of them 
all, our clergy is much the most remiss in their labours in 
private, and the least severe in their lives. Do not think 



CONCLUSION. 345 

I say this to expose you, or to defame this church ; those 
censures have passed on me for my freedom during my life, 
God knows how unjustly, my designs being all to awaken 
the clerg}', and by that means to preserve the church ; for 
which. He who know s all things, knows how much and how 
long I have been mourning in secret, and fasting and pray- 
ing before him. And let me say this freely to you, now 
that I am out of the reach of envy and censure, unless a 
better spirit possesses the clergy, arguments and (which is 
more) laws and authority will not prove strong enough to 
preserve the church ; especially if the nation observes a pro- 
gress in that bias, which makes many so favourable to 
popery, and so severe towards the dissenters : this w ill re- 
commend them the more to pity and favour, and will draw 
a general odium upon you, that may end in your ruin, or in 
a persecution ; for w hich the clergy of this age seem to be 
very little prepared. God grant those of the next may be 
more so ! 

Oh my brethren ! (for I speak to you as if I were among 
you,) think what manner of persons you ought to be, in all 
holy conversation and godliness, that so you may sliine as 
lights in the w orld : think of the account you must give for 
those immortal souls committed to your care, which were 
redeemed by the blood of Christ, who has sent you in his 
name, to persuade them to be reconciled to God, and at last 
to present them to him faultless \vith exceeding joy ; he 
sees and observes your labours, and will recompense them 
gloriously in that great day. 

I leave all these things on your consciences, and pray 
earnestly that God may give his blessing to this posthu- 
mous labour of mine, that our church may be so built up by 
your labours, that it may continue to be long the joy of the 
whole earth, in the perfection of its beauty, and may be a 
pattern, as well as give protection, to all the churches of 
God. 

I now turn to my brethren and successors in the epis- My a<i>ice» 
copal order. You are they in whose hands the govern- <" \^^ 
ment ol the church is put ; m some respects it is believed 
to be wholly in you, though I know^, and have often felt it, 
that your power is so limited, that you can do little : ex- 
emptions, a scandalous remnant of popery, take a great 
part of your diocese out of your hands. This I have often 

VOL. IV. 2 Y 



346 CONCLUSION. 

wondered at^ (hat some who plead that the government of 
tiie church is settled by divine authority in the bishops, 
can yet, by the virtue of papal bulls, confirmed by an un- 
happy clause in an act of parliament, exercise episcopal 
jurisdiction ; which is plainly to act by virtue of the secular 
power, in opposition to that, which, according to their prin- 
ciples, is settled by a divine appointment. Archdeacons' 
visitations were an invention of the latter ages ; in which 
the bishops, neglecting their duty, cast a great part of their 
care upon them. Now their visitations are only for form 
and for fees ; and they are a charge on the clergy ; so, 
when this matter is well looked into, I hope archdeacons, 
with many other burdens that lay heavy on the clergy, 
shall be taken away. All the various instruments, upon 
which heavT^ ^^^^ must be raised, were the infamous con- 
trivances of the canonists, and can never be maintained 
when well exammed. I say nothing to you of your lives, 
I hope you are, and shall ever be, shining lights ; I wish the 
pomp of living, and the keeping high tables, could be quite 
taken away : it is a great charge, and no very decent one ; 
a great devourer of time ; it lets in much promiscuous 
company, and much vain discourse upon you : even civi- 
lity may carry you too far in a freedom and familiarity 
that will make you look too like the rest of the world. I 
hope this is a burden to you : it was indeed one of the gieat- 
est burdens of my life to see so much time lost, to hear so 
much idle talk, and to be living in a luxurious waste of 
that which might have been much better bestowed. I had 
not strength enough to break through that which custom 
has imposed on those provided with plentiful bishoprics : 
I pray God to help you to find a decent way of laying this 
down ! 

The wives and children of bishops ought to be exem- 
plary in their apparel, and in their whole deportment ; re- 
membering, that no part of the bishop's honours belongs to 
them. The wife of a bishop ought to visit the widow and 
the fatherless, and, by a grave authority, instruct and ad- 
monish, as well as oblige and favour, the wives of the rest 
of the clergj-. 

The children of bishops ought to be well instructed, and 
managed with all gravity ; bishops ought not to press them 
beyond their inclinations to take orders ; for this looks as 



CONCLUSION. 347 

if they would thrust them, how unlit or unwilling soever, 
into such preferments as thej'^ can give or procure for them : 
on the contrary, though their chihlren should desire to go into 
orders, they ought not to sufi^r it, imless they see in them 
a good mind and sincere intentions, with the other neces- 
sary qualifications ; in which they cannot be deceived, un- 
less they have a mind to deceive themselves : it is a be- 
traying of their trust, and the worst sort of simony, to pro- 
vide children with great dignities and benefices, only as an 
estate to be given them, without a due regard to their capa- 
cities or tempers. Ordinations are the only parts of the 
episcopal function on which the law has laid no restraint; 
so this ought to he hea^^ on your thoughts. 

Ordination weeks were always dreadful things to me, 
when I remembered those words, " Lay hands suddenly on 
no man, be not partaker of other men's sins : keep thyself 
pure." It is true, those who came to me were generally 
well prepared as to their studies, and they brought testi- 
monials and titles, which is all that in our present consti- 
tution can be demanded. I never put over the examining 
them to my chaplains ; I did that always myself, and exa- 
mined them chiefly on the proofs of revealed religion, and 
the terais of salvation, and the new covenant through 
Christ ; for those are the fundamentals ; but my princi- 
pal care was to awaken their consciences, to make them 
consider whether they had a motion of the Holy Ghost 
calling them to the function, and to make them apprehend 
what belonged both to a spiritual life and to the pastoral 
care. On these subjects 1 spoke much and often to every 
one of them apart, and sometimes to them all together, 
besides the public examination of them with my chapter. 

This was all that 1 could do ; but, alas ! how defective An expe^l- 
is this ! and it is too w ell known how easy the clergy are T"* ordi^ 
in signing testimonials. That which I here propose is, tions. 
that every man who intends to be ordained should be re- 
quired to come and acquaint the bishop with it a year 
before; that so he may then talk to his conscience, and 
give him good directions, both as to his studies and the 
course of his life and devotions ; and that he may recom- 
mend him to the care and inspection of the best clergpnen 
that he knows in the neighbourhood where he lives ; that 
SO be may have from him, by some other conveyance thgya 



348 CONCLUSION. 

Ihc person concerned, such an account of him as he may 
rely on : this is all that can be proposed till our univer- 
sities are put in a better method, or till seminaries can he 
raised for maintaining a number of persons to be duly pre- 
pared for holy orders. 
The .lutie^ j^s to the labours of a bishop, they ought to think them- 
o a IS loj), ggi^gg obliged to preach as much as their health and age 
can admit of; this the form of ordaining bishops sets 
before them, together with the sense of the church in all 
ages; the complaint of the best men in the worst ages, 
shews how much the sloth and laziness of bishops will be 
cried out on, and how acceptable the labours of preaching 
bishops have always been ; the people run to hear them, 
and hearken to their sermons with more than ordinary at- 
tention ; you will find great comfort in your labours this 
way, and will see the fruits of them. The discreet conduct 
of your clergy is to be your chief care ; keep not at too 
great a distance, and yet let them not grow too familiar: a 
bishop's discourse should be well-seasoned, turned chiefly 
to good subjects, instruction in the matters of religion, and 
the pastoral care ; and the more diverting ones ought to be 
matters of learning, criticism, or history. It is in the power 
of a bishop to let no man despise him. 

A grave but sweet deportment and a holy conversation 
will command a general respect ; and as for some hot and 
froward spirits, the less they are meddled with, they will be 
the less able to do mischief; they delight in opposition, 
which they think will make them the more considerable. I 
have had much experience this way, nothing mortifies them 
so much as neglect : the more abstracted bishops live, from 
the world, from courts, from cabals, and from parties, they 
will have the more quiet within themselves ; their thoughts 
will be free and less entangled, and they will in conclusion 
be the more respected by all, especially if an integrity and 
a just freedom appear among them in the House of Lords, 
where they will be much observed ; and judgments will be 
made of them there, that will follow them home to their 
dioceses. 
Ti.eir ab- Nothing will alienate the nation more from them, than 
from coiuis tlicir bccomiug tools to a court, and giving up the liberties 
and in- of their country, and advancing arbitrary dcsig-ns ; nothing 
will work more ettcctually ou the dissenters, than a course 



CONCLUSION. 349 

of moderation towards them : this will disarm their pas- 
sions, and when that is done, they may be better dealt 
with in point of reason ; all care ought to be taken to stifle 
new controversies in their birth, to check new opinions 
and vain curiosities. 

Upon the whole matter, bishops ought to consider, that 
the honour given them, and ftie revenues belonging to 
them, are such rewards for former services, and such en- 
couragements to go on to more labour and diligence, as 
ought to be improved, as so many helps and advantages 
for carrying on the work of the gospel, and their heavenly 
Father's business. They ought to " meditate on these 
tilings, and be wholly in them ; so that their profiting may 
appear to all." They ought " to preach in season, and out of 
season, to exhort, admonish, and rebuke with all authority." 

But if they abandon themselves to sloth and idleness ; if 
they neglect their proper function, and follow a secular, a 
vain, a covetous, or a luxurious course of life ; if they, 
not content with educating their children well, and with 
such a competency as may set them afloat in the worldj, 
think of building up their own houses, and raising up great 
estates, they will put the world on many unacceptable in- 
quiries : Wherefore is this waste made ? Why are these re- 
venues continued to men who make such an ill use of them ? 
and why is an order kept up that does the church so little 
good, and gives it so much scandal ? The violences of 
Archbishop Laud, and his promoting arbitrary pov.'er, 
ruined himself and the church both. A return of the like 
practices will bring with it the like dreadful consequences : 
tlie labours and the learning, the moderation and good lives 
of tlie bishops of this age have changed the nation much, 
•with relation to them, and have possessed them of a gene- 
ral esteem ; some fiery spirits only excepted, who hate and 
revile them for that which is their true glory. I hope ano- 
ther age may carry this yet much further, that so they may 
be universally looked on, as the true and tender-hearted 
fathers of the church. 

The affinity of the matter leads me, before I enter on Concerning 
another scene, to say somewhat concerning the patronage P^^°"*' 
of benefices, which have a care of souls belonging to them. 
It is a noble dignity in a family ; it was highly esteemed in 
the times of popery, because the patron was to be named 



350 CONCLUSION. 

in all the masses said in liis church. There is a more real 
value in it in our constitution, since the patron has the 
nomination of him to \\hom the care of" souls is to be 
committed; which must take place, unless some just and 
legal exception can be made by the bishop : even that is 
not ea^y to be maintained in the courts of law, where the 
bishop will soon be nui into so great an expense, that I am 
afraid many, rather than venture on that, receive umvorthy 
men into the service of the church, who are in the sequel 
reproaches to it ; and this is often the case of the richest 
and best endowed benefices. 

Some sell the next advowson, which I know is said to be 
legal, though the incumbent lies at the point of death; 
others do not stick to by and sell benefices, when open 
and vacant, though this is declared to be simony by law : 
parents often buy them for their children, and reckon that 
is their portion : in that case, it is true, there is no perjury 
in taking the oath, for the person presented is no party to 
the bargain : often ecclesiastics themselves buy the next ad- 
vowson, and lodge it with trustees for their own advantage. 

AYhere nothing of all this traffic intervenes, patrons be- 
stow benefices on their children or friends, without consi- 
dering either their abilities or merit ; favour or kindred be- 
ing the only thing that weighs with them. When all this is 
laid together, how great a part of the benefices of England 
are disposed of, if not simoniacally, yet at least unworthily, 
without regard to so sacred a tmst, as the care of souls ? 
Certainly patrons who, without due care and inquiry^ put 
souls into bad hands, have much to answer for. 

I will not say that a patron is bound always to bestow 
his church on the best man he can find ; that may put him 
on anxieties, out of which it will not be easy to extricate 
himself; nor will it be always possible to balance the dif- 
ferent excellencies of men, who may have various talents, 
that lie several Avays, and all of them may be useful, some 
more, some less : but in this I am positive, that no patron 
answers the obligation of that trust, unless he is well per- 
suaded, that the clerk he presents is a truly good man, has 
a competent measure of knowledge, zeal, and discretion, so 
suited to the people for whom he names him, that he has 
reason to believe he will be a faithful pastor and a prudent 
guide Jto them. 



CONCLUSION. 351 

Patrons ought to take this on their conscience, to manage 
it with great caution, and in the tear of God, and not to 
enter into that filthy merchandise of the souls of men, 
which is too common : it is like to be a moth in their 
estates, and may bring a ©urse on their families, as well as 
on their persons. 

I do not enter into the scandalous practices of non-resi- Non-resi- 
dence and pluralities, which are sheltered by so many co- p[u,^ai;t"e8. 
lours of law among us ; whereas the church of Some, from 
whence we had those and many other abuses, has freed 
herself from this, under which we still labour, to our great 
and just reproach. This is so shameful a profanation of 
holy things, that it ought to be treated with detestation and 
horror. Do such men think on the vows they made on their 
ordination ; on the rules in the Scriptures, or on the nature 
of their function, or that it is a care of souls ? How long, 
how long shall this be the peculiar disgrace of our church, 
which, for ought I know, is the only church in the world 
that tolerates it ? I must add, that I do not reckon the hold- 
ing poor li\ings that lie contiguous a plurality, where both 
are looked after, and both afford only a competent main- 
tenance. 

I have now gone through the most important things that Concerning 
occur to my thoughts with relation to the clergy. I turn \^^l pgopfe. 
next to such observations, reflections, and advices, as 
relate to the laity : I begin with the body of the people. 
The commonalty of this nation are much the happiest, and 
live the easiest and the most plentifully of any that ever I 
saw ; they are very sagacious and skilful in managing all 
their concerns ; but at the same time it is not to be con- 
ceived how ignorant they are in the matters of religion. 
The dissenters have a much larger share of knowledge 
among them, than is among those who come to our 
churches. This is the more to be wondered at, consider- 
ing the plainness in which matters of religion are wrote in 
this age, and the many small books concerning these that 
have been published of late years, which go at easy rates, 
and of which many thousands are every year sent about 
by charitable societies in London, to be freely given to 
such as will but take them, and read them : so that this 
ignorance seems to be obstinate and incurable. 

Upon this subject, all that I can propose lies in two ad- 



352 CONCLUSION. 

vices to the clergy : the one is, that they*catechise tlie youth 
much at church, not only asking the questions and hearing 
the ansAvcrs, but joining to that the explaining the terms in 
other words, and by turning to the Bible for such passages 
as prove or enlarge on (hem. The doing this constantly, 
would infuse into the next age a higher measure of know- 
l.edge than the present is likely to be blessed with. Long ser- 
mons, in which points of divinity or morality are regularly 
handled, are above the capacity of the people ; short and 
plain ones, upon a large portion of scripture, would be 
better hearkened to, and have a much better eflfect ; they 
would make the hearers understand and love the Scriptures 
more. Preachers ought to dwell often, in their sermons, 
on those sins that their hearers must needs know themselves 
guilty of, if they are so ; such as swearing, lying, cheating, 
drunkenness, lewd deportment, breach of promise, love of 
the world, anger, envy, malice, pride, and luxury. Short 
discourses upon these, and often repeated, in many glances 
and reflections on them, setting forth the real evil of thpm, 
with the ill consequences that follow, not only to others, 
but to the persons themselves, are the best means that can 
be thought of, for reforming them ; and these will have an 
effect on some, if not on many. But above all, and in or- 
der to all the rest, they ought to be called on, upon all oc- 
casions, to reflect on their ways, to consider how they live, 
to pray in secret to God, confessing their sins to him, 
begging pardon and mercy for what is past, and his Holy 
Spirit to assist, strengthen, and direct them for the time to 
come, forming sincere resolutions to mend their ways, with 
relation to every particular sin, that they find they may have 
fallen into. If the clergy will faithfully do their duty in 
this method, and join to it earnest prayers for their people, 
they may hope through the blessing of God to succeed 
better in their labours. The people ought to be often put 
in mind of the true end of the rest on the Lord's-day, which 
is chiefly to give them time and opportunity for meditations 
and reflections on themselves, on what they have said or 
done, and on what has befallen them the former week ; and 
to consider what may be before them in the week they are 
entering on. Ministers ought to visit their people, not only 
when they are sick unto death, but when Ihcy are in an ill 
stale of health, or when they aio under aliliction. These 



CONCLUSION. 353 

f»re the times in which their spirits are tender, and they will 
best bear with a due freedom, which ought to be managed 
in the discreetest and most affectionate manner : and a cler- 
gyman ought not to be a respecter of persons, and neglect 
the meanest of his cure ; they' have as immortal souls as the 
greatest, and for which Christ has paid the same ransom. 

From the commonalty I turn to the gentry; they are, Of the gen- 
for the most part, the worst instructed, and the least know- ^'^^' 
ing of any of their rank I ever went amongst. The Scotch, 
though less able to bear flie expense of a learned educa- 
tion, are much more knowing : the reason of which is this ; 
the Scotch, even of indifferent fortunes, send private tutors 
with their children, both to schools and colleges ; these 
look after the young gentlemen, mornings and evenings, 
and read over with them what they have learned, and so 
make them perfecter in it : they generally go abroad a year 
or two, and see tlie world ; this obliges them to behave 
themselves well : — whereas a gentleman here is often both 
ill taught and ill bred; this makes him haughty and inso- 
lent. The gentry are not early acquainted with the prin- 
ciples of religion ; so that, after they have forgot their ca- 
tecliism, they acquire no more new knowledge, but what 
they learn in plays and romances : they grow soon to find 
it a modish thmg, that looks like wit and spirit, to laugh at 
religion and virtue ; and so become crude and unpolished 
infidels. If they have taken a wrong tincture at the uni- 
versity, that too often disposes them to hate and despise 
aU those who separate from the church, though they can 
give no better reason, than the papists have for hating he- 
retics — because they forsake the church. In those seats of 
education, instead of being formed to love their coimtry 
and constitution, the laws and liberties of it, they are rather 
disposed to love arbitrary government, and to become 
slaves to absolute monarchy: a change of interest, provo- 
cation, or some other consideration, may set them right 
again as to the public ; but they have no inward principle 
of love to their country, and of public liberty : so that they 
are easily brought to like slavery, if they may be the tools 
for managing it. 

This is a dismal representation of things ; I have seen Tiie danget 
the nation thrice on the brink of ruin by men thus tainted. ° yj*'y^ 
Aftetthe Restoration, all were running fast into slavery ; had berty. 
VOL. IV. 2 z 



354 CONCLUSION. 

King Charles the Second been attentive to those bad de- 
signs (which he pursued afterwards with more caution) 
upon his tirst return, slavery and absolute power might 
then have been settled into a law, with a revenue able to 
maintain it ; he played away that game without thought, 
and he had then honest ministers, who would not serve 
him in it : after all that he did, during the course of his 
reign, it was scarce credible that the same temper should 
have returned in his time, yet he recovered it in the last 
four years of his reign ; and the gentry of England were as 
active and zealous to throw up all their liberties, as their 
ancestors ever had been to preserve them. This continued 
above half-a-year in his brother's reign, and he depended 
so much upon it, that he thought it could never go out of 
his hands : but he, or rather his priests, had the skill and 
dexterity to play this game likewise away, and lose it a se- 
cond time ; so that, at the Revolution, all seemed to come 
again into their wits. But men who have no principles, 
cannot be steady ; now the greater part of the capital gen- 
try seem to return again to a love of tyranny, provided 
they may be the under tyrants themselves ; and they seem 
to be even uneasy with a court, when it will not be as much 
a court as they would have it. This is a folly of so sin- 
gular a nature, that really it wants a name ; it is natural 
for poor men, who have little to lose, and much to hope for, 
to become the instruments of slavery ; but it is an extra- 
vagance, peculiar to our age, to see rich men grow as it 
were in love with slavery and arbitrary power. The root 
of all this is, that our gentry are not betimes possessed 
with a true measure of solid knowledge and sound reli- 
gion, with a love to their country, a hatred of tyranny, 
and a zeal for liberty. Plutarch's Lives, with the Greek 
and Roman history, ought to be early put in their hands, 
tliey ought to be well acquainted with all history, more 
particularly that of our own natior;; which they should 
not read in abridgments, but in the fullest and most co- 
pious collectors of it, that they may see to the bottom 
what is our constitution, and what are our laws ; what are 
the methods bad princes have taken to enslave us, and by 
"what conduct we have been preserved : gentlemen ought to 
observe these things, and to entertain one another often 
upon these subjects, to raise in themselves, and to spread 



CONCLUSION. 355 

around Ihem to all others, a noble ardonr for law and 
liberty. They ought to understand popery \vell, to \-iew it 
in its politics, as well as in its religious corruptions, that 
they may observe and guard against their secretest prac- 
tices; particularly that main one that prevails so fatally 
among us, of making us despise the foreign churches, and 
hate the dissenters at home. The whole body of protest- 
ants, if united, might be an equal match to the church of 
Rome ; it is much superior to them in wealth and in force, 
if it were animated with the zeal which the monastic orders, 
but chiefly the Jesuits, spread through their whole commu- 
nion; whereas the reformed are cold and unconcerned, as 
well as disjointed in matters that relate to religion. The 
chief maxim by which men, who have a true zeal for their 
religion and their country, ought to govern themselves, is, 
to live within the extent of their estates, to be above luxury 
and vanity, and all expenses that waste their fortunes : 
luxury must drive them to court favour, to depend on mi- 
nisters, and to aspire after places and pensions ; and as the 
seeking after these does often complete the ruin of broken 
families, so in many they prove only a reprieve, and not a 
recovery ; Avhereas he, who is contented with his fortune, 
and measures his way of living by it, has another root with- 
in him, out of which every noble and generous thought 
will naturally spring. Public liberty has no sure founda- ^ 
tion but in virtue, in parsimony, and moderation ; where 
these fail, liberty may be preserved by accidents and cir- 
cumstances of affairs, but it has no bottom to rest securely 
on. A knowing and virtuous gentleman, who understands 
his religion and loves it, who practises the true rules of 
virtue, without affectation and moroseness; who knows 
enough of law to keep his neighbours in order, and to give 
them good advice ; who keeps meetings for his county, 
and restrains vice and disorder at them ; who lives hos- 
pitably, frugally, and charitably ; Avho respects and encou- 
rages good clergymen, and worships God, both in his fa- 
mily and at church ; who educates his children well, who 
treats his servants gently, and deals equitably with his 
tenants and all others, with whom he has any concerns ; 
such a man shines, and is a public blessing to all that see 
him, or come near him. Some such instances are yet left 
among us ; but, alas ! there are not many of them. Can 



S50 CONCLUSION. 

-there be any thing more barbarous, or rather treacherous, 
than for gentlemen to think it is one of the honours of their 
houses, that none must go out of them sober ; it is but a 
little more infamous to poison them : and yet this passes 
as a character of a noble housekeeper, who entertains his 
friends kindly. Idleness and ignorance are the ruin of the 
greatest part, who, if they are not fit for better things,, 
should descend to any thing rather than suffer themselves 
to sink into sloth ; that will carry them to the excesses of 
hunting, gaming, and drinking, which may ruin both soul, 
body, and estate. If a man, by an ill-managed or a neg- 
lected education, is so turned that every sort of study or 
reading is a burden ; then he ought to try if he has a genius 
to any mechanism that may be an entertainment to him ; 
tlie managing a garden is a noble, and may be made a use- 
ful amusement ; the taking some part of his estate into his 
ovm hands, if he looks carefully to it, will both employ 
his time well, and may turn to a good account : in a word, 
some employments may be better than others ; but there is 
no employment so bad as the having none at all: the mind 
will contract a rust, and an unfitness for every good thing ; 
and a man must either fill up his time w ith good or at least 
innocent business, or it will run to the worst sort of waste, 
to sin and vice. 

Errors in J havc oftcu thought it a great error to waste young gen- 
tlemen's years so long in learning Latin, by so tedious a 
grammar ; I know those who are bred to the professions in 
literature, must have the Latin correctly, and for that, the 
rules of grammar are necessary ; but these are not at all 
requisite to those, who need only so much Latin as tho- 
roughly to understand and delight in the Roman authors 
and poets. But suppose a youth had, either for want of 
memory or of application, an incurable aversion to Latin, 
his education is not for that to be despaired of ; there is 
much noble knowledge to be had in the English and French 
languages : geography, history, chiefly that of our own 
. country, the knowledge of nature, and the more practical 
parts of the mathematics, (if he has not a genius for the de- 
monstrative,) may make a gentleman very knowing, though 
he has not a w ord of Latin ; there is a fineness of thought, 
and a nobleness of expression indeed in the Latin authajs, 
that will make them the entertainment of a man's whole life. 



CONCLUSION. 357 

.if he once understands and reads them with delight : bnt 
if this cannot be attained to, I would not have it reckon- 
ed that the education of an ill Latin scholar is to be 
given over. A competent measure of the knowledge of 
the law is a good foundation for distinguishing a gentle- 
man ; but I am in doubt whether his being for some time 
in the inns of court will contribute much to this, if he is 
not a studious person : those who think they are there only 
to pass away so many of their years, commonly run to- 
gether, and live both idly and viciously. I should ima- 
gine it a much better way, though it is not much practised, 
to get a learned young lawjer, who has not got into much 
business, to come and pass away a long vacation or two 
with a gentleman, to carry him through such an introduc- 
tion to the study of the law, as may give him a full view 
of it, and good directions how to prosecute his study in it. 
A competent skill in this makes a man very useful in his 
country, both in conducting his own afiairs, and in giving 
good advice to those about him ; it will enable him to be a 
good justice of peace, and to settle matters by arbitration 
so as to prevent law-suits : and, which ought to be the top 
of an English gentleman's ambition, to be an able parlia- 
ment man ; to which no gentleman ought to pretend, unless 
he has a true zeal for his country, with an inflexible inte- 
grity and resolution to pursue what appears to him just 
and right, and for the good of the public. Tlie parliament 
is the fountain of law, and the fence of liberty ; and no 
sort of instruction is so necessary for a gentleman, as that 
which may qualify him to appear there with ligure and. re- 
putation. 

Gentlemen, in their marriages, ought to consider a great And in mar- 
many things more than fortune ; though, generally speak- '^'^°^''' 
ing, that is the only thing sought for : a good understand- 
ing, good principles, and a good temper, with a liberal 
education, and acceptable person, are the first things to be 
considered ; and certainly fortune ought to come after all 
these. Those bargains now in fashion make often unhal- 
lowed marriages, in which, besides the greater evils, more 
fortune is often wasted than is brought, with a vain, a fool- 
ish, an indiscreet, and a hated wife. The first thought in 
choosing a wife ought to be, to find a help meet for the 
ma : in a married state, the mutual study of both ought 



358 CONCLUSION. 

to be, to help and please one another ; this is the founda- 
tion of all domestic happiness ; as to stay at home, and to 
love home, is the greatest help to industry, order, and the 
good government of a family. I have dwelt the longer on 
this article, because on the forming the gentry well, the 
good government of the nation, both in and out of parlia- 
ment, does so much depend, 
oftradeand ^g for the men of trade and business, they are generally 
speaking, the best body in the nation — generous, sober, 
and charitable ; so that, while the people in the country 
are so immersed in their atfairs that the sense of religion 
cannot reach them, there is a better spirit stirring in our 
cities ; more knowledge, more zeal, and more charitj% with 
a great deal more of devotion. There may be too much of 
vanity, with too pompous an exterior, mixed with these in 
the capital city ; but, upon the whole, they are the best we 
have. Want of exercise is a great prejudice to their health, 
and a corrupter of their minds, by raising vapours and 
melancholy, that tills many with dark thoughts, rendering 
religion, which affords the truest joy, a burden to them, 
and making them even a burden to themselves ; this fur- 
nishes prejudices against religion to those who are but too 
much disposed to seek for them. Tlie too constant inter- 
course of visits in town, is a vast consumption of time, 
and gives much occasion to talk, which is, at best, idle, if 
not worse : this certainly wants regulation, and is the effect 
ef idleness and vanity, 
fwtiie r|^jjQ stage is the great corrupter of the town ; and the 

bad people of the town have been the chief corrupters of 
the stage, who run most after those plays that defile the 
stage and the audience : poets will seek to please, as 
actors will look for such pieces as draw the most specta- 
tors : they pretend, their design is to discourage vice ; but 
they do, really, recommend it in the most effectual manner. 
It is a shame to our nation and religion, to see the stage so 
reformed in France, and so polluted still in England. Mo- 
liere for comedy, and Racine for tragedy, are great pat- 
terns : fev/ can, and as few will, study to copy after them. 
But, till another scene appears, certainly our plays are the 
greatest debauchers of the nation. Gaming is a waste of 
time, that rises out of idleness, and is kept up by covet- 
ousneiss : those who can think, read, or write to any pur- 



CONCLUSION. 1i69 

pose, and those who understand what conversation and 
friendsliip are, will not want such a help to wear out the 
day; so that, upon the whole matter, sloth and ignorance, 
bad education, and ill company, hyg. the chief sources ot 
all our vice and disorders. 

The ill methods ol' schools and colleges, give the chief of edn- 
rise to the irregularities of the gentry ; as the breeding oth "r^*x- 
young women to vanity, dressing, and a false appearance 
of wit and behaviour, without proper work, or a due mea- 
sure of knowledge, and a serious sense of religion, is the 
source of the corruption of tiiat sex. Something like 
monasteries, without vows, would be a glorious design, 
and might be so set on foot, as to be the honour of a Queen 
on the throne ; but I will pursue this no further. 

My next address is to the nobility' ; most cf what I have of tbeao- 
proposed to our gentry does, in a more eminent manner, "^^' 
belong to them : the higher their condition is raised above 
other gentlemen, so much the more eminent ought they to 
be in knowledge and virtue. The share they have in judi- 
cature, in the House of Lords, should oblige them to ac- 
quaint themselves with the rules and principles of lav.; 
though an unbiassed integrity, neither moved by friendship 
nor party, with a true understanding, will, for the most 
part, direct them in their judgment, since few cases occur 
where the point of law is dark or doubtful. 

Every person of a high rank, whose estate can bear it, or tiieW 
ought to have two persons to manage his education; — the ^ ^^'"'^ 
one a governor to form his mind ; to give him true notions; 
to represent religion and virtue in a proper light to him ; to 
give him a view of geograply, not baiely describing the 
maps, but adding to it the natural history of every country, 
its productions, arts, and trade, with the religion and go- 
vernment of the country, and a general idea of the history 
of the world, and of the various revolutions tliat have hap- 
pened in it : such a view will open a young person's mind ; 
it must be often gone over, to fix it well. The antient 
government in Greece, but much more that of Home, must 
be minutely delivered, that the difference between a just 
and a vicious government may be well apprehended. The 
fall of the Roman greatness, under the emperors, by reason 
of the absolute power that let vice in upon them, which 
corrupted not only their courts, but their armies, ought to 



300 CONCLUSION; 

be fully opened. Then the Gothic i^overnmcnt, and the 
feudal law, should be clearly explained, to open the 
orig^inal of our own constitution. In all this, the chief care 
of a wise and g^ood former of youth ought to be, to possess 
a young mind with noble principles of justice, liberty, and 
virtue, as the true basis of government ; and with an aver- 
sion to violence and arbitrary power, servile flattery, fac- 
tion, and luxury, from which the corruption and ruin of all 
governments have arisen. 

To this governor (qualified for all this to be sought out 
and hired at any rate) I would join a master for languages 
and other things, in which this young lord is to be instruct- 
ed ; who ought to be put under the direction and eye of the 
governor, that his time may not be lost in trifles ; that no- 
thing of pedantry or of affectation may be infused into a 
young mind, which is to be prepared for great things. A 
simplicity of style, with a true and grave pronunciation, 
ought to be well looked to ; and this young nobleman ought 
to be accustomed, as he grows up, to speak his thoughts, 
on the sudden, with a due force and weight, both of words 
and voice. I have often wondered to see parents, who are 
to leave vast estates, and who stick at no expense in other 
things, yet be so frugal and narrow in the education of their 
children. They owe to their country a greater care in prc- 
jjaring the eldest, to make that figure in it, to which he is 
born ; and they owe to their j^ounger children, w ho are not 
to be so plentifully provided, such a liberal education as 
may fit them to answer the dignity of their birth, and pre- 
pare them for employments, by which they may in time give 
a further strength and addition to their family. I have been 
amazed to see how profuse some are in procuring good 
dancing, fencing, and riding masters for their children, and 
setting them out in fine clothes ; and how sparing they are 
in that, w hich is the chief and most important thing, and 
which in time may become the most useful, -both to them- 
selves and to their country. I look on the education of the 
youth as the foundation of all that can be proposed for bet- 
tering the next age : it ought to be one of the chief cares of 
all governments, though there is nothing more universally 
neglected. How do some of our peers shine, merely by their 
virtue and knowledge ; and what a contemptible figure do 
others make, with all their high titles and.great estates.? 



CONCLUSION. 361 

Noblemen begin to neglect the having chaplains in their Of their 
houses, and I do not much wonder at it, w hen I reflect on the *^ *^ **°*' 
behaviour of too many of these ; light and idle, vain and in- 
solent, impertinent and pedantic : by this want, however, 
the worship of God, and the instruction of servants, is quite 
neglected : but, if a little more care were taken to choose 
well, a lord might make good use of a chaplain, not only 
for those ends which I have mentioned, but for the read- 
ing such books as the lord desires to be well informed 
about, but has not leisure to peruse himself. These he 
may read by his chaplain, and receive an account of them 
from him, and see what are the principal things to be learnt 
from them, for which he may find leisure, though not for the 
whole book : by this means he may keep his chaplain well 
employed, and may increase his own stock of knowledge, 
and be w ell furnished w ith relation to all new books and 
new questions that are started. The family of a nobleman, 
well chosen and well ordered, might look like a little court 
in his country : for though it is a happiness to the nation, 
that the great number of idle and useless retainers that were 
aljout noblemen antiently is much reduced ; yet still they 
must entertain many servants, to be either nuisances where 
they live, or to set a pattern to others. Tlie greater men 
are, they ought to be the more modest and aflfable, and 
more easy of access, that so they may, by the best sort of 
poimlarity, render themselves acceptable to their country ; 
they ought more particularly, to protect the oppressed, to 
mortify insolence and injustice, and to enter into the true 
grievances of their country ; that they may represent these 
where it may be proper ; and shew at least a tender care of 
those who ought to be protected by them, if they cannot 
eiiectiially procure a redress of their grievances. A con- 
tinued pursuit of such methods, with an exemplary deport- 
ment, would soon restore the nobility to their antient lustre, 
from which they seem very sensible how much they are 
fallen, though they do not take the proper methods to re- 
cover it. Have we not seen, in our time, four or five lords, 
by their knowledge, good judgment, and integrity, raise the 
House of Peers to a pitch of reputation and credit that 
seemed once beyond the expectation or belief of those who 
now see it ? A progress in this method will give them such, 
authority in the nation, that they will be able not only to 
VOL. IV. 3 A 



362 CONCLUSION. 

support their own dignity, but even to support the throne 
and the church. If so small a number has raised peerage 
to such a regard, that the people, contrary to all former 
precedents, have considered them more than their owti re- 
presentatives ; what might not be expected from a greater 
number pursuing the same methods? These would become 
a^ain that which their title imports, the peers of the crown 
as well as of the kingdom, of which that noble right of 
putting on their coronets at the coronation is a clear proof. 
Great titles, separated from the great estates and the in- 
terest their ancestors had in their countries, must sink, if 
not supported with somewhat of more value, great merit, 
and a sublime virtue. 
Concerning After I havc offered what I think of the greatest import- 
tbe two ^j^pg |.^j ^.jjg several ranks of men in the nation, I go next to 

houses of J X 

parliament, consider that august body in which they are all united ; I 
mean the parliament. As long as elections are set to sale, 
so long we are under a disease in our vitals, that, if it be 
tiot remedied in time, must ruin us at last, and end in a 
change of government ; and what that may be, God only 
knows. 

Of elections. All laws that can be made will prove ineffectual to cure 
so great an evil, till there comes to be a change and refor- 
ination of morals in the nation ; we see former laws are 
evaded, and so will all the laws tiiat can be made, till the 
candidates and electors both become men of another tem- 
per and other principles, than appear now among them : 
the expense of elections ruins families ; and these families 
will come in time to expect a full reparation from the 
crown; or they will take their revenges on it, if that hope 
fails them : the commons will grow insolent upon it, and 
look on the gentry as in their dependance ; during the war, 
and while the heat of parties ferments so much, it is not 
6asy to find a proper remedy for this. When the war is 
over, one expedient in the power of the crown is, to de- 
clare that elections to parliament shall be annual : but if 
the same heat and rivalry of parties should still continue, 
that would ruin families but so mucli the sooner. 

The most promising expedient, next to a general refor- 
mation, which may seem too remote and too hopeless a 
prospect, is to try how this great division of the nation into 
whig and tory may be lessened, if not quite removed: 



CONCLUSION. 363 

great numbers on both sides are drawn to take up many 
groundless jealousies one of another, with which men of 
honest minds are possessed. 

There are many of the tories that, without doubt, look Of the par- 
towards St. Germains and France; but this is not true of ^^ J^J^ ^ 
the balk of their party. Many infidels, who hate all reli- 
gion and all churches alike (being only against the church 
of England because it is in possession), do join with the 
whigs and the dissenters, and appear for them ; from thence 
the ill-disposed tories possess many of those who are bet- 
ter minded, with an opinion, that the whigs favour the dis- 
senters, only to ruin and destroy religion ; and great mul- 
titudes of unthinking and ignorant men are drawn into this 
snare. The principles of the whigs lead them to be for the 
Revolution, and for every tiling that has been done to sup- 
port and esta lish that ; and therefore, those who, in their 
hearts, hate the Revolution, fortify and promote their de- 
signs, by keeping up a jealousy of all that body, which 
alone can and must support it. The whigs are indeed fa- 
voured by the dissenters, because they see their principles 
are for toleration, in which, it is visible, that the dissenters 
acquiesce, without pursuing any design, contrary to the es- 
tablished church, into which the far greater number of them 
might be brought, if but a very few concessions were made 
them. On the other hand, the whigs, seeing the leaders of 
the tories drive on ill designs so visibly, (endeavouring to 
weaken the government, to disjoint the alliance, and to put 
an untimely end to the war, thereby serving the interests of 
France and of the Pretender) and that they are followed in 
this by the body of the tories, who promote their elections, 
and adhere to them in all divisions in the two houses of par- 
liament, and are imited in one party with them, from thence 
conclude, that they are all equally concerned, and alike 
guilty ; and thus they are jealous of them all. This aver- 
sion is daily growing, and will certainly continue as long 
as the war lasts; when that is ended, it may possibly abate : 
but so great a disease will not be cured, till a prince of 
spirit and authority, managed with temper and discretion, 
undertakes the cure. We see oaths and subscriptions make 
no discrimination, since the abjuration, though penned as 
fully as words can go, has been taken by some, who seem 
resolved to swallow down every thing in order to the throw- 



364 CONCLUSION. 

ing up all at once, if they should come to have a clear ma- 
jority in parliament, and durst lay aside the mask. 

In the parliament of 1701, called the impeaching par- 
liament, and in the first parliament called by the Queen, 
there was a majority of tories; yet it appeared, the men of 
ill designs durst not venture to discover themselves to their 
party and to the nation ; so they proceeded with caution. 
They designed in 1701 to have had the Duke of Anjou 
acknowledged, in order to have disgraced the late King, 
and his faithfullest ministers ; that so the princes abroad, 
who could do nothing without assistance from England, 
despairing of that, might be forced to submit to the offers 
France made them. In the first year of the Queen's reign, 
they durst make no visible steps that way neither; but they 
tried to raise the heat against the dissenters, to make 
a breach on the toleration, and to give that body of men 
such a jealousy of the government, as should quite dis- 
hearten them, who were always the readiest to lend money 
to the public, without which the w^ar could not be carried 
on vigorously. By this it may appear, that many of the 
tories have not those views and designs, that, perhaps, some 
of their leaders may be justly charged with. Now a wise 
and an active prince may find methods to undeceive those 
■who are thus fatally imposed on, and led blindfold into the 
serving the ill designs of others^ especially if he will 
propose it, as a sure way to his favour, for all whom he 
employs, to procure a better understanding and frequent 
meetings among the men of good lives and soft tempers in 
both parties, who, by e, mutual conversation, will so open 
themselves to one another, that jealousies may by this 
means be easily removed. I can carry this no further at 
present ; men of good intentions will easily find out pro- 
per methods to bring about this worthy design of healing a 
breach, that has rent the nation from top to bottom. The 
parties are now so stated and kept up, not only by the elec- 
tions of parliament-men, that return every third year, but 
even by the yearly elections of mayors and corporation- 
men, that they know their strength ; and in every corner of 
the nation, the two parties stand, as it were, listed against 
one another. This may come, in some critical time or 
other, at the death of a prince, or on an invasion, to have 
terrible efiects ; as at present it creates, among the best of 



CONCLUSION. 365 

each side, a coldness and a jealousy, and a great deal of 
hatred and virulence among the much greater part. 

There are two things of a very public nature that de- V^^ cprrec, 

., ^ T , , . . tiou ot our 

serve the care ot a parliament : the one must begm m laws. 
House of Lords, and the other in the House of Commons. 
The law of England is the greatest grievance of the nation, 
very expensive and dilator^' : there is no end of suits, 
especially when they are brought into Chancery. It is a 
matter of deep study, to be exact in the law ; great advan- 
tages are taken upon inconsiderable errors ; and there are 
loud complaints of that, which seems to be the chief secu- 
rity of propert}^ — I mean juries, which are said to be much 
practised upon. If a happy peace gives us quiet, to look 
to our own affairs, there cannot be a worthier design under- 
taken, than to reduce the law into method, to digest it into 
a body, and to regulate the Chancery, so as to cut off the 
tediousness of suits, and, in a word, to compile one entire 
system of our laws. The work cannot be undertaken, much 
less finished, but by so great an authority, as at least an 
address from the House of Lords to the Queen. Nothing, 
after the war is happily ended, can raise the glory of her 
reign more, than to see so noble a design set on foot in her 
time : this would make her name sacred to posterity, which 
would sensibly feel all the taxes they have raised fully re- 
paid them, if the law were made shorter, clearer, more cer- 
tain, and of less expense. 

The other matter, that must take its rise in the House of Provisions 
Commons, is about the poor, and should be much laid to °"^ ^P^*"^* 
heart. It may be thought a strange motion from a bishop, 
to wish that the act, for charging every parish to maintain 
their own poor, were well reviewed, if not quite taken 
away: this seems to encourage idle and lazy people in 
their sloth, when they know they must be maintained : I 
know no other place in the world where such a law was 
ever made. Scotland is much the poorest part of the 
island ; yet the poor there are maintained by the voluntary 
charities of the people : Holland is the perfectest pattern 
for putting charity in a good method ; the poor work as 
much as they can, they are humble and industrious, they 
never ask any charity, and yet they are well relieved. When 
de poor see that their supply must in a great measure de- 
pend on their behaviour and on their industry, as far as it 



366 CONCLUSION. 

can go, it will both make Ihem better in themselves, and 
move others to supply thcin more liberally ; and when 
men's offerings are free (and yet are called for every time 
they go to clmrch or to sacrament), this will oblige those 
who distribute them to be exact and impartial in it; since 
tlicir ill conduct might make the givers trust them with their 
charity no more, but distribute it themselves. If a spirit 
of true piety and charity should ever prevail in this nation, 
those, whose condition raises them above the drudgery of 
servile labour, might employ some years of their life in this 
labour of Jove, and relieve one another in their turn, and so 
distribute among them this noble part of government. All 
this must begin in the House of Commons ; and I leave it 
to the consideration of the wise and worthy members of 
that body, to turn their thoughts to this, as soon as by a 
happy peace we are delivered from the cares of the war, 
and are at leisure to think of our own affairs at home. 
or shorter Ouc thiug morc I presume to suggest, which is, that we 
t^IrHMieiu, '^^y have fewer and shorter sessions of parliament ; the 
staying long in to^vn, both v/astes estates and coiTupts the 
morals of members; theii beginning so late in the day to 
enter upon business, is one great occasion of long sessions ; 
they are seldom met till about twelve o'clock ; and, except 
on a day in which some great points are to be discussed, 
upon which the paities divide, they grow disposed to rise 
after tvvo or three hours' sitting. The authority of the prince 
must be interposed to make them return to the old hours of 
eight and nine ; and if, from that time, they sat till two, a 
great deal of business might be dispatched in a short ses- 
sion. It is also to be hoped, that, when the war is ended, 
parliaments will not give the necessary supplies from year 
to year, as in the time of war, but w ill settle methods for 
paying the public debt, and for the support of the govern- 
ment, for two if not for three years. The ill eftects of an 
annual meeting of parliament are so visible and so great, 
that I hope nothing but invincible necessity will ever keep 
us under the continuance of so great an inconvenience. I 
speak of this with the more concern, because this is not 
only a great charge on bishops, heavy on the richer, and 
intolerable to the poorer bishoprics ; but, chiefly, because 
it calls them away from tlieir dioceses, and from minding 
their ,propor work, and fills their heads too much ^ ith se- 



CONCLUSION. 367 

cular thoughts, and obliges them to mix too much with 
secular company; from ^hich the more abstracted they 
are, as their minds will be purer and freer, so they A\ill be 
able to follow their own business with less distraction, in a 
more constant attendance on the ministry of the word and 
prayer, to which, in imitation of the apostles, they ought 
to give themselves continually. 

I have now gone over what seemed to me most practica- 
ble, as well as most important, for all ranks of men seve- 
rally in the nation, as well as for that great union of them 
all, in tlie representative of the whole in parliament : I 
liave not gone into wild notions of an imaginary reforma- 
tion, more to be wished than hoped for ; but have only 
touched on such ill practices, and bad dispositions, as,vvitli 
a little care and good government, may be in some measure 
redressed and corrected. And now, having by all these, as 
by so many steps, risen up to the throne, I will end this 
address to the nation, v.ith an humble representation to 
those who are to sit on it. 

I have had the honour to be admitted to much free con- An adJres* 
Tersation with tive of our sovereigns; King Charles the '".""^^'^ 

«^ ' =* princes. 

Second, King James the Second, King William the Third, 
Queen 3Iary, and Queen Anne. King Charles's behaviour 
was a thing never enough to be commended ; he was a per- 
fectly well-bred man, easy of access, free in his discourse, 
and sweet in his whole deportment; this was managed 
with great art, and it covered bad designs ; it was of such 
use to him, that it may teach all succeeding princes, of 
what advantage an easiness of access and an obliging be- 
haviour may be : this preserved him : it often disarmed 
those resentments which his ill conduct in every thing, 
both public and private, possessed all thinking people 
with very early, and all sorts of people at last : and yet 
none could go to him, but they were in a great measure 
softened before they left him : it looked like a charm, that 
could hardly be resisted : yet there was no good nature un- 
der that, nor was there any truth in him. King James had 
great application to business, though without a right un- 
derstanding ; that application gave him a reputation, till he 
took care to throw it oil': if he had not come after King 
Charles, he w^ould have passed for a prince of a sweet tem- 
per, and easy of access. King William was the reverse of 



368 CONCLUSION, 

all this ; he was scarce accessible, and was always cold 
and silent ; he minded allairs abroad so mucli, and was so 
set on the war, that he scarce thought of his government at 
home : this raised a general disgust, which was improved 
by men of ill designs, so that it perplexed all his affairs, 
and he could scarce support himself at home, whilst he was 
tlie admiration of all abroad. Queen Mary was affable, 
cheerful, and lively, spoke much, and yet under great re- 
serves, minded business, and came to understand it well ; 
she kept close to rules, chiefly to those set her by tlie King, 
and she charmed all that came near her. Queen Anne is 
easy of access, and hears every thing very gently ; but 
opens herself to so few, and is so cold and general in her 
answers, that people soon find that the chief applica- 
tion is to be made to her ministers and favourites, who in 
their turns have an entire credit and full power with her ; 
she has laid down the splendour of a court too much, and 
eats privately; so that, except on Sundays, and a few 
hours, twice or thrice a-week at night in the drawing room, 
she appears so little, that her court is as it were aban- 
doned. Out of all these princes' conduct, and from their 
successes in their affairs, it is evident what ought to be the 
measures of a wise and good prince, who would govern 
the nation happily and gloriously. 

The first, the most essential, and most indispensable rule 
for a king is, to study the interest of the nation, to be ever 
in it, and to be always pursuing it : this will lay in for him 
such a degree of confidence, that he will be ever safe with 
his people, when they feel they are safe in him. No part 
of our story shews this more visibly than Queen Eliza- 
beth's reign, in which the tiue interest of the nation was 
constantly pursued ; and this was so well understood by 
all, that every thing else was forgiven her and her ministers 
both. Sir Simon Dewe's journal shews a treatment of par- 
liaments that could not have been borne at any other time, 
or under any other administration. This was the constant 
support of King William's reign, and continues to sup- 
port the present reign, as it will support all who adhere 
steadily to it. 

A prince that would command the affections and purses 
of this nation, must not study to stretch his prerogative, or 
be uneasy under the restraints of law ; as soon as this hu- 



CONCLUSION. 369 

mour shews itself, lie must expect that a jealousy of him, 
unci an uneasy opposition to him, ^\ill follow through the 
whole course of his reio:n ; whereas, if he governs w ell, 
parliaments will trust him, as much as a wise prince would 
desire to be trusted, and will supply him in every war 
that is necessary, either for their own preservation, or the 
preservation of those allies with whom mutual interests 
and leagues unite him : but though, soon after the Restora- 
tion, a slavish parliament supported King Charles in the 
Dutch war, j^et the nation must be strangely changed, be- 
fore any thing of that sort can happen again. 

One of the most detestable and the foolishest maxims, 
with relation to our government, is to keep up parties and 
a rivalry among them, to shift and change ministers, and 
to go from one party to another, as they can be brought in 
their turns to offer the prince more money, or to give him 
more authority ; this w ill, in conclusion, render him odious 
and contemptible to all parties ; who, growing accustomed 
to his fickleness, will never trust him, but rather study to 
secure themselves by depressing him ; of which, the reign 
of Henry the Third of France is a signal instance. We 
saw what effects this had on King Charles's reign; and 
King William felt what an ill step he had made near the 
end of his reign, in pursuing this maxim. Nothing creates 
to a prince such a confidence, as a constant and clear firm- 
ness and steadiness of government, with an unblemished 
integrity in all his professions ; and nothing will create a 
more universal dependance on him, than when it is visible 
he studies to allay the heats of parties, and to reconcile 
them to one another ; — this w ill demonstrate that he loves 
his people, and that he has no ill designs of his own. 

A prince, who would be well served, ought to seek out 
among his subjects the best and most capable of the youth, 
and see to their good education at home and abroad ; he 
should send them to travel, and order his ministers abroad 
to keep such for some time about them, and to send them 
from court to court, to learn their language, and ol^serve 
their tempers ; if but twelve such w ere constantly kept on 
an allowance of 250/. a-year, the whole expense of this 
would rise but to 3000/. a-year; by this inconsiderable 
charge, a prince might have a constant nurseiy for a w ise 
and able ministiy ; but those ought to be well chosen, lior^ 

VOL. IV. 3 b 



CONCLVSION. 
ought to pretend to the nomination ; it ought to rise from 
the motion of the honestest and most disinterested of all 
his ministers to the prince in secret. As great a care 
ought to be had in the nominations of the cliaplains of his 
ministers abroad, that there may be a breed of worthy 
clergymen, who have large thoughts and great notions, 
from a more enlarged view of mankind and of the world. 
If a prince Avould have all that serve him grateful and true 
to him, he must study to find out who are the properest 
and Avorthiest men, capable of employments, and prevent 
their applications, and surprise them with bestowing good 
posts unsought, and raising them higher as they serve 
well. When it is known that a prince has made it his 
maxim to follow this method in distributing his favours, 
he will cut off applications for them ; which will otherwise 
create a great uneasiness to him, and have this certain ill- 
effect, that where there are many pretenders, one must 
have the preference to all the rest, so that many are mor- 
tified for being rejected, and are full of envy at him who 
has obtained the favour, and therefore will detract from 
him as much as possible. This has no where worse effects 
than among the clerg)", in the disposal of the dignities of 
the church ; and therefore Queen Mary resolved to break 
those aspirings, which resolution she carried on effectually 
for some years, A constant pursuing that maxim would 
have a great effect on the nation. 

Frequent progresses round the nation, so divided, that 
once in seven, eight, or ten years, the chief places of it 
might be gone through, would recommend a prince wonr 
derfully to tlie people ; especially if he were gentle and 
aft'able, and would so manage his progress, that it should 
not be a charge to any, by refusing to accept of entertain- 
ments from any person whatsoever ; for the accepting these 
onlj'^ from such as could easily bear the charge of it, would 
be an affronting of others, who being of equal rank, though 
not of equal estates, would likewise desire to treat the 
prince. So to make a progress every where acceptable, 
and no where chargeable, the sure method would be, ac- 
cording to the established rule of the household, for the 
prince to carry the travelling wardrobe with him, and to 
take such houses in tlie way as are most convenient for 
him ; but to (entertain himself and his court there, and 



CONCLUSION. 371 

Iiave a variety of tables for such as may come to at- 
tend on him. On this Queen Mary had set her heart, if she 
had lived to see peace in her days : by this mepais a prince 
may see and be seen by his people ; he may know some 
men that deserve to be distinguished, of whom otherwise 
he would never have heard ; and he may learn aTid redress 
the grievances of his people, preventing all parliamentary 
complaints, except for such matters as cannot be cured 
but by a remedy in parliament. Methods like these w ould 
make a prince become the idol of his people. 

It is certain, that their affections must follow a prince, 
who would consider government and the royal dignity as 
his calling, and would be daily employed in it,, studying the 
good and happiness of his people, pursuing the properest 
ways for promoting it, without either delivering himself up 
to the sloth of luxury and vain magnificence, or affecting 
the barbarity of war and conquest; which render those, 
who make the world a scene of blood and rapine, indeed 
the butchers of mankind. If these words seem not decent 
enough, I will make no other apology, but that I use them, 
because I cannot find w orse ; for as they are the worst of 
men, so they deserve the worst of language. Can it be 
thought that princes are raised to the highest pitch of glory 
and w ealth, on design to corrupt their minds w ith pride and 
contempt of the rest of mankind, as if they were made only 
to be the instruments of their extravagances, or the sub- 
jects of their passions and humours ? Xo ! they are exalted 
for the good of their fellow-creatures, in order to raise them 
to the truest sublimity, to become as like divinity as a 
mortal creature is capable of being. None will grudge them 
their great treasures and authority, when they see it is all 
employed to make their people happy. None will envy 
their greatness, when they see it accompanied with a suita- 
ble greatness of soul ; whereas, a magnified and flattered 
pageant will soon fall under universal contempt and hatred. 
There is not any one thing more certain and more evident, 
than that princes arc made for the people, and not the 
people for them; and perhaps there is no nation under 
heaven, that is more entirely possessed with this notion of 
princes, than the English nation is in this age ; so that they 
will soon be uneasy to a prince, who does not govern him- 
self by this maxim, and in time grow very unkind to him. 



372 CONCLUSION. 

Groat care oiio;ht to be taken in the nomination of judges 
and bishops. I join these ((\!;elher, for law and religion, 
justice and piety, are the support of nations, and give 
strength and security to governments : judges must be re- 
commended by those in the high posts of the law; but a 
prince may, by his own taste and upon know ledge, choose 
his bishops. They ought to be men eminent for piety, learn- 
ing, discretion, and zeal ; not broken with age, which will 
quickly render them incapable of serving the church to any 
good purpose ; a person fit to be a bishop at sixty, was fit 
at forty; and had then spirit and activity, with a strength 
both of body and mind. The vast expense they are at, in 
entering on their bishoprics, ought to be regulated, no 
bishoprics can be, in any good degree, served under 1,000/. 
a-year at least. The judges ought to be plentifully pro- 
vided for, that they may be under no temptation, to supply 
themselves by indirect ways. One part of a prince's care, 
to be recommended to judges i)i their circuits, is to know 
w!iat persons are, as it w ere, hid in the nation, that are fit 
for employments, and deserve to be encouraged; of such, 
they ought to give an account to the lord chancellor, who 
ought to lay it before the throne. No crime ought to be 
pardoned, till the judge, who gave sentence, is heard, to 
give an account of the evidence, w ith the circumstances of 
the fact, as it appeared on the trial ; no regard ought to be 
had to stories that are told, to move compassion ; for in 
these, little regard is had to truth : and an easiness in par- 
doning, is, in some sort, an encouraging of crimes, and a 
giving license to commit them. 

But to run out no longer into particulars, the great and 
comprehensive rule of all is, that a king should consider 
himself as exalted by Almighty God into that high dignity, 
as into a capacity of doing much good, and of being a 
great blessing to mankind, and in some sort a god on 
earth; and, therefore, as he expects, that his ministers 
should study to advance his service, his interests, and his 
glory, and that, so much the more, as he raises them to 
higher posts of favour and honour, so he, whom God has 
raised to the greatest exaltation this world is capable of, 
should apply himself wholly to cares becoming his rank 
and station ; to be in himself a pattern of virtue and true 
religion, to promote justice, to relieve and revenge the op- 



CONCLUSION. 373 

pressed, and to seek out men of viitue and piety, and 
bring them into such degrees of contidence as they may be 
capable of; to encourage a due and a generous freedom 
in their advices ; to be ready to see his own ciTors, that he, 
may correct them ; and to entertain every thing that is sug- 
gested to him for the good of his people, and for the bene- 
fit of mankind ; and to uiake a difi^rence between those 
who court his favour for their o^^^l ends, who study to tlatter, 
and by that, to please him, often to his own ruin, and those 
who have gieat views and nolile aims, who set him on to 
pursue designs worthy of him, without mean or partial 
regards to any ends or interests of their own. It is not 
enough for a prince, not to encourage vice or impiety by 
his own ill practices; it ought to appear that these are 
odious to him, and that they give him horror. A decla- 
ration of this kind, solemnly made and steadily pursued, 
would soon bring on at least an exterior reformation, which 
would have a great efi'ect on the body of the nation, and on 
the rising generation, though it were but hypocritically put 
on at first. Such a prince would be perhaps too great a 
blessing to a wicked world : Queen Mary seemed to have 
the seeds of all this in her ; but the world was not worthy 
of her, and so God took her from it. 

I will conclude this whole address to posterity with that An exhorta- 
which is the most important of all other things, and which |o°be°ome 
alone w ill carry every thing else along with it, which is to truly reii- 
recommend, in the most solemn and serious manner, the ^'°""" 
study and practice of religion to all sorts of men, as that 
which is l)oth the light of the world, and the salt of the 
earth. Nothing does so open our faculties, and compose 
and direct the whole man, as an inward sense of God, of 
his authority over us ; of the laws he has set us ; of his eye 
ever upon us; of his hearing our prayers, assisting our en- 
deavours, watching over our concerns, and of his being to 
judge and to reward or pimisli us in another state accord- 
ing to what we do in this. Nothing will give a man such 
a detestation of sin, and such a sense of the goodness of 
God, and of our obligations to holiness, as a right under- 
standing, and a firm belief of the Christian religion. No- 
thing can give a man so calm a peace Avithin, and such a 
firm security against all fears and dangers without, as the 
belief of a kind and wise Providence, and of a future 



374 CONCLUSION. 

state. An integrity of heart gives a man a courage and a 
confidence that cannot be shaken : a man is sure that, by 
living according to the rules of religion, he becomes the 
wisest, the best and happiest creature that he is capable of 
being : honest industry, the employing his time well, and a 
constant sobriety, an undefiled pu